- Close front rounded vowel
Close front rounded vowel y Image IPA number 309 Encoding Entity (decimal)
Unicode (hex) U+0079 X-SAMPA
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is y, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is y. Across many languages, it is most commonly represented orthographically as ⟨ü⟩ or ⟨y⟩, but also as ⟨u⟩ (in French and a few other Romance languages and in Dutch); ⟨iu⟩/⟨yu⟩ (in the romanization of various Asian languages, as well as Middle German); ⟨uu⟩ (in Dutch); ⟨ű⟩ (in Hungarian); ⟨уь⟩ (in Cyrillic-based writing systems such as that for Chechen); or ⟨ㅟ⟩ (in Hangul, used for Korean).
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low", and these are the only terms found in introductory textbooks on phonetics such as those by Peter Ladefoged.
In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with compressed lips ('exolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are protruded ('endolabial').
Close front compressed vowel
IPA vowel chart Front Near-front Central Near-back Back Close Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).
IPA help • IPA key • chart • chart with audio • view
- Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
- Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
- Its vowel roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.
Note: Since front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Afrikaans uur [yr] 'hour' Albanian dy [dy] 'two' Azeri güllə [ɟylˈlæ] 'bullet' Basque Souletin hirü [hiɾy] 'three' Catalan Northern Catalan but [ˈbyt] 'aim' Found in Occitan and French loanwords. See Catalan phonology Chinese Cantonese 書/syu1 [syː˥] 'book' See Cantonese phonology Mandarin 绿/lǜ [ly˥˩] 'green' See Mandarin phonology Wu 软/ gniu [ɲy˩˧] 'soft' Chechen уьш/üş [yʃ] 'they' Danish yde [ˈyːðə] 'to supply' See Danish phonology Dutch debuut [dəˈbyt] 'debut' See Dutch phonology English Scottish food [fyd] 'food' Some dialects. Corresponds to /u/ (or [ʉ]) in other dialects. See English phonology Estonian üks [yks] 'one' Finnish yksi [ˈyksi] 'one' See Finnish phonology French chute [ʃyt] 'fall' See French phonology German Blüte [ˈblyːtə] 'blossom' See German phonology Hungarian tű [tyː] 'pin' See Hungarian phonology Korean 위 wi [y] 'top' May be diphthongized to [wi] by younger speakers. See Korean phonology Lombard düü [dyː] 'two' Mongolian түймэр/tüimer [tʰyːmɘɾɘ̆] 'prairie fire' North Frisian hüüs [hyːs] 'hoarse' Occitan Gascon lua [ˈlyo] 'moon' Languedocien luna [ˈlyno] Provençal Scots buit [byt] 'boot' Turkish güneş [ɟyˈneʃ] 'sun' See Turkish phonology West Frisian drúf [dryːf] 'grape'
Close front protruded vowel
Close front protruded vowel y̫ yʷ
Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian, have compressed front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels. (See near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding.)
As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, [ ̫], will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. (Another possible transcription is [yʷ] or [iʷ] (a close front vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.)
- Its vowel height is near-close, also known as near-high, which means the tongue is not quite so constricted as a close vowel (high vowel).
- Its vowel backness is near-front, which means the tongue is positioned almost as far forward as a front vowel.
- Its vowel roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Norwegian syd [sy̫ːd] 'south' See Norwegian phonology Swedish yla [y̫ː(ɥ)la] (help·info) 'howl' See Swedish phonology
- Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X
- Szende, Tamás (1994), "Illustrations of the IPA:Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 24 (2): 91–94
International Phonetic Alphabet IPA topics IPA Phonetics Special topics Encodings Consonants IPA pulmonic consonants chartchart image • audio Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal ↓ Manner Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal Nasal m ɱ n̪ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ я * Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯ Lateral Fric. ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ Lateral Appr. l ɭ ʎ ʟ Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯ Non-pulmonic consonants Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ᶑ ɠ ʛ Ejectives pʼ tʼ cʼ ʈʼ kʼ qʼ fʼ θʼ sʼ ɬʼ xʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ Affricates p̪f ts dz tʃ dʒ tɕ dʑ ʈʂ ɖʐ tɬ dɮ cç ɟʝ Co-articulated consonants Fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ Approximants ʍ w ɥ ɫ Stops k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help] Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible. * Symbol not defined in IPA. Chart image Vowels
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