New Zealand general election, 1990


New Zealand general election, 1990
1990 general election
New Zealand
1987 ←
members
27 October 1990
→ 1993
members

All 97 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
49 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Jim Bolger at press conference cropped.jpg Mike Moore.jpg Jim Anderton.jpg
Leader Jim Bolger Mike Moore Jim Anderton
Party National Labour NewLabour
Leader since 1986 1990 1989
Leader's seat King Country Christchurch North Sydenham
Last election 40 seats, 44.0% 57 seats, 48.0% Not yet founded
Seats won 67 29 1
Seat change increase 27 decrease 28 increase 1
Popular vote 872,358 640,915 94,171
Percentage 47.82% 35.14% 5.16%
Swing increase 3.82% decrease 12.86% increase 5.16%

Prime Minister before election

Mike Moore
Labour

Elected Prime Minister

Jim Bolger
National

The 1990 New Zealand general election was held on 27 October to determine the composition of the 43rd New Zealand parliament. The governing Labour Party was defeated, ending its controversial two terms in office. The National Party, led by Jim Bolger, won a landslide victory and formed the new government.

Contents

Background

The Labour Party had taken office after defeating the National Party under Robert Muldoon in the 1984 election. David Lange became Prime Minister and Roger Douglas became Minister of Finance. The economic program outlined by Douglas was deeply unpopular with Labour's traditional supporters, however — deregulation, privatisation, and free trade, all opposed by the party's more left-wing members, were a key part of the so-called "Rogernomics" platform. This internal dissent was off-set somewhat by new social legislation and a strong stance against nuclear weapons.

Labour was re-elected in the 1987 election by a slightly reduced margin, and the internal disputes continued. Eventually Lange forced Douglas to resign, but the crisis had weakened Lange's position such that he resigned soon afterwards. He was replaced as Prime Minister by Geoffrey Palmer, but Palmer failed to revive Labour's falling popularity. Several months before the election, Palmer was replaced by Mike Moore. The National Party was performing strongly — its leader, Jim Bolger, spoke repeatedly of "the Decent Society", saying that the reforms were doing significant damage to the social fabric of the country. The government was also being challenged by the NewLabour Party, founded by renegade MP Jim Anderton.

The election

The date for the 1990 election was 27 October. 2,202,157 people were registered to vote, and 85.2% of these people turned out. The number of seats being contested was 97 — this was the same as in the previous election, which had the largest number of seats for any Parliament until that point.

Summary of results

The 1990 election eventually saw a victory for the National Party, then in opposition. National won nearly half (48%) of the vote and 67 (69%) of the seats, becoming the fourth National government. This was the highest number of seats the party had ever won, either in absolute terms or as a percentage. The governing Labour Party, by contrast, suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat since it first won power in the 1935 election, winning only 29 (30%) of the seats and 35% of the vote, and losing 27 seats. The new Green Party gained the third-highest number of votes, but won no seats. The NewLabour Party won a single seat, due to Jim Anderton retaining the Sydenham seat he originally won as a Labour candidate.

Detailed results

National results

Party Candidates Total votes Percentage Seats won
National Party 97 872,358 47.82% 67
Labour Party 97 640,915 35.14% 29
Green Party 71 124,915 6.85% -
NewLabour Party 93 94,171 5.16% 1
Democratic Party 91 30,455 1.67% -
Social Credit Party (Beetham revival) 68 17,897 0.98% -
Mana Motuhake 4 10,869 0.60% -
McGillicuddy Serious Party 59 9,918 0.54% -
Christian Heritage Party 18 9,591 0.53% -
Legalise Marijuana Party 2 611 0.03% -
New Zealand Party 5 402 0.03% -
Pencarrow Liberation Party 1 374 0.02% -
Wall of Surf 1 281 0.02% -
Communist League 9 210 0.01% -
Blokes' Liberation Front 3 209 0.01% -
People's Party 4 184 0.01% -
New Zealand Representative 2 173 0.01% -
Proportional Representation Party 1 160 0.01% -
United Party 1 124 0.01% -
Gordon Dinosaur Party 1 107 0.01% -
Imperial British Conservative Party 1 53 0.00% -
Economic Euthenics Party 1 37 0.00% -
Economic Democracy Party 1 31 0.00% -
Free Access Socialism 1 22 0.00% -
Private Enterprise Party 1 17 0.00% -
Dominion Workers 1 13 0.00% -
Consensus Party 1 10 0.00% -
Independents 39 8,291 0.45% -
Total 677 1,824,092 97

Electorate results

NewZealandElectorates1990-Labeled.png

Albany
Held by Don McKinnon (National)
Don McKinnon (National)
2nd: J Allen (Labour)
Ashburton
Held by Jenny Shipley (National)
Jenny Shipley (National)
2nd: Basil Moskovis (Labour)
Auckland Central
Held by Richard Prebble (Labour)
Richard Prebble (Labour)
2nd: K Hill (National)
Avon
Held by Larry Sutherland (Labour)
Larry Sutherland (Labour)
2nd: W Rush (National)
Awarua
Held by Jeff Grant (National)
Jeff Grant (National)
2nd: H A Russell (Labour)
Bay of Islands
Held by John Carter (National)
John Carter (National)
2nd: B R Dent (Labour)
Birkenhead
Held by Jenny Kirk (Labour)
Ian Revell (National)
2nd: Jenny Kirk (Labour)
Christchurch Central
Held by Geoffrey Palmer (Labour)
Lianne Dalziel (Labour)
2nd: R Gluer (National)
Christchurch North
Held by Mike Moore (Labour)
Mike Moore (Labour)
2nd: P Yarrell (National)
Clevedon
Held by Warren Kyd (National)
Warren Kyd (National)
2nd: A Stubbs-Batten (Labour)
Clutha
Held by Robin Gray (National)
Robin Gray (National)
2nd: J Buchanan (Labour)
Coromandel
Held by Graeme Lee (National)
Graeme Lee (National)
2nd: Margaret Hawkeswood (Labour)
Dunedin North
Held by Stan Rodger (Labour)
Pete Hodgson (Labour)
2nd: G Donoghue (National)
Dunedin West
Held by Clive Matthewson (Labour)
Clive Matthewson (Labour)
2nd: Ian McMeeking (National)
East Cape
Held by Anne Collins (Labour)
Tony Ryall (National)
2nd: Anne Collins (Labour)
East Coast Bays
Held by Murray McCully (National)
Murray McCully (National)
2nd: Gary Knapp (Democrats)
Eastern Hutt
Held by Trevor Young (Labour)
Paul Swain (Labour)
2nd: R F Thomas (National)
Eden
Held by Richard Northey (Labour)
Christine Fletcher (National)
2nd: Richard Northey (Labour)
Fendalton
Held by Philip Burdon (National)
Philip Burdon (National)
2nd: T Day (Labour)
Gisborne
Held by Allan Wallbank (Labour)
Wayne Kimber (National)
2nd: Allan Wallbank (Labour)
Glenfield
Held by Judy Keall (Labour)
Peter Hilt (National)
2nd: Judy Keall (Labour)
Hamilton East
Held by Bill Dillon (Labour)
Tony Steel (National)
2nd: Bill Dillon (Labour)
Hamilton West
Held by Trevor Mallard (Labour)
Grant Thomas (National)
2nd: Trevor Mallard (Labour)
Hastings
Held by David Butcher (Labour)
Jeff Whitaker (National)
2nd: David Butcher (Labour)
Hawkes Bay
Held by Bill Sutton (Labour)
Michael Laws (National)
2nd: Bill Sutton (Labour)
Heretaunga
Held by Bill Jeffries (Labour)
Peter McCardle (National)
2nd: Bill Jeffries (Labour)
Hobson
Held by Ross Meurant (National)
Ross Meurant (National)
2nd: H Henry (Labour)
Horowhenua
Held by Annette King (Labour)
Hamish Hancock (National)
2nd: Annette King (Labour)
Invercargill
Held by Rob Munro (National)
Rob Munro (National)
2nd: B G Rait (Labour)
Island Bay
Held by Elizabeth Tennet (Labour)
Elizabeth Tennet (Labour)
2nd: A Nolan (National)
Kaimai
Held by Robert Anderson (National)
Robert Anderson (National)
2nd: G L Dickson (Labour)
Kaipara
Held by Lockwood Smith (National)
Lockwood Smith (National)
2nd: W K Sellwood (Labour)
Kapiti
Held by Margaret Shields (Labour)
Roger Sowry (National)
2nd: Margaret Shields (Labour)
King Country
Held by Jim Bolger (National)
Jim Bolger (National)
2nd: C Gordon (Labour)
Lyttelton
Held by Peter Simpson (Labour)
Gail McIntosh (National)
2nd: Peter Simpson (Labour)
Manawatu
Held by David Robinson (Labour)
Hamish McIntyre (National)
2nd: David Robinson (Labour)
Mangere
Held by David Lange (Labour)
David Lange (Labour)
2nd: B Archer (National)
Manurewa
Held by Roger Douglas (Labour)
George Hawkins (Labour)
2nd: P Baker (National)
Maramarua
Held by Bill Birch (National)
Bill Birch (National)
2nd: Charles Chauvel (Labour)
Marlborough
Held by Doug Kidd (National)
Doug Kidd (National)
2nd: B Hutchinson (Labour)
Matamata
Held by John Luxton (National)
John Luxton (National)
2nd: W J Pepperell (Labour)
Miramar
Held by Peter Neilson (Labour)
Graham Reeves (National)
2nd: Peter Neilson (Labour)
Mt Albert
Held by Helen Clark (Labour)
Helen Clark (Labour)
2nd: L Bellshaw (National)
Napier
Held by Geoff Braybrooke (Labour)
Geoff Braybrooke (Labour)
2nd: C M Pritchard (National)
Nelson
Held by Philip Woollaston (Labour)
John Blincoe (Labour)
2nd: L Baigent (National)
New Lynn
Held by Jonathan Hunt (Labour)
Jonathan Hunt (Labour)
2nd: M A Bishop (National)
New Plymouth
Held by Harry Duynhoven (Labour)
John Armstrong (National)
2nd: Harry Duynhoven (Labour)
North Shore
Held by George Gair (National)
Bruce Cliffe (National)
2nd: G Ransom (Labour)
Ohariu
Held by Peter Dunne (Labour)
Peter Dunne (Labour)
2nd: G Mathew (National)
Onehunga
Held by Fred Gerbic (Labour)
Grahame Thorne (National)
2nd: Fred Gerbic (Labour)
Otago
Held by Warren Cooper (National)
Warren Cooper (National)
2nd: T Cooke (Labour)
Otara
Held by Colin Moyle (Labour)
Trevor Rogers (National)
2nd: P T Field (Labour)
Pahiatua
Held by John Falloon (National)
John Falloon (National)
2nd: M Martindale (Labour)
Pakuranga
Held by Maurice Williamson (National)
Maurice Williamson (National)
2nd: P C Grant (Labour)
Palmerston North
Held by Trevor de Cleene (Labour)
Steve Maharey (Labour)
2nd: P L Sherriff (National)
Panmure
Held by Bob Tizard (Labour)
Judith Tizard (Labour)
2nd: G Bartlett (National)
Papakura
Held by Merv Wellington (National)
John Robertson (National)
2nd: James Stubbs,(Labour)
Papatoetoe
Held by Ross Robertson (Labour)
Ross Robertson (Labour)
2nd: A W Brewster (National)
Pencarrow
Held by Sonja Davies (Labour)
Sonja Davies (Labour)
2nd: R Wallace (National)
Porirua
Held by Graham Kelly (Labour)
Graham Kelly (Labour)
2nd: P Faulkner (National)
Raglan
Held by Simon Upton (National)
Simon Upton (National)
2nd: O Scaletti-Longley (Labour)
Rangiora
Held by Jim Gerard (National)
Jim Gerard (National)
2nd: J A McLachlan (Labour)
Rangitikei
Held by Denis Marshall (National)
Denis Marshall (National)
2nd: P Barton (Labour)
Remuera
Held by Doug Graham (National)
Doug Graham (National)
2nd: C Harding (Labour)
Roskill
Held by Phil Goff (Labour)
Gilbert Myles (National)
2nd: Phil Goff (Labour)
Rotorua
Held by Paul East (National)
Paul East (National)
2nd: B Raitt (Labour)
Selwyn
Held by Ruth Richardson (National)
Ruth Richardson (National)
2nd: V Elley (Labour)
St Albans
Held by David Caygill (Labour)
David Caygill (Labour)
2nd: D Dumergue (National)
St Kilda
Held by Michael Cullen (Labour)
Michael Cullen (Labour)
2nd: B Alexander (National)
Sydenham
Held by Jim Anderton (NewLabour)
Jim Anderton (NewLabour)
2nd: L S Constable (Labour)
Tamaki
Held by Robert Muldoon (National)
Robert Muldoon (National)
2nd: M C Johnston (Labour)
Taranaki
Held by Roger Maxwell (National)
Roger Maxwell (National)
2nd: S Dalziel (Labour)
Tarawera
Held by Ian McLean (National)
Max Bradford (National)
2nd: M R Moore (Labour)
Tasman
Held by Ken Shirley (Labour)
Nick Smith (National)
2nd: Ken Shirley (Labour)
Tauranga
Held by Winston Peters (National)
Winston Peters (National)
2nd: W K Delaney (Labour)
Te Atatu
Held by Michael Bassett (Labour)
Brian Neeson (National)
2nd: Dan McCaffrey (Labour)
Timaru
Held by Maurice McTigue (National)
Maurice McTigue (National)
2nd: G J Clarke (Labour)
Titirangi
Held by Ralph Maxwell (Labour)
Marie Hasler (National)
2nd: Ralph Maxwell (Labour)
Tongariro
Held by Noel Scott (Labour)
Ian Peters (National)
2nd: Noel Scott (Labour)
Waikaremoana
Held by Roger McClay (National)
Roger McClay (National)
2nd: D Davies (Labour)
Waikato
Held by Rob Storey (National)
Rob Storey (National)
2nd: G Middleton (Labour)
Waipa
Held by Katherine O'Regan (National)
Katherine O'Regan (National)
2nd: M Apiata-Wade (Labour)
Wairarapa
Held by Wyatt Creech (National)
Wyatt Creech (National)
2nd: P Morgan (Labour)
Waitaki
Held by Jim Sutton (Labour)
Alec Neill (National)
2nd: Jim Sutton (Labour)
Waitotara
Held by Venn Young (National)
Peter Gresham (National)
2nd: D T O'Sullivan (Labour)
Wallace
Held by Derek Angus (National)
Bill English (National)
2nd: David Soper (Labour)
Wanganui
Held by Russell Marshall (Labour)
Cam Campion (National)
2nd: Jill Pettis (Labour)
Wellington Central
Held by Fran Wilde (Labour)
Fran Wilde (Labour)
2nd: Pauline Gardiner (National)
West Auckland
Held by Jack Elder (Labour)
Jack Elder (Labour)
2nd: L Wicks (National)
West Coast
Held by Kerry Burke (Labour)
Margaret Moir (National)
2nd: Kerry Burke (Labour)
Western Hutt
Held by John Terris (Labour)
Joy McLauchlan (National)
2nd: John Terris (Labour)
Whangarei
Held by John Banks (National)
John Banks (National)
2nd: E E Tait (Labour)
Yaldhurst
Held by Margaret Austin (Labour)
Margaret Austin (Labour)
2nd: J Connelly (National)
Eastern Maori
Held by Peter Tapsell (Labour)
Peter Tapsell (Labour)
2nd: W K Kaa (Mana Motuhake)
Northern Maori
Held by Bruce Gregory (Labour)
Bruce Gregory (Labour)
2nd: Matiu Rata (Mana Motuhake)
Southern Maori
Held by Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan (Labour)
Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan (Labour)
2nd: T R Stevens (Mana Motuhake)
Western Maori
Held by Koro Wetere (Labour)
Koro Wetere (Labour)
2nd: Eva Rickard (Mana Motuhake)

Summary of seat changes

  • Electoral redistributions:
    • There was no redistribution of electoral boundaries between the 1987 and 1990 elections.
  • Seats captured:
    • By National: Birkenhead, East Cape, Eden, Gisborne, Glenfield, Hamilton East, Hamilton West, Hastings, Hawkes Bay, Heretaunga, Horowhenua, Kapiti, Lyttelton, Manawatu, Miramar, New Plymouth, Onehunga, Otara, Roskill, Tasman, Te Atatu, Titirangi, Tongariro, Waitaki, Wanganui, West Coast and Western Hutt (27 seats) were captured from Labour.
  • Seats transferred from departing MPs to new MPs:
    • The seats of North Shore, Papakura, Tarawera, Waitotara and Wallace, all held by departing National MPs, were won by new National candidates.
    • The seats of Christchurch Central, Dunedin North, Eastern Hutt, Manurewa, Nelson, Palmerston North and Panmure, all held by departing Labour MPs, were won by new Labour candidates.

References

  • Vowles, Jack & Aimer, Peter (1993). Voters’ Vengeance: The 1990 Election in New Zealand and the fate of the Fourth Labour Government. Auckland: University Press. ISBN 186940078X. 

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