VGA connector (DE-15/HD-15)
A female DE-15 output in a laptop computer.
Type Computer analog video connector Production history Designer IBM based on D-subminiature Designed 1987 Produced 1987 to present Superseded by DVI (1999) General specifications Video signal RGB video signal plus option H and V sync Pins 15 Connector DE-15 Data Data signal I²C data channel for DDC information Pin out A female DE15 socket (videocard side). Pin 1 RED Red video Pin 2 GREEN Green video Pin 3 BLUE Blue video Pin 4 ID2/RES formerly Monitor ID bit 2, reserved since E-DDC Pin 5 GND Ground (HSync) Pin 6 RED_RTN Red return Pin 7 GREEN_RTN Green return Pin 8 BLUE_RTN Blue return Pin 9 KEY/PWR formerly key, now +5V DC Pin 10 GND Ground (VSync, DDC) Pin 11 ID0/RES formerly Monitor ID bit 0, reserved since E-DDC Pin 12 ID1/SDA formerly Monitor ID bit 1, I²C data since DDC2 Pin 13 HSync Horizontal sync Pin 14 VSync Vertical sync Pin 15 ID3/SCL formerly Monitor ID bit 3, I²C clock since DDC2 The image and table detail the 15-pin VESA DDC2/E-DDC connector; the diagram’s pin numbering is that of a female connector functioning as the graphics adapter output. In the male connector, this pin numbering corresponds with the mirror image of the cable’s wire-and-solder side.
A Video Graphics Array (VGA) connector is a three-row 15-pin DE-15 connector. The 15-pin VGA connector is found on many video cards, computer monitors, and some high definition television sets. On laptop computers or other small devices, a mini-VGA port is sometimes used in place of the full-sized VGA connector.
DE-15 is also conventionally called RGB connector, D-sub 15, mini sub D15, mini D15, DB-15, HDB-15, HD-15 or HD15 (High Density, to distinguish it from the older and less flexible DE-9 connector used on older VGA cards, which has the same shell size but only two rows of pins).
VGA connectors and cables carry analog component RGBHV (red, green, blue, horizontal sync, vertical sync) video signals, and VESA Display Data Channel (VESA DDC) data. In the original version of DE-15 pinout, one pin was keyed and 4 pins carried Monitor ID bits which were rarely used; VESA DDC redefined some of these pins and replaced the key pin with +5 V DC power supply.
The same VGA cable can be used with a variety of supported VGA resolutions, ranging from 640×400px @70 Hz (24 MHz of signal bandwidth) to 1280×1024px @85 Hz (160 MHz) and up to 2048×1536px @85 Hz (388 MHz). There are no standards defining the quality required for each resolution, but higher-quality cables typically contain coaxial wiring and insulation which make them thicker. A quality cable should not suffer from signal crosstalk which occurs when the signals in one wire induce unwanted currents in adjacent wires, ghosting which occurs when impedance mismatches cause signals to be reflected (note that ghosting with long cables may not be the fault of the cable but may instead be caused by equipment with incorrect termination or by use of passive splitters), and other signal degradation effects; shorter VGA cables are less likely to introduce significant degradation. Some higher-end monitors and video cards featured 5 separate BNC connectors for RGBHV signal, allowing highest quality connection using five 75 ohm coaxial cables.
HDMI/DVI to VGA adapters do not carry the audio channel. Separate audio cables are used.
- Display Data Channel (DDC)
- Extended display identification data (EDID)
- Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA)
- Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA)
- Component video
- List of video connectors
Audio and video connectors Single conductor audio Analog audio Digital audio Video Audio and Video Visual charts
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