Type I superconductor
Type I superconductors are
superconductors that cannot be penetrated by magnetic flux lines ( Meißner-Ochsenfeld effect). As such, they have only a single critical temperature at which the material ceases to superconduct, becoming resistive. The origin of their superconductivity is fully explained by BCS theory. Elementary superconductors, such as aluminiumand leadare typical Type I superconductors.
Type I Superconductivity
As explained by
BCS theory, type I superconductivity is exhibited by materials with a regularly structured lattice. This allows electrons to be coupled over a relatively large distance (compared to the size of an atom). These pairings are called Cooper pairs.
Though normally electrons exhibit Coulomb repulsion when displayed to each other, when they interact within a lattice, via a
phononinteraction they display an attractive force. As this is not a normal state for an electron pair to be in, it is only achieved at very low temperatures. This is because, modeling it as a bond, it has a low bond energy, thus requiring very little force to break it. As such, if the temperature of the material is too high, the energy in the vibrations of the lattice are sufficient to break the bond.
The reason for this force of attraction is an effect known as 'the mattress effect'. [G. Vidali, 1993. Superconductivity: The next revolution? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.] This comes about due to spins of electrons. As an electron passes through a lattice, the attractive forces between it and the protons in the nuclei of the atoms cause a ripple in the lattice structure. This means that there are ripples through much of the lattice. These ripples are vibrations called 'phonons'.The ripples induced throughout the lattice will affect other electrons passing through it. This creates the weak link between two electrons being affected by one phonon.This coupling means that even if one electron is presented with resistance the effect of the resistance is minimized as it is 'pulled along' by the other electron.
This type of superconductivity is normally exhibited by pure metals, e.g. aluminium, lead or mercury. (Alloys are typically of Type II.)
Type II superconductor
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Type-II superconductor — A Type II superconductor is a superconductor characterised by its gradual transition from the superconducting to the normal state within an increasing magnetic field. Typically they superconduct at higher temperatures and magnetic fields than… … Wikipedia
type I superconductor — pirmosios rūšies superlaidininkas statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. type I superconductor vok. Art I Supraleiter, m rus. сверхпроводник первого рода, m pranc. supraconducteur de première espèce, m; supraconducteur type I, m … Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas
type II superconductor — antrosios rūšies superlaidininkas statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. type II superconductor vok. Art II Supraleiter, m rus. сверхпроводник второго рода, m pranc. supraconducteur de deuxième espèce, m; supraconducteur type II, m … Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas
Superconductor classification — Superconductors can be classified in accordance with several criteria that depend on our interest in their physical properties, on the understanding we have about them, on how expensive is cooling them or on the material they are made of. By… … Wikipedia
Type 2 — or Type II may refer to:* Type 2 20 mm AA Machine Cannon, a Japanese weapon * Type 2 AT mine * Type 2 cannon, a 30 mm Japanese weapon * Type 2 encryption * Type 2 Gumbel distribution * Type 2 Ho I, a Japanese tank * Type 2 Ka Mi, a Japanese tank* … Wikipedia
Type 1 — or Type I may refer to:*Bugatti Type 1, an automobile *Diabetes mellitus type 1, insulin dependent diabetes *Type 1 37 mm Anti Tank Gun *Type 1 47 mm Anti Tank Gun *Type 1 encryption, a cryptographical certification *Type 1 Gumbel distribution, a … Wikipedia
Covalent superconductor — Covalent semiconductors are such solids as diamond, silicon, germanium, silicon carbide and silicon germanium where atoms are linked by covalent bonds. Most of those materials, at least in their bulk form, are well studied and rarely hit the… … Wikipedia
Conventional superconductor — Conventional superconductors are materials that display superconductivity as described by BCS theory or its extensions.(cf. Unconventional superconductor) Critical temperatures of some simple metals: Element Tc (K) Al 1.20 Hg 4.15 Mo 0.92 Nb 9.26 … Wikipedia
Ideally hard superconductor — An ideally hard superconductor is a type II superconductor material with an infinite pinning force (or critical current density). In the external magnetic field it behaves like an ideal diamagnet if the field is switched on when the material is… … Wikipedia
supraconducteur type I — pirmosios rūšies superlaidininkas statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. type I superconductor vok. Art I Supraleiter, m rus. сверхпроводник первого рода, m pranc. supraconducteur de première espèce, m; supraconducteur type I, m … Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas