name = Tariq Ramadan
image_size = 170px
birth_date = birth date and age|1962|8|26
occupation = Academic and Theologian
Tariq Said Ramadan (born
26 September 1962in Geneva, Switzerland) is a Swiss Muslimacademic whose views on Islam reflect a reformist perspective. He advocates the study and interpretation of Islamic texts, and emphasizes the heterogeneousnature of Western Muslims. Fact|date=August 2008 He believes that Muslims in Europe have established a new "European Islam", distinct from Euroislam, (see also Euroislam) and emphasizes the necessity for their contribution to European society.
Two of the world’s most influential magazines, "Prospect" and "Foreign Policy," rank him at number 8 in a list of the world’s top 100 contemporary
intellectuals. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/jun/23/2] He is regularly called Islam’s ‘ Martin Luther' in the West for his controversial views that challenge the mainstream Islamic beliefs. He has not a wide audience base in countries with Muslim majorities. Tariq teaches theology at the University of Oxford.
Ramadan is the son of
Said Ramadanand the grandson of Hassan al Banna, one of the founders of the Muslim Brotherhoodin Egypt. His father was a prominent figure in the Muslim Brotherhoodand was exiled from Egyptto Switzerland, where Tariq was born, by Gamal Abdul Nasser.Fact|date=January 2008 Tariq Ramadan graduated a year early and studied philosophy, literature and social sciences at the University of Geneva. He studied philosophy and French literature at the Masters level, and Arabic and Islamic studiesfor his PhD. He wrote his dissertation on Friedrich Nietzsche. He also studied Arabicand Islam at Al AzharIslamic university in Cairo, Egypt.
He currently teaches at the College de Saussure, a high school in
Geneva, Switzerland, and held a lectureship in Religion and Philosophy at the University of Fribourgfrom 1996to 2003. In October 2005 he began teaching at St Antony's Collegeat the University of Oxfordon a Visiting Fellowship. Since 2005 he has been a senior research fellow at the Lokahi Foundation. [ [http://www.tariqramadan.com/ Official website] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/oxfordshire/4190804.stm Islamic scholar gets Oxford job] - BBC- Saturday, 27 August 2005]
Ramadan is married and has 4 children. His wife is French and converted to Islam after their marriage. His brother,
Hani Ramadan, is also a Muslimactivist and resides in Geneva, where he is the director of the Islamic Centre of Geneva. After a lengthy and costly procedure, Hani Ramadan was fired from his teaching position in one of Geneva's junior high schools after he published an article in Le Mondejustifying lapidationand reasserting the superiority of divine law (the Sharia) over human laws. Geneva's state education department felt that such opinions were incompatible with his position as teacher.Fact|date=December 2007
Ramadan established the Movement of Swiss Muslims in Switzerland. He has taken part in interfaith seminars and has sat on a commission of “Islam and Secularism.” He is an advisor to the
EUon religious issues. He is widely interviewed and has produced about 100 tapes which sell tens of thousands of copies each year. [http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/012/800naxnt.asp?pg=1 The State Dept. Was Right to deny Tariq Ramadan a visa] , Olivier Guitta, " Weekly Standard", 10/16/2006, Volume 012, Issue 05] Bill Clintoninvited Ramadan to speak at a couple of events in the United States. He is an advisor to various governments, including the UK and EU, and has worked with Scotland Yardon various investigations.
In September 2005 he was invited to join a task force by the Government of the
United Kingdom. On the 6th November 2007 Tariq Ramadan became candidate for the professorship in Islamic studies at the University of Leiden[ [http://www.elsevier.nl/nieuws/wetenschap/artikel.asp?artnr=177942 "Omstreden moslimtheoloog op Leidse leerstoel"] , Elsevier.nl 6 November 2007 (Dutch)] . He is also guest professor of Identity and Citizenship at Erasmus UniversityRotterdam. [
* [http://www.tariqramadan.com www.tariqramadan.com] Tariq Ramadan's website
* [http://www.eur.nl/fsw/ramadan Homepage of prof. dr. Tariq Ramadan at the Erasmus University Rotterdam]
* [http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/1031/p01s04-woeu.html How Muslims can be European too] , article about Ramadan in
The Christian Science Monitor
* [http://www.newstatesman.com/200604100018 A case for reform] ,
* [http://memoireonline.free.fr/12/05/63/naissance-intellectuel-musulman-medias-francais_en.html Birth of the Moslem intellectual in the French media (1989-2005)] , by
Tristan Waleckx, University of Montpellier
* [http://www.redpepper.org.uk/society/x-sep05-ramadan.htm Living together: an interview with Tariq Ramadan] ,
Red Pepper (magazine)
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/04/magazine/04ramadan.t.html?pagewanted=1&th&emc=th Tariq Ramadan Has an Identity Issue] ,
New York Timesprofile.
* [http://www.time.com/time/innovators/spirituality/profile_ramadan.html Trying to Bridge A Great Divide] , Ramadan named as a "Next Wave innovator" by
* [http://www.newstatesman.com/People/200406210020 Profile - Tariq Ramadan] , by
Andrew Hussey, New Statesman] [ [http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/article_details.php?id=7571 Interview: Tariq Ramadan] , Prospect magazineinterview by Ehsan Masood
* [http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2003-09/05/article03.shtml Secularism no problem for European Muslims] , at
* [http://news.haaretz.co.il/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=168205 My fellow Muslims, we must fight anti-Semitism] ,
* [http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Scholar_says_Muslims_mistrust_the_West.html?siteSect=881&sid=7054224&cKey=1158047967000 Scholar says Muslims mistrust the West] , interview at
* [http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2004/09/04/why_exclude_a_muslim_voice/ Why exclude a Muslim voice?] ,
* [http://www.islamicamagazine.com/content/view/96/62/ Why Tariq Ramadan?]
Islamica Magazinearticle] [ [http://www.signandsight.com/features/586.html "Under suspicion"] , an article on Ramadan, at signandsight.com
* [http://www.trans-int.com/quarterly/1-islamic-reformism-and-jihad-on-the-discourse-of.html Islamic “Reformism” and Jihad: On the Discourse of Tariq Ramadan] ,
Paul Landau, adapted from chapter 8 of "Le Sabre et le Coran", translated from the French by Transatlantic Intelligencer, 2005
* [http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/012/800naxnt.asp?pg=1 "The State Department was right"]
* [http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2006/01/holy_warrior-4.html Mother Jones article on Muslim Brotherhood]
* [http://video.msn.com/v/us/msnbc.htm?g=6d0a8626-4c47-4dea-bc17-6cd0e9425aaf&f=00&fg=copy Bridging the Widening Gap between Islam & Christianity MSNBC Video]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/programmes/misc/insearchofgod.shtml Humphrys in Search of God with Tariq Ramadan (BBC)]
* [http://wanabehuman.blogspot.com/2007/01/comment-islams-reformers.html Prospect magazine article "Islam's reformers" on Wanabehuman]
* [http://leninology.blogspot.com/2007/09/frre-tariq-case-study-in-political.html "Frère Tariq: a case study in political paranoia"] ,
Lenin's Tombblog, September 15, 2007
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/06/books/review/Ramadan-t.html?ref=review&pagewanted=all "Reading the Koran"] , by Tariq Ramadan, January 6, 2008 [http://www.nytimes.com NYT] Sunday Book Review cover article]
A French television debate in 2003 with
Nicolas Sarkozy(well known for his description of rioters in poor immigrant neighborhoods as “scum”) led many people to think that Tariq was unfair on several harsh stances. Sarkozy accused Ramadan of defending the stoning of adulterers, a punishment stipulated in the section of the Islamic penal code known as huddud. Ramadan replied that Sarkozywas wrong. He said that he favored “a moratorium” on such practices but refused to condemn the law outright because it involved religious texts, which have to be properly understood and contextualised. A moratorium, Tariq argued, could pave the way for a further dilution of the process. [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/04/magazine/04ramadan.t.html?pagewanted=6&_r=1]
U.S. visa revocation
In February 2004, he accepted the tenured position of Luce professor of religion at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, at the
University of Notre Damein South Bend, Indiana, U.S.. However, in late July 2004, his visa was revoked by the State Department, and he was forced to resign the position. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64700-2004Dec14.html Lacking Visa, Islamic Scholar Resigns Post at Notre Dame] - Washington Post- Wednesday, December 15, 2004]
In September 2006, a State Department statement said: "A U.S. consular officer has denied Dr. Tariq Ramadan's visa application. The consular officer concluded that Dr. Ramadan was inadmissible based solely on his actions, which constituted providing material support to a terrorist organization." [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/24/nyregion/24scholar.html?ex=1308801600&en=7a140720abffaf89&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss Judge Orders U.S. to Decide if Muslim Scholar Can Enter] - NY Times,
24 June 2006] [ [http://www.nysun.com/article/40328 Oxford Professor Denied Visa Due to Alleged Hamas Links] - NY Sun, 26 September 2006] Between December 1998 and July 2002, Ramadan had given donations totalling $940 to two charity organizations, the "Comité de Bienfaisance et de Secours aux Palestiniens (CBSP)" and the "Association de Secours Palestinien (ASP)". [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/29/AR2006092901334.html Why I’m Banned in the USA] , Tariq Ramadan, Washington Post, October 1 2006; Page B01] The United States Treasurydesignated both the CBSP and ASP terrorist fundraising organizations for their alleged links to Hamason August 22, 2003. [ United States Treasury. Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence. Available [http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/enforcement/key-issues/protecting/charities_execorder_13224-b.shtml] Accessed 13 March 2007.] The U.S. Embassy told Ramadan that he "reasonably should have known" that the charities provided money to Hamas. In an article in The Washington Post, Ramadan asked: "How should I reasonably have known of their activities before the U.S. government itself knew ?" [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/29/AR2006092901334.html Why I’m Banned in the USA] , Tariq Ramadan, Washington Post, October 1 2006; Page B01] [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A1344-2004Sep6.html A Visa Revoked] , Washington Posteditorial] [ [http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2006-04/14/article04.shtml US Inconsistent in Denying Tariq Ramadan Visa: Judge] , at Islamonline.net] [ [http://www.alternet.org/rights/19741/ Banned in America] , by John Tirman, AlterNet]
Ramadan works primarily on
Islamic theologyand the position of Muslims in Europe. In general he believes in constantly reinterpreting the Qur'anin order to correctly understand Islamic philosophy.Fact|date=March 2008 He also emphasizes the difference between religion and culture, which he believes are too often confused. Relatedly, he thinks that citizenship and religion are two separate concepts which should not be mixed. He claims that there is no conflict between being a Muslim and a European at the same time; a Muslim must accept the laws of his country, except in rare circumstances.
He believes that European Muslims must create a "European Islam" just as there is a separate "Asian Islam" and "African Islam", which take into account cultural differences. (This is disputed by orthodox Muslims, who believe that there is only one, true Islam.Fact|date=March 2008) By this he means that European Muslims must re-examine the fundamental texts of Islam (primarily the
Qu'ran) and interpret them in light of their own cultural background, influenced by European society.
He rejects a binary separation of the world into "
dar al-Islam" (the abode of Islam) and " dar al-harb" (the abode of war), since such separation was never mentioned in the Qur'an. He been known to cite favourably " Dar al-Da'wa" (Abode of Proselytizing), in some senses. However, Ramadan has articulated both the "ideological geography" of the West and the duty of da'wa in an original fashion and one that is starkly more pro-integration than the more conservative "loyal resident alienage" articulated by such jurists as al-Qaradawi. For Ramadan, the West is neither the Abode of War nor the Abode of da'wa but "dar al-shahada," the "Abode of Testimony [to the Islamic Message] ."arguments favourly in which Muslims are "witnesses before mankind" and are forced to consider the fundamental principles of Islam and take responsibility for their faith.
Importantly, for him the "Islamic message" to which Muslims are expected to bear witness is not primarily the particularist, socially conservative code of traditionalist jurists, but a commitment to universalism and the welfare of non-Muslims; it is also an injunction not merely to make demands on un-Islamic societies but to express solidarity with them:
... the European environment is a space of responsibility for Muslims. This is exactly the meaning of the notion of "space of testimony" [dar al-shahada] that we propose here, a notion that totally reverses perspectives: whereas Muslims have, for years, been wondering whether and how they would be accepted, the in-depth study and evaluation of the Western environment entrusts them, in light of their Islamic frame of reference, with a most important mission. . . . Muslims now attain, in the space of testimony, the meaning of an essential duty and of an exacting responsibility: to contribute, wherever they are, to promoting good and equity within and through human brotherhood. Muslims' outlook must now change from the reality of "protection" alone to that of an authentic "contribution."
He emphasizes a Muslim's responsibility to his community, whether it be Islamic or not. He criticizes the 'us vs. them' mentality that some Muslims advocate against the West. He also advocates having Muslim scholars in the West who are versed in Western mores, and not relying on religious studies that come only from the Islamic world. He wants more Islamic philosophy written in European languages. He thinks that European Muslims' reliance on an "external" Islam, leaves them feeling inadequate and impure, which is one of the main causes of alienation from European culture.
He believes that most Muslims are quietly integrating quite successfully to European society. The main problems for the community arise from those who are ignorant of Western society.
He also worries about Western perceptions of Islam. He says the Muslim community has been bad at representing itself, and that has allowed westerners to confuse Islam with cultural traits, as well as political problems. For example, he believes that many notionally Islamic countries have governments which betray the principles of Islam.
He believes that the Muslim leadership in Europe is partially responsible for the sometimes shaky relations between Muslims and the rest of society. He believes that they have been overly defensive, and have not properly explained the philosophy of Islam, nor have they engaged sufficiently with non-Muslim society.
He stresses that a Muslim's
freedom of religionis very extensive in Europe, and that permission for "un-Islamic" activities, such as drinking, or pre-marital sex, does not "compel" Muslims to do anything. Only a few situations warrant the invocation of the "clause of conscience" which allows a Muslim to make it clear that certain actions or behaviours are in contradiction of their faith. These are, participating in a war whose sole desire is for power or control; fighting or killing a fellow Muslim, unless their attitude is unjust or wrong; participating in an unlawful transaction (such as purchasing insurance, burial, incorrect slaughter). He stresses that in such cases the situation should be carefully analysed, and the degree of compulsion considered. Only non-violenceand negotiation are acceptable in these cases. [Ramadan, Tariq. "To Be a European Muslim" (1999) ISBN 0-86037-300-2]
Ramadan has voiced his opposition to all forms of
capital punishmentbut believes the Muslim worldshould remove such laws from within, without any Western pressure, as such would only further alienate Muslims, and instead bolster the position of those who support hududpunishments. He has said "Muslim populations are convincing themselves of the Islamic character of these practices through a rejection of the west, on the basis of a simplistic reasoning that stipulates that 'the less western, the more Islamic"'." [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1447867,00.html We must not accept this repression The Muslim conscience demands a halt to stonings and executions] - The Guardian- Tariq Ramadan - Wednesday March 30, 2005]
Politically, Ramadan was opposed to the
2003 invasion of Iraq.
He has condemned
suicide bombingand violence as a tactic. Perhaps more importantly, he believes that terrorism is never justifiable, even though it is sometimes understandable. [http://www.salon.com/books/int/2007/02/20/ramadan/ The modern Muslim] , Steve Paulson, Salon.com- 2/20/2007]
He was opposed to the
French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools.
Ramadan wrote that the Muslim response to Pope Benedict XVI's speech on Islam was disproportionate, and was encouraged by reactionary Islamic regimes in order to distract their populations, and that it did not improve the position of Islam in the world. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/09/20/opinion/edramadan.php A struggle over Europe's religious identity] - Tariq Ramadan for the
International Herald Tribune. 20 September, 2006]
Oumma.com article controversy
Ramadan wrote an article entitled, "Les (nouveaux) intellectuels communautaires", which French newspapers "
Le Monde" and " Le Figaro" refused to publish. Oumma.comdid eventually publish it. In the article he criticizes a number of French Jewish intellectuals and figures such as Alexandre Adler, Alain Finkielkraut, Bernard-Henri Lévy, André Glucksmannand Bernard Kouchner, for allegedly abandoning universal human rights, and giving special status to the defence of Israel. He also criticized Paul Wolfowitzwhom he called a notable Zionist. [ [http://agircontrelaguerre.free.fr/article.php3?id_article=32 agircontrelaguerre.free.fr] ] Ramadan was accused, in return, of anti-semitismand having used inflammatory language. [ [http://www.denistouret.net/textes/Ramadan.html#Finkielkraut denistouret.net] ] .
Some academics have greeted his works with some enthusiasm, detecting liberalising and rationalising tendencies. [For Example: Western Muslims and the Future of Islam, By: Brown, L. Carl, Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb2005, Vol. 84, Issue 1]
Paul Donnellyat Salon.comasked rhetorically: "Tariq Ramadan: The Muslim Martin Luther?". [ [http://www.salon.com/people/feature/2002/02/15/ramadan/index_np.html Tariq Ramadan: The Muslim Martin Luther?] , Paul Donnelly, Salon.com, February 15 2002]
Others however have charged Ramadan with saying different things to different audiences; one thing to radical Islamists or young Muslims, and another to the western media or academia.
Caroline Fourestanalysed Tariq Ramadan's 15 books, 1,500 pages of interviews, and approximately 100 recordings, [ [http://www.encounterbooks.com/books/brothertariq/ Encounter Books » Brother Tariq: The Doublespeak of Tariq Ramadan ] ] [ [http://www.lexpress.fr/info/societe/dossier/mosquees/dossier.asp?ida=429895 Extracts of the book here] fr icon] and concludes "Ramadan is a war leader," and the "political heir of his grandfather," Hassan al-Banna, stating that his discourse is, "often just a repetition of the discourse that Banna had at the beginning of the 20th century in Egypt," and that he, "presents [al-Banna] as a model to be followed." She argues that "Tariq Ramadan is slippery. He says one thing to his faithful Islamist followers and something else entirely to his Western audience. His choice of words, the formulations he uses – even his tone of voice – vary, chameleon-like, according to his audience.", [ [http://www.encounterbooks.com/books/brothertariq/ Encounter Books » Brother Tariq: The Doublespeak of Tariq Ramadan ] ] Olivier Guitta, writing in The Weekly Standard, welcomed the US decision to refuse Ramadan a Visa, because Ramadan "calls Arabs ‘my brothers and sisters’ while addressing all others as ‘madam,’ ‘sir,’ or without any honorific". She further claimed that the former head of the French antiracismorganization SOS Racisme, " Malek Boutih(an Arab Muslim), told Ramadan after talking with him at length: ‘Mr. Ramadan, you are a fascist.’" In an interview with Europe 1Boutih likened him to "a small Le Pen" [http://www.crif.org/index.php?page=articles_display/detail&aid=2182&artyd=5 Enquête préliminaire sur des propos tenus par Tariq Ramadan] , Conseil Représentatif des Institutions juives de France, January 5, 2004. Malek Boutih: "Tariq Ramadan est un petit Le Penarabe" (Tariq Ramadan is a small Le Pen)] ; in another interview he accused him of having crossed the line of racism and anti-Semitism, thus not genuinely belonging to the alter-globalizationmovement. Bertrand Delanoë, Socialist mayor of Paris, declared Ramadan unfit to participate at the European Social Forum, as not even "a slight suspicion of anti-Semitism" would be tolerable. Talking to Paris weekly Marianne, Fadela Amara, president of " Ni Putes Ni Soumises" (Neither Whores Nor Submissive, a French feminist movement), Aurélie Filippetti, municipal counsellor for the The Greens in Paris, Patrick Klugman, leading member of the Conseil Représentatif des Institutions juives de Franceand Dominique Sopo, head of SOS-Racisme accuse Ramadan of having misused the alter-globalization movement's ingenuousness to advance his "radicalism and anti-Semitism." [http://www.crif.org/?page=articles_display/detail&aid=1755&returnto=articles_display/detail_th_type&thid=4&artyd=5 Delanoë: Ramadan n’a pas sa place au FSE] , Conseil Représentatif des Institutions juives de France, October 27, 2003.
*"Bertrand Delanoë, maire PS à Paris, a déclaré dimanche 26 octobre à Europe 1, que Tariq Ramadan, « n’a pas sa place » au Forum social européen. « L’idée même qu’il puisse y avoir un moindre soupçon d’antisémitisme ou de racisme est intolérable. Je dis aux organisateurs qu’il ne doivent accepter que des gens qui doivent nous faire progresser », ajoute le maire de Paris." (Bertrand Delanoë, mayor of Paris for the
Parti Socialiste, declared on Sunday, October 26 on Europe 1that Tariq Ramadan "had no place at the European Social Forum." "The idea that there could be even a slight suspicion of anti-Semitism or racism would be intolerable. I say to the organisers that they must only accept people that make us progress," added the mayor of Paris.)
*"Malek Boutih, secrétaire national du PS chargé des questions de société, a déclaré le même jour sur RTL « ne pas comprendre ce que l’intellectuel suisse fait au sein du mouvement alter mondialiste ». « Il y a une ligne jaune qui ne doit pas être franchie, c’est le racisme et l’antisémitisme », a-t-il souligné." (Malek Boutih, national secretary of the [Parti Socialiste] charged with social issues, declared the same day on RTL that he did not "understand what the Swiss intellectual would do at the center of the
alter-globalizationmovement." "There is a red line that must not be crossed, that is racism and anti-Semitism.")
*"Dans Marianne, Fadela Amara, présidente du mouvement Ni putes Ni soumises, Aurélie Filippetti, conseillère municipales (Les Verts) à Paris, Patrick Klugman, membre du Comité directeur du CRIF, Pénélope Komites, adjointe au maire de Paris, et Dominique Sopo, président de Sos-Racisme, s’adressent, dans une lettre ouverte aux altermondialistes: «Amis altermondialistes, parce que nous rêvons aussi d’un autre monde, nous voulons vous dire sans haine et sans paranoïa que l’antisémitisme existe au sein de l’altermondialisme. Tariq Ramadan a usé de l’ingénuité de l’altermondialisme pour affirmer sa radicalité et son antisémitisme. (…) On ne peut laisser cette affaire se régler comme une vulgaire diffamation entre son auteur et ceux qu’ils calomnient. L’antisémitisme, c’est le problème des autres disait Sartre. Notre problème. »" (In Marianne Fadela Amara, president of the 'Ni putes Ni soumises' movement, Aurélie Filippetti, municipal counsellor for The Greens in Paris, Patrick Klugman, member of the directing committee of
CRIF, Pénélope Komites, assistant to the mayor of Paris and Dominique Sopo, president of SOS-Racisme, addressed the alter-mondialists in an open letter: "alter-mondialist friends, we want to tell you without hatred and paranoia that anti-Semitism exists in the heart of alter-mondialism. Tarik Ramadan has take advantage of alter-mondialism's ingenuousness to assert his radicalism and anti-Semitism. [...] We can not allow this affair to be handled like a vulgar diffamation between its author on those who defame him. Anti-Semitism, that's the problem of the others, said Sartre. Our problem.")]
Ramadan vehemently denies contacts with terrorists or other Islamic fundamentalists and the charges of
anti-Semitismand double talk, who attributes the charges to misinterpretation and an unfamiliarity with his writings. [ [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20040830.wramandan30/BNPrint/Front/ What you fear is not who I am] , Tariq Ramadan, Globe and Mail, August 30 2004] He stated: "I have often been accused of this 'double discourse', and to those who say it, I say - bring the evidence. I am quite clear in what I say. The problem is that many people don't want to hear it, particularly in the media. Most of the stories about me are completely untrue: journalists simply repeat black propaganda from the internet without any corroboration, and it just confirms what they want to believe. Words are used out of context. There is double-talk, yes, but there is also double-hearing. That is what I want to challenge.""Not a Fanatic after all?" Hussey, Andrew. " New Statesman", 9/12/2005, Vol. 134 Issue 4757, p16-17. http://www.newstatesman.com/200509120007] To criticism of his response to September 11th, Ramadan replies that two days after the attacks he had published an open letter, exhorting Muslims to condemn the attacks and the attackers, and not to "hide behind conspiracy theories." [ [http://www.tariqramadan.com/article.php3?id_article=68&lang=en Scholar under siege defends his record ] ] , and that less than two weeks after the attack he had stated that “The probability [of bin Laden's guilt] is large, but some questions remain unanswered … But whoever they are, bin Laden or others, it is necessary to find them and that they be judged,” and that the interview was conducted when no evidence was publicly available. [ [http://www.islamicamagazine.com/content/view/96/62/ Islamica Magazine - Why Tariq Ramadan? ] ]
Written by Tariq Ramadan
* "In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad", 2007. ISBN 978-0195308808
* "Western Muslims and the future of Islam", 2004. ISBN 0-19-517111-X
* "To Be a European Muslim", 1999. ISBN 0-86037-300-2
* "Islam, the West, and the Challenge of Modernity", 2001. ISBN 0-86037-311-8
About Tariq Ramadan
*cite book |last=Fourest |first=Caroline |title= |publisher=
Encounter Books|location=New York |year=2008 |pages=262 pages |isbn=978-159403215-8 |oclc= |doi=
* "Faut-il faire taire Tariq Ramadan ?",
Aziz Zemouri; ISBN 2-84187-647-0
* "Frère Tariq : Discours, stratégie et méthode de Tariq Ramadan",
Caroline Fourest; ISBN 2-246-66791-7
** [http://www.lexpress.fr/formatimp/default.asp?idcontenu=429895&typecontenu=0&url=http%3A//www.lexpress.fr/info/societe/dossier/mosquees/dossier.asp%3Fida%3D429895 Frère Tariq] , Extraits exclusifs, Un livre de Caroline Fourest,
L'Express, October 18, 2004
* "Le sabre et le coran, Tariq Ramadan et les frères musulmans à la conquéte de l'Europe",
Paul Landau, 2005, ISBN 2-268-05317-2
Lionel Favrot: "Tariq Ramadan dévoilé" - hors série de Lyon Mag'.
Jack-Alain Léger, "Tartuffe fait Ramadan", Denoël, 2003,
* "À contre CORAN", livre de Jack-Alain Léger, mars 2004, collection « Hors de moi », éditions HC
* "Tariq Ramadan und die Islamisierung Europas",
Ralph Ghadban; ISBN 3-89930-150-1
* "Wie is er bang voor Tariq Ramadan?", [Paul Berman] , 2007, ISBN 9789029080637
* [http://www.tariqramadan.com/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=6 Official website]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Tariq Ramadan — (* 26. August 1962 in Genf; arabisch طارق رمضان, DMG Ṭāriq Ramaḍān) ist ein Schweizer Islamwissenschaftler und Publizist … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tariq Ramadan — Tariq Said Ramadan (nacido en agosto de 1962 en Ginebra, Suiza) es un académico suizo francófono y musulmán. Su madre, Wafa al Banna, es la hija primogénita de Hassan al Banna, fundador de los Hermanos Musulmanes en Egipto. Su padre, Said Ramadan … Wikipedia Español
Tariq Ramadan — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Ramadan (homonymie). Tariq Ramadan Activités … Wikipédia en Français
Tariq Ramadan — Tariq Said Ramadan (nacido en 1962 en Ginebra, Suiza) es a un académico e intelectual suizo francófono y musulmán … Enciclopedia Universal
Ramadan (Begriffsklärung) — Ramadan bezeichnet: Ramadan, den 9. Monat des islamischen Mondkalenders und islamischen Fastenmonat Ramadan ist der Name folgender Personen: Jasmin Ramadan (* 1974), deutsche Schriftstellerin Nahla Ramadan (* 1985), ägyptische Gewichtheberin … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tāriq — is the transliteration of an Arabic given name (or Berber), written in script as طارق.Versions* Taariq * Tarik * Tareq * Tariq * Tarek * Taric * Tarick * Tareeq * ThariqMeaningThe name Tariq from the Sufi tradition (the Tariqas orders) has three… … Wikipedia
Ramadan (Homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le Ramadan désigne le mois du calendrier islamique pendant lequel les musulmans pratiquent un jeûne rituel. Ramadan est un nom de famille notamment porté… … Wikipédia en Français
Tariq — Tarik (arabisch طارق) ist sowohl ein Substantiv als auch ein männlicher Vorname arabischen Ursprungs. Es existiert eine weibliche Form des Wortes Tarik (Tarika arabisch طارقة zu dt. kleines Bett), welche jedoch kein gebräuchlicher Vorname ist … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tariq — Tarek Tarek est un prénom. Sommaire 1 Sens et origine du nom 2 Variantes 3 Popularité du nom 4 Tarek comme nom de personne ou prénom … Wikipédia en Français
Ramadan (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le Ramadan désigne le mois du calendrier islamique pendant lequel les musulmans pratiquent un jeûne rituel. Ramadan est un nom de famille notamment porté… … Wikipédia en Français