Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited example of modern extinction.cite book | last = Diamond | first = Jared | authorlink = Jared Diamond | title = Guns, Germs, and Steel| publisher = date = 1999| isbn = 0-393-31755-2 | pages=43–44 |chapter=Up to the Starting Line ]
biologyand ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a speciesor group of taxa. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "re-appears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence.
evolution, new species arise through the process of speciation— where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche— and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance,Newman, Mark. " [http://www.lassp.cornell.edu/newmme/science/extinction.html A Mathematical Model for Mass Extinction] ". Cornell University. May 20 1994. URL accessed July 30 2006.] although some species, called living fossils, survive virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years. Extinction, though, is usually a natural phenomenon; it is estimated that 99.9% of all species that have ever lived are now extinct. Raup, David M. "Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck?" W.W. Norton and Company. New York. 1991. pp.3-6 ISBN 978-0393309270 ]
Prior to the dispersion of humans across the earth, extinction generally occurred at a continuous low rate,
mass extinctions being relatively rare events. Starting approximately 100,000 years ago, and coinciding with an increase in the numbers and range of humans, species extinctions have increased to a rate unprecedented since the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6502368/ Species disappearing at an alarming rate, report says] . MSNBCURL accessed July 26 2006] This is known as the Holocene extinction eventand is at least the sixth such extinction event. Some experts have estimated that up to half of presently existing species may become extinct by 2100.Wilson, E.O., "The Future of Life" (2002) (ISBN 0-679-76811-4). See also: Leakey, Richard, "The Sixth Extinction : Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind", ISBN 0-385-46809-1 ]
A species becomes extinct when the last existing member of that species dies. Extinction therefore becomes a certainty when there are no surviving individuals that are able to reproduce and create a new generation. A species may become functionally extinct when only a handful of individuals survive, which are unable to reproduce due to poor health, age, sparse distribution over a large range, a lack of individuals of both sexes (in sexually reproducing species), or other reasons.
, likely due to competition from newer plant life.Davis, Paul and Kenrick, Paul. Fossil Plants. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C. (2004).Morran, Robin, C.; A Natural History of Ferns. Timber Press (2004). ISBN 0-88192-667-1] ] Pinpointing the extinction (or
pseudoextinction) of a species requires a clear definition of that species. If it is to be declared extinct, the species in question must be uniquely identifiable from any ancestor or daughter species, or from other closely related species. Extinction of a species (or replacement by a daughter species) plays a key role in the punctuated equilibriumhypothesis of Stephen Jay Gouldand Niles Eldredge. [See: Niles Eldredge, "Time Frames: Rethinking of Darwinian Evolution and the Theory of Punctuated Equilibria", 1986, Heinemann ISBN 0-434-22610-6]
ecology, "extinction" is often used informally to refer to local extinction, in which a species ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. This phenomenon is also known as extirpation. Local extinctions may be followed by a replacement of the species taken from other locations; wolf reintroductionis an example of this. Species which are not extinct are termed extant. Those that are extant but threatened by extinction are referred to as threatenedor endangered species.
An important aspect of extinction at the present time are human attempts to preserve critically endangered species, which is reflected by the creation of the
conservation status"Extinct in the Wild" (EW). Species listed under this status by the World Conservation Union(IUCN) are not known to have any living specimens in the wild, and are maintained only in zoos or other artificial environments. Some of these species are functionally extinct, as they are no longer part of their natural habitat and it is unlikely the species will ever be restored to the wild.Maas, Peter. " [http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct/wilduk.htm Extinct in the Wild" "The Extinction Website". URL accessed January 262007.] When possible, modern zoological institutions attempt to maintain a viable populationfor species preservation and possible future reintroductionto the wild through use of carefully planned breeding programs.
The extinction of one species' wild population can have knock-on effects, causing further extinctions. These are also called "chains of extinction". [cite paper |url=http://theory.ph.man.ac.uk/~ajm/qui05a.pdf |title=Deleting species from model food webs |accessdate=2007-02-15 |format=pdf |work= |author=Quince, C. et al.]
Descendants may or may not exist for extinct species. Daughter species that evolve from a parent species carry on most of the parent species' genetic information, and even though the parent species may become extinct, the daughter species lives on. In other cases, species have produced no new variants, or none that are able to survive the parent species' extinction. Extinction of a parent species where daughter species or subspecies are still alive is also called "
Pseudoextinction is difficult to demonstrate unless one has a strong chain of evidence linking a living species to members of a pre-existing species. For example, it is sometimes claimed that the extinct "
Hyracotherium", which was an ancient animal similar to the horse, is pseudoextinct, rather than extinct, because there are several extant species of "equus", including zebraand donkeys. However, as fossil species typically leave no genetic material behind, it is not possible to say whether "Hyracotherium" actually evolved into more modern horse species or simply evolved from a common ancestor with modern horses. Pseudoextinction is much easier to demonstrate for larger taxonomic groups. It is said that dinosaurs are pseudoextinct, because some of their descendants, the birds, survive today.
There are a variety of causes that can contribute directly or indirectly to the extinction of a species or group of species. "Just as each species is unique," write Beverly and Stephen Stearns, "so is each extinction... the causes for each are varied — some subtle and complex, others obvious and simple".cite book | last = Stearns | first = Beverly Peterson and Stephen C. | title = Watching, from the Edge of Extinction | publisher =
Yale University Press| date = 2000 | isbn = 0300084692 | pages=x |chapter=Preface ] Most simply, any species that is unable to survive or reproduce in its environment, and unable to move to a new environment where it can do so, dies out and becomes extinct. Extinction of a species may come suddenly when an otherwise healthy species is wiped out completely, as when toxic pollutionrenders its entire habitatunlivable; or may occur gradually over thousands or millions of years, such as when a species gradually loses out in competition for food to better adapted competitors.
Assessing the relative importance of genetic factors compared to environmental ones as the causes of extinction has been compared to the
nature-nurture debate. The question of whether more extinctions in the fossilrecord have been caused by evolutionor by catastrophe is a subject of discussion; Mark Newman, the author of "Modeling Extinction" argues for a mathematical model that falls between the two positions. By contrast, conservation biologyuses the extinction vortexmodel to classify extinctions by cause. When concerns about human extinctionhave been raised, for example in Sir Martin Rees' 2003 book " Our Final Hour", those concerns lie with the effects of climate changeor technological disaster.
Currently, environmental groups and some governments are concerned with the extinction of species caused by humanity, and are attempting to combat further extinctions through a variety of conservation programs. Humans can cause extinction of a species through overharvesting,
pollution, habitat destruction, introduction of new predators and food competitors, overhunting, and other influences. According to the World Conservation Union(WCU, also known as IUCN), 784 extinctions have been recorded since the year 1500, the arbitrary date selected to define "modern" extinctions, with many more likely to have gone unnoticed. World Conservation Union. " [http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/red_list_2004/GSAexecsumm_EN.htm 2004 Red List] ". "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". URL accessed September 20 2006.]
Genetics and demographic phenomena
Population geneticsand demographic phenomena affect the evolution, and therefore the risk of extinction, of species. Species with small populations are much more vulnerable to these types of effects.Fact|date=June 2007 Limited geographic range is the most important determinant of genusextinction at background rates but becomes increasingly irrelevant as mass extinction arises. [cite journal| author=Payne, J.L. & S. Finnegan | year=2007 | title=The effect of geographical range on extinction risk during background and mass extinction. | journal=Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. | volume=104 | issue=25 | pages=10506–11 | doi=10.1073/pnas.0701257104 | pmid=17563357] Natural selectionacts to propagate beneficial genetic traits and eliminate weaknesses. It is nevertheless possible for a deleterious mutation to be spread throughout a population through the effect of genetic drift.
A diverse or "deep"
gene poolgives a population a higher chance of surviving an adverse change in conditions. Effects that cause or reward a loss in genetic diversitycan increase the chances of extinction of a species. Population bottlenecks can dramatically reduce genetic diversity by severely limiting the number of reproducing individuals and make inbreedingmore frequent. The founder effectcan cause rapid, individual-based speciation and is the most dramatic example of a population bottleneck.
Purebred naturally evolved region specific wild species can be threatened with extinction in a big way [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=33232 Hybridization and Introgression; Extinctions; from "The evolutionary impact of invasive species; by H. A. Mooney and E. E. Cleland" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8; 98(10): 5446–5451. doi: 10.1073/pnas.091093398. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, v.98(10); May 8, 2001, The National Academy of Sciences] ] through the process of Genetic Pollution i.e. uncontrolled hybridization,
introgressionand Genetic swaping which leads to homogenization or replacement of local genotypes as a result of either a numerical and/or fitness advantage of introduced plant or animal. [ [http://www.nativeseednetwork.org/article_view?id=13 Glossary: definitions from the following publication: Aubry, C., R. Shoal and V. Erickson. 2005. Grass cultivars: their origins, development, and use on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service. 44 pages, plus appendices.; Native Seed Network (NSN), Institute for Applied Ecology, 563 SW Jefferson Ave, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA] ] Nonnative species can bring about a form of extinction of native plants and animals by hybridization and introgression either through purposeful introduction by humans or through habitat modification, bringing previously isolated species into contact. These phenomena can be especially detrimental for rare species coming into contact with more abundant ones where the abundant ones can interbreed with them swamping the entire rarer gene pool creating hybrids thus driving the entire original purebred native stock to complete extinction. Such extinctions are not always apparent from morphological (outward appearance) observations alone. Some degree of gene flowmay be a normal, evolutionarily constructive process, and all constellations of genes and genotypes cannot be preserved however, hybridization with or without introgression may, nevertheless, threaten a rare species' existence. [ [http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83 Extinction by Hybridization and Introgression; by Judith M. Rhymer , Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; and Daniel Simberloff, Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA; Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, November 1996, Vol. 27, Pages 83-109 (doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83)] , [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0066-4162(1996)27%3C83:EBHAI%3E2.0.CO;2-A#abstract] ] [ [http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/AFT/01-114.pdf Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC; Joint Venture Agroforestry Program; by Brad M. Potts, Robert C. Barbour, Andrew B. Hingston; September 2001; RIRDC Publication No 01/114; RIRDC Project No CPF - 3A; ISBN 0 642 58336 6; ISSN 1440-6845; Australian Government, Rural Industrial Research and Development Corporation] ]
Widespread genetic pollution also leads to weakening of the naturally evolved (wild) region specific gene pool leading to weaker hybrid animals and plants which are not able to cope with natural environs over the long run and fast tracks them towards final extinction.
gene poolof a speciesor a populationis the complete set of unique allelesthat would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity, which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection. Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreedingand population bottlenecks) can cause reduced biological fitness and an increased chance of extinction amongst the reducing population of purebred individuals from a species.
The degradation of a species' habitat may alter the
fitness landscapeto such an extent that the species is no longer able to survive and becomes extinct. This may occur by direct effects, such as the environment becoming toxic, or indirectly, by limiting a species' ability to compete effectively for diminished resources or against new competitor species.
Habitat degradation through toxicity can kill off a species very rapidly, by killing all living members through
contaminationor sterilizing them. It can also occur over longer periods at lower toxicity levels by affecting life span, reproductive capacity, or competitiveness.
Habitat degradation can also take the form of a physical destruction of niche habitats. The widespread destruction of
tropical rainforests and replacement with open pastureland is widely cited as an example of this; elimination of the dense forest eliminated the infrastructure needed by many species to survive. For example, a fernthat depends on dense shade for protection from direct sunlight can no longer survive without forest to shelter it. Another example is the destruction of ocean floors by bottom trawling. [Clover, Charles. 2004. "The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat". Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7 ]
Diminished resources or introduction of new competitor species also often accompany habitat degradation.
Global warminghas allowed some species to expand their range, bringing unwelcome competition to other species that previously occupied that area. Sometimes these new competitors are predators and directly affect prey species, while at other times they may merely outcompete vulnerable species for limited resources. Vital resources including waterand food can also be limited during habitat degradation, leading to extinction.
Predation, competition, and disease
Humans have been transporting
animals and plants from one part of the world to another for thousands of years, sometimes deliberately (e.g., livestockreleased by sailors onto islands as a source of food) and sometimes accidentally (e.g., rats escaping from boats). In most cases, such introductions are unsuccessful, but when they do become established as an invasive alien species, the consequences can be catastrophic. Invasive alien species can affect native species directly by eating them, competing with them, and introducing pathogens or parasites that sicken or kill them or, indirectly, by destroying or degrading their habitat. Human populations may themselves act as invasive predators. According to the "overkill hypothesis", the swift extinction of the megafaunain areas such as New Zealand, Australia, Madagascarand Hawaiiresulted from the sudden introduction of human beings to environments full of animals that had never seen them before, and were therefore completely unadapted to their predation techniques.Lee, Anita. " [http://geography.berkeley.edu/ProgramCourses/CoursePagesFA2002/geog148/Term%20Papers/Anita%20Lee/THEPLE~1.html The Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis] ." "University of California at Berkeley Geography Program." URL accessed January 11 2007.]
Coextinction refers to the loss of a species due to the extinction of another; for example, the extinction of parasitic insects following the loss of their hosts. Coextinction can also occur when a species loses its
pollinator, or to predatorsin a food chainwho lose their prey. "Species coextinction is a manifestation of the interconnectedness of organisms in complex ecosystems ... While coextinction may not be the most important cause of species extinctions, it is certainly an insidious one".Koh, Lian Pih. "Science", Vol 305, Issue 5690, 1632-1634, 10 September 2004.]
There is also discussion about the long term affects of global warming on the extinction process. Currently, studies have shown that global warming may drive one quarter of all land animals and plants to extinction by 2050. About 50% of mammals are currently endangered due to global warming related causes. Battachatya, Shaoni. [http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4545-global-warming-threatens-millions-of-species.html] ." URL accessed September 15, 2008. ]
There have been at least five mass extinctions in the history of life on earth, and four in the last 3.5 billion years in which many species have disappeared in a relatively short period of geological time. The most recent of these, the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event 65 million years ago at the end of the
Cretaceousperiod, is best known for having wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs, among many other species.
Modern mass extinction
According to a 1998 survey of 400 biologists conducted by
New York's American Museum of Natural History, nearly 70 percent believed that they were currently in the early stages of a human-caused mass extinction, American Museum of Natural History. " [http://www.well.com/~davidu/amnh.html National Survey Reveals Biodiversity Crisis - Scientific Experts Believe We are in the Midst of the Fastest Mass Extinction in Earth's History] ". URL accessed September 20 2006.] known as the Holocene extinction event. In that survey, the same proportion of respondents agreed with the prediction that up to 20 percent of all living populations could become extinct within 30 years (by 2028). Biologist E. O. Wilsonestimated in 2002 that if current rates of human destruction of the biosphere continue, one-half of all species of life on earth will be extinct in 100 years.Ulansey, David, " [http://www.well.com/user/davidu/extinction.html The current mass extinction] " repeats this statement with links to dozens of news reports on the phenomenon. URL accessed January 26 2007.] More significantly the rate of species extinctions at present is estimated at 100 to 1000 times "background" or average extinction rates in the evolutionary time scale of planet Earth. [J.H.Lawton and R.M.May, "Extinction rates", Oxford UniversityPress, Oxford, UK] However, many similar alarming predictions have been made in the past and were never realized, so some skepticism is warranted. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_R._Ehrlich#Predictions_and_Quotes For example.]
History of scientific understanding
In the 1800s when extinction was first described, the idea of extinction was threatening to those who held a belief in the
Great Chain of Being, a theological position that did not allow for "missing links".
The possibility of extinction was not widely accepted before the 1800s.Viney, Mike. " [http://www.csmate.colostate.edu/cltw/cohortpages/viney_old1/extinction.html Extinction Part 2 of 5] ".
Colorado State University. URL accessed September 12 2006.] Academy of Natural Sciences, "Fossils and Extinction" (http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherPages/extinction.php) and U.C. Berkeley "History of Evolutionary Thought - Extinction" http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/history/extinction.shtml.] The devoted naturalist Carl Linnaeus, could "hardly entertain" the idea that humans could cause the extinction of a species.cite book | last = Koerner | first = Lisbet | title = Linnaeus: Nature and Nation | publisher = Harvard University Press| date = 1999| isbn = 0-674-00565-1 | pages=85 |chapter=God's Endless Larder ] When parts of the world had not been thoroughly examined and charted, scientists could not rule out that animals found only in the fossil record were not simply "hiding" in unexplored regions of the Earth."Ideas: A History from Fire to Freud" (Peter Watson Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 0-297-60726-X)] Georges Cuvieris credited with establishing extinction as a fact in a 1796 lecture to the French Institute. Cuvier's observations of fossil bones convinced him that they did not originate in extant animals. This discovery was critical for the spread of uniformitarianism,Watson, p.16] and lead to the first book publicizing the idea of evolution Robert Chambers, 1844, "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation", 1994 reprint: University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-10073-1] though Cuvier himself strongly opposed the theories of evolution advanced by Lamarckand others.
Human attitudes and interests
Extinction is an important research topic in the field of
zoology, and biologyin general, and has also become an area of concern outside the scientific community. A number of organizations, such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature, have been created with the goal of preserving species from extinction. Governments have attempted, through enacting laws, to avoid habitat destruction, agricultural over-harvesting, and pollution. While many human-caused extinctions have been accidental, humans have also engaged in the deliberate destruction of some species, such as dangerous viruses, and the extirpation of other problematic species has been suggested.
Biologist Bruce Walsh of the
University of Arizonastates three reasons for scientific interest in the preservation of species; genetic resources, ecosystem stability, and ethics; and today the scientific community "stress [es] the importance" of maintaining biodiversity.Committee on Recently Extinct Organisms. " [http://creo.amnh.org/care.html Why Care About Species That Have Gone Extinct?] ". URL accessed July 30 2006.] Walsh, Bruce. [http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/courses/EEB105/lectures/extinction/extinction.html Extinction] . Bioscience at University of Arizona. URL accessed July 26 2006.] In modern times, commercial and industrial interests often have to contend with the effects of production on plant and animal life. However, some technologies with minimal, or no, proven harmful effects on " Homo sapiens" can be devastating to wildlife (for example, DDT).International Programme on Chemical Safety (1989). " [http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc83.htm DDT and its Derivatives -- Environmental Aspects] ". Environmental Health Criteria 83. URL accessed September 20 2006.] Biogeographer Jared Diamondnotes that while big businessmay label environmental concerns as "exaggerated", and often cause "devastating damage", some corporations find it in their interest to adopt good conservation practices, and even engage in preservation efforts that surpass those taken by national parks.cite book | last = Diamond | first = Jared | authorlink = Jared Diamond | title = Collapse | publisher = Penguin | date = 2005| isbn = 0-670-03337-5 | pages=15–17 |chapter=A Tale of Two Farms ]
Governments sometimes see the loss of native species as a loss to
ecotourism,Drewry, Rachel. " [http://www.insideindonesia.org/edit51/orang.htm Ecotourism: Can it save the orangutans?] " "Inside Indonesia". URL accessed January 26 2007.] and can enact laws with severe punishment against the trade in native species in an effort to prevent extinction in the wild. Nature preserves are created by governments as a means to provide continuing habitats to species crowded by human expansion. The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversityhas resulted in international Biodiversity Action Planprogrammes, which attempt to provide comprehensive guidelines for government biodiversity conservation. Advocacy groups, such as The Wildlands Project [http://www.wild-earth.org/cms/page1090.cfm The Wildlands Project] . URL accessed January 26 2007.] and the Alliance for Zero Extinctions, [http://www.zeroextinction.org/ Alliance for Zero Extinctions] . URL accessed January 26 2007.] work to educate the public and pressure governments into action.
People who live close to nature can be dependent on the survival of all the species in their environment, leaving them highly exposed to extinction
risks. However, people prioritize day-to-day survival over species conservation; with human overpopulationin tropical developing countries, there has been enormous pressure on forests due to subsistence agriculture, including slash-and-burnagricultural techniques that can reduce endangered species's habitats. [citebook | first1= Anne | last1= Ehrlich | title = Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species | publisher= Random House, New York | year= 1981 | isbn= 0-394-51312-6]
Humans have aggressively worked toward the extinction of many species of virus and bacterium in the cause of disease eradication. For example, the
smallpoxvirus is now essentially extinct in the wild [ [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/smallpox/ WHO Factsheet] [http://ftp.who.int/gb/pdf_files/WHA52/ew5.pdf WHO meeting agenda] Scientists certified it eradicated in December 1979, WHO formally ratified this on 8 May 1980in resolution WHA33.3] — although samples are retained in laboratory settings, and the poliovirus is now confined to small parts of the world as a result of human efforts to cure the disease it causes.Global Polio Eradication Initiative. " [http://www.polioeradication.org/history.asp The History] ". URL accessed January 24 2007.] Olivia Judsonis one of six modern scientists to have advocated the deliberate extinction of specific species. Her September 25 2003" New York Times" article, "A Bug's Death", advocates "specicide" of thirty mosquitospecies through the introduction of a genetic element, capable of inserting itself into another crucial gene, to create recessive"knockout genes". Her arguments for doing so are that the " Anopheles" mosquitoes (which spread malaria) and " Aedes" mosquitoes (which spread dengue fever, yellow fever, elephantiasis, and other diseases) represent only 30 species; eradicating these would save at least one million human lives per annum at a cost of reducing the genetic diversityof the family Culicidaeby only 1%. She further argues that since species become extinct "all the time" the disappearance of a few more will not destroy the ecosystem: "We're not left with a wasteland every time a species vanishes. Removing one species sometimes causes shifts in the populations of other species - but different need not mean worse." In addition, anti- malarial and mosquito control programs offer little realistic hope to the 300 million people in developing nations who will be infected with acute illnesses this year. Although trials are ongoing, she writes that if they fail: "We should consider the ultimate swatting."cite news | last = Judson | first = Olivia | title = "A Bug's Death" | work = New York Times| date = September 25 2003| url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9805E5DF143DF936A1575AC0A9659C8B63&n=Top%2fNews%2fScience%2fTopics%2fMosquitoes | accessdate = 2006-07-30 ]
While no extinct species has currently ever been recreated, recent technological advances have encouraged the hypothesis that using DNA from the remains of an extinct species, through the process of cloning, this species may be "brought back to life". [http://www.exn.ca/Mammoth/Cloning.cfm Will mammoths walk again?] .
Discovery Channel. March 9 2001. URL accessed July 30 2006.] Proposed targets for cloning include the mammoth, thylacine, and the dodo. In order for such a program to succeed, a sufficient number of individuals would have to be cloned, from the DNA of different individuals (in the case of sexually reproducing organisms) to create a viable population. The cloning of an extinct species has not yet been attempted, primarily due to technological limitations, though bioethical and philosophical objections have also been raised. The concept of cloning extinct species was popularized in the successful novel and movie 'Jurassic Park'.
IUCN Red List
List of extinct animals
List of extinct plants
Living Planet Index
Red List Index
Refugium (population biology)
Timeline of extinctions
Voluntary Human Extinction Movement
Notes and references
* [http://creo.amnh.org/ Committee on recently extinct organisms]
* [http://extinctanimals.petermaas.nl/ Recently Extinct Animals]
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extinction — [ ɛkstɛ̃ksjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1374; lat. exstinctio, de exstinguere « éteindre » 1 ♦ Action d éteindre. L extinction d un feu, d un incendie. Extinction des feux, des lumières : moment où toutes les lumières doivent être éteintes. Clairon qui sonne l… … Encyclopédie Universelle
extinction — Extinction. s. f. Action par laquelle on esteint. Extinction d un embrasement. on adjugea cette ferme, cette terre à l extinction de la chandelle. On dit aussi, l Extinction de la chaleur naturelle. On dit aussi fig. L extinction d un crime. l… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
Extinction — Ex*tinc tion, n. [L. extinctio, exstinction: cf. F. extinction.] 1. The act of extinguishing or making extinct; a putting an end to; the act of putting out or destroying light, fire, life, activity, influence, etc. [1913 Webster] 2. State of… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Extinction — (v. lat.), so v.w. Exstinction … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
extinction — index aberemurder, abolition, ademption, cancellation, catastrophe, death, demise (death), destruction … Law dictionary
extinction — EXTINCTION: Ne s emploie qu avec paupérisme … Dictionnaire des idées reçues
extinction — early 15c., from L. extinctionem/exstinctionem (nom. extinctio/exstinctio), noun of action from pp. stem of extinguere/exstinguere (see EXTINGUISH (Cf. extinguish)). Originally of fires, lights; figurative use, of wiping out a material thing (a… … Etymology dictionary
extinction — see under extinguish at ABOLISH … New Dictionary of Synonyms
extinction — [n] dying out annihilation, death, destruction, elimination, end of life, no life, obsolescence, thing of the past*; concept 252 … New thesaurus
extinction — ► NOUN ▪ the state or process of being or becoming extinct … English terms dictionary
extinction — [ek stiŋk′shən, ikstiŋk′shən] n. [ME extinccioun < L exstinctio < exstinctus: see EXTINCT] 1. a putting out or being put out, as of a fire 2. a destroying or being destroyed; annihilation; abolition 3. the fact or state of being or becoming … English World dictionary