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# Hypocycloid

In geometry, a hypocycloid is a special plane curve generated by the trace of a fixed point on a small circle that rolls within a larger circle. It is comparable to the cycloid but instead of the circle rolling along a line, it rolls within a circle.

[
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The red curve is a hypocycloid traced as the smaller black circle rolls around inside the larger blue circle (parameters are R=3.0, r=1.0, and so k=3), giving a deltoid.]

If the smaller circle has radius "r", and the larger circle has radius "R" = "kr", then the
parametric equations for the curve can be given by

:$x\left( heta\right) = r \left(k-1\right) left\left( cos heta + frac\left\{cos\left(\left(k-1\right) heta\right)\right\}\left\{k-1\right\} ight\right),$

:$y\left( heta\right) = r \left(k-1\right) left\left( sin heta - frac\left\{sin\left(\left(k-1\right) heta\right)\right\}\left\{k-1\right\} ight\right).$

If "k" is an integer, then the curve is closed, and has "k" cusps (i.e., sharp corners, where the curve is not
differentiable). Specially for k=2 the curve is a straight line and the circles are called Cardano circles. Girolamo Cardano was the first to describe these hypocycloids, which had applications in the technology of high-speed printing press.

If "k" is a rational number, say "k" = "p"/"q" expressed in simplest terms, then the curve has "p" cusps.

If "k" is an irrational number, then the curve never closes, and fills the space within the larger circle except for a disk of radius "R" − "r" in the center of the larger circle.

deltoid
astroid

The hypocycloid is a special kind of hypotrochoid, which are a particular kind of roulette.

A hypocycloid with three cusps is known as a deltoid.

A hypocycloid curve with four cusps is known as an astroid.

Derived curves

The evolute of a hypocycloid is an enlarged version of the hypocycloid itself, whilethe involute of a hypocycloid is a reduced copy of itself. [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HypocycloidEvolute.html]

The pedal of a hypocycloid with pole at the center of the hypocycloid is a rose curve.

The isoptic of a hypocycloid is a hypocycloid.

Hypocycloids in popular culture

Curves similar to hypocyloids can be drawn with the "Spirograph" toy. Specifically, the Spirograph can draw hypotrochoids and epitrochoids.

The Pittsburgh Steelers' logo includes three astroids (hypocycloids of four cusps). In his weekly NFL.com column "Tuesday Morning Quarterback," Gregg Easterbrook often refers to the Steelers as the Hypocycloids.

Portland, Oregon's flag features a hypocycloid; an astroid.

The 2007 redesign of "The Price is Right"'s set features astroids on the three main doors and the turntable area [http://www.tvsquad.com/2007/08/21/a-glimpse-at-drew-careys-price-is-right/] .

ee also

* Special cases: Astroid, Deltoid
* Cycloid
* Epicycloid
* Hypotrochoid
* Epitrochoid
* Spirograph

References

*

* [http://www.portlandonline.com/auditor/index.cfm?a=jbgg&c=cheid City of Portland Flag]
* [http://www.carloslabs.com/node/21 A free Javascript tool for generating Hypocyloid curves]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

### Look at other dictionaries:

• Hypocycloid — Hy po*cy cloid, n. [Pref. hypo + cycloid: cf. F. hypocyclo[ i]de.] (Geom.) A curve traced by a point in the circumference of a circle which rolls on the concave side in the fixed circle. Cf. {Epicycloid}, and {Trochoid}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• hypocycloid — [hī΄pō sī′kloid΄, hī΄pəsī′kloid΄; ] also [ hip΄ōsī′kloid΄, hip΄əsī′kloid΄] n. [ HYPO + CYCLOID] Geom. the curve traced by a point on the circumference of an epicycle that rolls around the inside of a fixed circle: cf. EPICYCLOID …   English World dictionary

• hypocycloid — noun Date: 1843 a curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle rolling internally on the circumference of a fixed circle …   New Collegiate Dictionary

• hypocycloid — hypocycloidal, adj. /huy peuh suy kloyd/, n. Geom. a curve generated by the motion of a point on the circumference of a circle that rolls internally, without slipping, on a given circle. [1835 45; HYPO + CYCLOID] * * * …   Universalium

• hypocycloid — noun The locus of a point on the circumference of a circle that rolls without slipping inside the circumference of another circle …   Wiktionary

• hypocycloid — n. geometric figure formed by tracing the movement of a set point on the circumference of a smaller circle that is rolling within a larger circle (Geometry) …   English contemporary dictionary

• hypocycloid — [ˌhʌɪpə(ʊ) sʌɪklɔɪd] noun Mathematics the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle which is rolling on the interior of another circle. Derivatives hypocycloidal adjective …   English new terms dictionary

• hypocycloid — hy·po·cycloid …   English syllables

• hypocycloid — hy•po•cy•cloid [[t]ˌhaɪ pəˈsaɪ klɔɪd[/t]] n. math. a curve generated by the motion of a point on the circumference of a circle that rolls internally, without slipping, on a fixed circle • Etymology: 1835–45 hy po•cy•cloi′dal, adj …   From formal English to slang

• hypocycloid — /haɪpəˈsaɪklɔɪd/ (say huypuh suykloyd) noun a curve generated by the motion of a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls internally, without slipping, on a given circle. –hypocycloidal /haɪpəsaɪˈklɔɪdl/ (say huypuhsuy kloydl),… …   Australian English dictionary