Close back rounded vowel


Close back rounded vowel
Close back rounded vowel
u
IPA number 308
Encoding
Entity (decimal) u
Unicode (hex) U+0075
X-SAMPA u
Kirshenbaum u
Sound

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The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is u, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is u.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low", and these are the only terms found in introductory textbooks on phonetics such as those by Peter Ladefoged.

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial').

Contents

Close back protruded vowel

In most languages, close back rounded vowels are pronounced with protruded lips.

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ä
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

Note: Since back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern Դուռ [duɾ] 'door'
Arabic Standard جنوب [dʒæˈnuːb] 'south' See Arabic phonology
Catalan[1] suc [ˈsuk] 'juice' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /gu1 [ɡuː] 'mushroom' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /kū [kʰu˥] 'to cry' See Mandarin phonology
Croatian u [u] 'in' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Czech u [u] 'at' See Czech phonology
Dutch[2] voet [vuːt] 'foot' See Dutch phonology
English GA boot [bu̟ːˀt] 'boot' Typically more front than cardinal [u]. See English phonology
RP[3]
Faroese ur [uːr] '(wrist-)watch'
Finnish[4] kukka [ˈkukːɑ] 'flower' See Finnish phonology
French[5] [u] ( listen) 'where' See French phonology
Georgian[6] და [ɡudɑ] 'leather bag'
German Fuß [fuːs] 'foot' See German phonology
Greek ουρανός/uranόs [ˌuraˈno̞s̠] 'sky' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew תמונה [tmuna] 'image' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[7] unalmas [unɒlmɒʃ] 'boring' See Hungarian phonology
Irish gasúr [ˈɡasˠuːɾˠ] 'boy' See Irish phonology
Italian[8] tutta [ˈtutta] 'all' (fem.) See Italian phonology
Malay bulan [bulan] 'moon'
Mongolian[9] үүр [uːɾɘ̆] 'nest'
North Frisian bru [bru] 'bridge'
Polish[10] buk [buk] ( listen) 'beech tree' Also represented by ⟨ó⟩. See Polish phonology
Portuguese European[11] urso [ˈuɾsu] 'bear' See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian[12] [ˈuxsʊ]
Romanian unu [ˈunu] 'one' See Romanian phonology
Russian[13] узкий [ˈuskʲɪj] 'narrow' See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic gu [ɡu] 'to' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbian жут/žut [ʒut] 'yellow' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak ruka [ˈruka] 'arm'
Spanish[14] curable [kuˈɾaβle] 'curable' See Spanish phonology
Thai[15] ? [sut˨˩] 'rearmost'
Turkish uçak [utʃak] 'airplane' See Turkish phonology
Udmurt[16] ? [urete] 'to divide'
Ukrainian Умань [umɐnʲ] 'Uman' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese tu [tu] 'to mediate' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian sûch [suːχ] 'sow'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[17] gdu [ɡdu] 'all'

Close back compressed vowel

Close back compressed vowel
ɯᵝ

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Some languages, such as Japanese About this sound listen and Swedish,[18] are found with a close back vowel that has a distinct type of rounding, called compressed or exolabial. No language is known to contrast this with the more typical protruded (endolabial) close back vowel.

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the spread-lip diacritic [  ͍ ] will be used here with the rounded vowel [u] as an ad hoc symbol. Other possible transcriptions are [ɯ͡β̞] (simultaneous [ɯ] and labial compression) and [ɯᵝ] ([ɯ] modified with labial compression).

Features

  • Its vowel height is close, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips approach one another, so that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Japanese 空気 kūki [ku͍ːki] ( listen) 'air' See Japanese phonology
Swedish oro [ù͍β̞ru͍β̞] ( listen) 'unease' Contrasts with a close central and close front compressed vowel. See Swedish phonology
Danish du [d̥u͍] 'you' See Danish phonology
Norwegian mot [mu͍ːt] 'courage' See Norwegian phonology

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Dennis, Ward (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114 
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Illustrations of the IPA:Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 24 (2): 91–94 
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41 

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