- Aaron's rod
Aaron's rod refers to any of the staffs carried by
Moses' brother, Aaron, in the Old Testament. Along with Moses' rod, Aaron's rod was endowed with miraculous power during the Plagues of Egyptwhich preceded the Exodus. Upon two occasions, however, the singular virtue of spontaneous power when not in the grasp of its possessor was exhibited by Aaron's rod.
In the culture of the
Israelites, the rod would be a natural symbol of authority, as the tool used by the shepherdto correct and guide his flock( Psalm 23:4). Moses' rod is, in fact, cited in Exodus4:2 as carried by him while he tended his sheep; and later (Exodus 4:20) becomes his symbol of authority over the Israelites ( Psalm 2:9, Psalm 89:32, Isaiah 10:24 and 11:4, Ezekiel 20:37). The rods of both Moses and Aaron were endowed with miraculous power during the Plagues of Egypt(Exodus 7:17, 8:5, 8:16-17, 9:23, and 10:13); God commanded Moses to raise his rod over the Red Seawhen it was to be parted (Exodus 14:16) and in prayer over Israel in battle (Exodus 17:9); Moses brings forth water from a stone using his rod (Exodus 17, Numbers 20:11).
Aaron's rod, however, is cited twice as exhibiting miraculous power on its own, when not physically in the grasp of its owner. In
Exodus7 (Parshat Va'eira in the Torah), Godsends Moses and Aaron to Pharaohonce more, instructing Aaron that when Pharaoh demands to see a miracle, he is to "cast down his rod" and it will become a serpent. When he does so, Pharaoh's sorcerers counter by similarly casting down their own rods which also become serpents, but Aaron's rod/serpent swallows them all. "Pharaoh's heart is stubborn" and he chooses to ignore this bit of symbolic warning, and so the Plagues of Egyptensue. Notably, this chapter begins with God telling Moses, "Behold, I have made you as God to Pharaoh".
In Numbers 17,
Korah's rebellion against Moses' proclamation of the tribe of Levias the priesthoodhas been quashed and the entire congregation's ensuing rebellion has resulted in a plague, ended only by the intercession of Moses and Aaron. In order to "stop the complaints" of the Israelites, God commands that each of the Twelve Tribesprovide a rod; and only that of the tribe chosen to become priests will miraculously sprout overnight. Aaron provides his rod to represent the tribe of Levi, and "it put forth buds, produced blossoms, and bore ripe almonds" (Numbers 17:8), as an evidence of the exclusive right to the priesthood of the tribe of Levi. In commemoration of this decision it was commanded that the rod be put again "before the testimony" (Numbers 17:10). According to tradition, the rod of Aaron bore sweet almonds on one side and bitter on the other; if the Israelites followed the Lord, the sweet almonds would be ripe and edible, but if they were to forsake the path of the Lord, the bitter almonds would predominate. A later tradition asserts (Hebrews 9:4) that the rod was kept in the Ark of the Covenant. The main fact, however, is thus confirmed, that a rod was preserved in the Tabernacle as a relic of the institution of the Aaronic priesthood.
In Rabbinical literature
The Bible ascribes similar miraculous powers to the Rod of Aaron and to the staff of Moses (compare, for example, Exodus 4:2 et seq. and 7:9). The Haggadah goes a step further, and entirely identifies the Rod of Aaron with that of Moses. Thus the Midrash Yelamdenu states that:
the staff with which Jacob crossed the Jordan is identical with that which Judah gave to his daughter-in-law, Tamar (Genesis 32:10, 38:18). It is likewise the holy rod with which Moses worked (Exodus 4:20, 21), with which Aaron performed wonders before Pharaoh (Exodus 7:10), and with which, finally, David slew the giant Goliath (I Samuel 17:40). David left it to his descendants, and the Davidic kings used it as a scepter until the destruction of the Temple, when it miraculously disappeared. When the Messiah comes it will be given to him for a scepter in token of his authority over the heathen.
That so wonderful a rod should bear external signs of its importance is easily to be understood. It was made of
sapphire, weighed forty seahs (a seah = 10.70 pounds), and bore this inscription דצכ עדש באחב, which is composed of the initials of the Hebrew names of the Ten Plagues(Tan., Waëra 8, ed. Buber). Translation of inscription: "To the extent of god let these come to pass".
Legend has still more to say concerning this rod. God created it in the twilight of the sixth day of Creation (Pirkei Avoth 5:9, and Mekhilta, Beshallaḥ, ed. Weiss, iv. 60), and delivered it to Adam when the latter was driven from paradise. After it had passed through the hands of
Shem, Enoch, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacobsuccessively, it came into the possession of Joseph. On Joseph's death the Egyptian nobles stole some of his belongings, and, among them, Jethroappropriated the staff. Jethro planted the staff in his garden, when its marvelous virtue was revealed by the fact that nobody could withdraw it from the ground; even to touch it was fraught with danger to life. This was because the Ineffable Name of God was engraved upon it. When Moses entered Jethro's household he read the Name, and by means of it was able to draw up the rod, for which service Zipporah, Jethro's daughter, was given to him in marriage. Her father had sworn that she should become the wife of the man who should be able to master the miraculous rod and of no other (Pirḳe R. El. 40; Sefer ha-Yashar; Yalḳ. Exodus 168, end). It must, however, be remarked that the Mishnah (Pirkei Avoth v. 9) as yet knew nothing of the miraculous creation of Aaron's Rod, which is first mentioned by the Mekilta (l.c.) and Sifre on Deuteronomy (Berakhot xxxiii. 21; ed. Friedmann, p. 355). This supposed fact of the supernatural origin of the rod explains the statement in the New Testament (Hebrews 9:4) and Tosefta, Yoma, iii. 7 (it is to be interpreted thus according to Bava Batra 14a), that Aaron's Rod, together with its blossoms and fruit, was preserved in the Ark. King Josiah, who foresaw the impending national catastrophe, concealed the Ark and its contents (Tosefta, Sotah, 13a); and their whereabouts will remain unknown until, in the Messianic age, the prophet Elijah shall reveal them (Mekhilta l.c.).
A later Midrash (Numbers R. xviii. end) confuses the legends of the rod that blossomed with those of the rod that worked miracles, thus giving us contradictory statements. There exists a legend that Moses split a tree trunk into twelve portions, and gave one portion to each tribe. When the Rod of Aaron produced blossoms, the Israelites could not but acknowledge the significance of the token. The account of the blossoming of Aaron's Rod contained in Clement's first letter to the Corinthians (ep. 43) is quite in haggadic-midrashic style, and must probably be ascribed to Jewish or, more strictly speaking, Jewish-Hellenistic sources. According to that account, Moses placed upon each of the twelve staffs the corresponding seal of the head of a tribe. The doors of the sanctuary were similarly sealed, to prevent any one from having access to the rods at night. This legend of the rod as given by the Syrian Solomon in his "
Book of the Bee" ["Anecdota Oxoniensia, Semitic Series," vol. i. part ii.] has Christian characteristics. According to it the staff is a fragment of the Tree of Knowledge, and was successively in the possession of Shem, of the three Patriarchs, and of Judah, just as in the Jewish legend. From Judah it descended to Pharez, ancestor of David and of the Messiah. After Pharez's death an angel carried it to the mountains of Moab and buried it there, where the pious Jethro found it. When Moses, at Jethro's request, went in search of it, the rod was brought to him by an angel. With this staff Aaron and Moses performed all the miracles related in Scripture, noteworthy among which was the swallowing up of the wonder-working rods of the Egyptian Posdi. Joshua received it from Moses and made use of it in his wars [Josh. viii. 18] ; and Joshua, in turn, delivered it to Phinehas, who buried it in Jerusalem. There it remained hidden until the birth of Jesus, when the place of its concealment was revealed to Joseph, who took it with him on the journey to Egypt. Judas Iscariot stole it from James, brother of Jesus, who had received it from Joseph. At Jesus' crucifixion the Jews had no wood for the transverse beam of the cross, so Judas produced the staff for that purpose ["Book of the Bee," Syr. ed., pp. 50-53; Eng. ed., pp. 50-52.] .
This typological explanation of Moses' rod as the cross is not a novel one. Origen on Exodus (chap. vii.) says: "This rod of Moses, with which he subdued the Egyptians, is the symbol of the cross of Jesus, who conquered the world." Christian legend has preserved the Jewish legend of the rod of the Messiah and made concrete fact of the idea. The miraculous flowering of the rod was also considered a type of the
Incarnation of Christand his Virgin Birth, and appears in scenes of the Annunciation to Mary. [G Schiller, "Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I",1971 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, p. 54 & figs 126-9, ISBN 853312702] Other Western legends concerning the connection of the cross and the rod may be found in Seymour, "The Cross," 1898, p. 83.
Said Moses: 'Throw ye first.'So when they threw,They bewitched the eyesOf the people, and struckTerror into them: for theyShowed a great (feat of) magic.|Qur'an 7:116-117, trans A. Yusuf Ali, 3rd ed (1938)Fact|date=November 2007
We put it into Moses's mindBy inspiration: 'Throw (now)Thy rod': and behold!It swallows up straightwayAll the falsehoodsWhich they fake!
In modern literature
D. H. Lawrenceentitled a novel, "Aaron's Rod", in 1922. This book describes a flautist, Aaron Sissons, and his experiences as he journeys through a Europe exhausted by the First World War. The biblical reference in the title, with the flute representing a magic rod, is clearly intended to be ironic. The instrument is finally destroyed in an anarchist explosion.
Rod of Asclepius
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/apo/jasher/77.htm Jasher 77] A history of the sapphire stick from Adam to Moses is given in the Book of Jasher.
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Aaron's rod — Aar on s rod ([^a]r [u^]nz r[o^]d ). [See Exodus vii. 9 and Numbers xvii. 8] 1. (Arch.) A rod with one serpent twined around it, thus differing from the caduceus of Mercury, which has two. [1913 Webster] 2. (Bot.) A plant with a tall flowering… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Aaron's-rod — smulkiažiedė tūbė statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bervidinių šeimos vaistinis augalas (Verbascum thapsus), paplitęs šiaurės Afrikoje, Europoje ir Azijoje. atitikmenys: lot. Verbascum thapsus angl. Aaron s rod; common mullein; flannelleaf;… … Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)
Aaron's rod — 1. a rod, inscribed with the name of Aaron, that miraculously blossomed and yielded almonds. Num. 17:8. Previously, the rod had changed into a serpent. Ex. 7:10. 2. any of various plants having a tall, flowering stem, as the goldenrod or mullein … Universalium
Aaron's rod — noun a) Any of various plants with a tall flowering stem; especially the great mullein, or hag taper, and the golden rod. b) A rod with one serpent twined around it, as used by Aaron (differing from the caduceus of Mercury, which has two… … Wiktionary
Aaron's rod — noun the great mullein (plant). Origin C18: alluding to Aaron in the Bible, whose staff was said to have flowered (Num. 17:8) … English new terms dictionary
Aaron's rod — (Botany) any of a number of plants having tall flowering stems (such as the golden rod and the great mullein) … English contemporary dictionary
Aaron's rod — /ɛərənz ˈrɒd/ (say airruhnz rod) noun 1. a widespread biennial plant, Verbascum thapsus, densely covered with woolly hairs and having erect spikes of yellow flowers. 2. Architecture a decorative moulding consisting of a tall straight stem with… … Australian English dictionary
Aaron's rod — n. any of several tall plants, esp. the great mullein (Verbascum thapsus). Etymology: ref. to Num. 17:8 … Useful english dictionary
Aaron's Rod (novel) — Aaron s Rod is a novel by D. H. Lawrence, started in 1917 and published in 1922.The protagonist of this picaresque novel, Aaron Sisson, is a union official in the coal mines of the English Midlands, trapped in a stale marriage. He is also an… … Wikipedia
Aaron's rod (disambiguation) — Aaron s rod refers to any of:* Aaron s rod, any of the staffs carried by Moses brother Aaron * In Gothic architecture, an ornament consisting of a rounded molding decorated by a single entwined serpent and sometimes vines and leaves * Aaron s Rod … Wikipedia