Constructions of low-discrepancy sequences

There are some standard constructions of low-discrepancy sequences.


The van der Corput sequence



be the b-ary representation of the positive integer n ≥ 1, i.e. 0 ≤ dk(n) < b. Set


Then there is a constant C depending only on b such that (gb(n))n ≥ 1 satisfies

D^*_N(g_b(1),\dots,g_b(N))\leq C\frac{\log N}{N}.

where D*N is the star discrepancy.

The Halton sequence

First 256 points of the (2,3) Halton sequence

The Halton sequence is a natural generalization of the van der Corput sequence to higher dimensions. Let s be an arbitrary dimension and b1, ..., bs be arbitrary coprime integers greater than 1. Define


Then there is a constant C depending only on b1, ..., bs, such that sequence {x(n)}n≥1 is a s-dimensional sequence with

D^*_N(x(1),\dots,x(N))\leq C'\frac{(\log N)^s}{N}.

The Hammersley set

2D Hammersley set of size 256

Let b1,...,bs-1 be coprime positive integers greater than 1. For given s and N, the s-dimensional Hammersley set of size N is defined by


for n = 1, ..., N. Then

D^*_N(x(1),\dots,x(N))\leq C\frac{(\log N)^{s-1}}{N}

where C is a constant depending only on b1, ..., bs−1.


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