Beta-carotene


Beta-carotene

Chembox new
ImageFile=Beta-carotene-2D-skeletal.pngImageSize= 250px
ImageFile2=BetaCarotene-3d.pngImageSize2= 250px
IUPACName=1,3,3-trimethyl-2- [(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,
13E,15E,17E)-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-18-(2,
6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-octadeca-
1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaenyl] cyclohexene

OtherNames=
Section1= Chembox Identifiers
CASNo=7235-40-7
PubChem=5280489
SMILES=CC1=C(C(CCC1)(C)C)C=CC(=CC=CC(=CC=CC=C
(C)C=CC=C(C)C=CC2=C(CCCC2(C)C)C)C)C

Section2= Chembox Properties
Formula=C40H56
MolarMass=536.873
Appearance= red-purple
Density=0.941 ± 0.06 g/cm3
MeltingPt=180-182
BoilingPt=
Solubility=insol in water, sol. in CHCl3

Section3= Chembox Hazards
MainHazards=
FlashPt=
Autoignition=

Beta-carotene is an organic compound - a terpenoid, a red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. As a carotene with β-rings at both ends, it is the most common form of carotene. It is a precursor (inactive form) of vitamin A.cite journal
title = Vitamin A in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology
author = Susan D. Van Arnum
publisher = John Wiley
location = New York
issue = 45
pages =99–107
year = 1998
url =
doi = 10.1002/0471238961.2209200101181421.a01
] Being highly conjugated, it is deeply colored, and as a hydrocarbon lacking functional groups, it is very lipophilic.

The structure was deduced by Karrer et al. [cite journal
title = Pflanzenfarbstoffe XXV. Über die Konstitution des Lycopins und Carotins
author = P. Karrer, A. Helfenstein, H. Wehrli, A. Wettstein
journal = Helvetica Chimica Acta
volume = 13
issue =
pages = 1084–1099
year = 1930
url =
doi = 10.1002/hlca.19300130532
] In nature, β-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A via the action of β-carotene dioxygenase. β-carotene is also the substance in carrots that colours them orange. β-Carotenoid is biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.

Plant carotenoids are the primary dietary source of vitamin A worldwide. The most efficient pro-vitamin A carotenoid is beta-carotene, which is abundant in Vietnam Gac (Momordica Cochinchinensis Spreng), crude palm oil, yellow and orange fruits, such as mangoes, papayas, and yams and in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale, sweet potato leaves, and sweet gourd leaves. Vietnam gac and crude palm oil have by far the highest content of β-carotene of any known fruit or vegetable, 10 times higher than carrots for example. Unfortunately, Gac is quite rare and unknown outside its native region of SE Asia, and crude palm oil is typically processed to remove the cartenoids before sale to improve the color and clarity.

ee also

* lutein

References

External links

*
* [http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=153965 USDA Webpage on β-carotene Content of Gac] - Fatty Acids and Carotenoids in Gac (Momordica Cochinchinensis Spreng) Fruit.


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