:"For the ant spider genus, see
Tenedos (genus). For the 19th century fort in Zululand, see Fort Tenedos"Infobox Settlement
settlement_type = Town
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = TUR
official_name = Bozcaada
subdivision_name1 = Marmara
subdivision_name2 = Çanakkale
population_total = 2427
population_as_of = 2000
population_footnotes = [http://www.bozcaada.gov.tr/eng/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=48&Itemid=30]
population_density_km2 = 65
area_total_km2 = 37.6
area_footnotes= [including the 17 islets of various sizes surrounding it]
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Tenedos (Bozcaada) within Turkey.
latNS = N
longEW = E
postal_code = 17x xx
area_code = 0286
blank_info = 17 |blank_name=Licence plate
leader_name = Mustafa Mutay (
website = [http://www.bozcaada.gov.tr/eng/index.php]
Tenedos, officially referred to as Bozcaada in Turkey ( _tr. Bozcaada or Bozca ada, _gr. Τένεδος, "Tenedhos") is a small island in the
Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. Bozcaada/Tenedos has a population of about 2,500. The main industries are fishing and tourism. The island has been famous for its grapes, wines and red poppies for centuries. The population is mostly Turkish but there are still about 30 ethnic Greeks on the island.
Bozcaada is roughly triangular shaped. Its area is convert|39|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on|lk=on. [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Bozcaada.html Bozcaada - Encyclopedia.com ] ] It is surrounded by small islets. It is situated close to the entrance of
Tenedos was already an established sanctuary of
Apolloin the eighth century BC, as shown by the Homeric formula for the god: "Lord Supreme of Tenedos" (" Iliad" I).
Greek mythology, the name "Tenedos" is derived from the eponymous hero Tenes, who ruled the island at the time of the Trojan Warand was killed by Achilles; Philocteteswas abandoned on Tenedos. In Virgil's " Aeneid", Tenedos is described as the island in whose bay the Achaeanshid their fleet near the end of the Trojan War in order to trick the Trojans into believing the war was over and allowing the Trojans to take the Trojan Horsewithin their city walls.
In ancient Greek history, there was an Aeolian settlement on Tenedos; it was conquered by Persian Empire, there was a naval battle between C. Valerius Triarius and
Mithridates' fleet off the island. In Pausanias' time, Tenedos was subject to Alexandria Troas. Athenaeusremarks on the beauty of the women of Tenedos, and on its marjoram; Pindaralso loved Theoxenus of Tenedos. [Athenaeus, " Deipnosophistae" 13, 609-10; 1, 28. LCLVol VI, 285-7; I, 123. Marjoram is Prof. Gulick's version of "origanon". Theoxenus, and the lyric of Pindar, are at 13, 601 (VI, 239-241)]
Late middle ages
During the civil war between the Byzantine Emperors
John V Palaeologusand his father-in-law John Cantacuzene, or John VI, John V took refuge on Tenedos during the winter of 1352-3, when Cantacuzene held most of the rest of the Empire, or what was left of it. John V won the war in 1354, and spent most of the rest of his long reign begging from the West.
In 1362, the
Venetiansoffered to pay the Emperor's debts and lead an alliance against the Turks in exchange for Tenedos, but John V refused to cede the island which had been loyal to him. In 1370, however, he travelled to Italy to appeal to the Pope and Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy; he found himself broke in Venice, and agreed to cede Tenedos this time, in exchange for his debts, more money, and the Byzantine crown jewels, which had already been pledged; but his eldest son, Andronicus, regent in Constantinople during his absence, refused to give up the island. His second son, Manuel, paid off his creditors next year.
In 1376, this time from Constantinople, John V sold Tenedos to the Venetians again; in the meantime Andronicus had rebelled against his father and been defeated, imprisoned, and blinded in one eye. The
Genoesefreed Andronicus, and he deposed his father this time, becoming Andronicus IV; he then sold Tenedos to the Genoese. The garrison of Tenedos refused to go along with this, and sold Tenedos to the Venetians. This provoked the War of Chioggiabetween John V and Venetians, on one side, and Andronicus and the Genoese on the other.
The war ended in a draw, in 1381; John was to be Emperor, and Andronicus his heir.
Pope Urban VImediated between the two cities, and decided that Tenedos would belong to neither, but be laid waste; [The preceding part of this section is all from Warren Treadgold, "A History of the Byzantine State and Society", Stanford, 1997, pp. 776-781] 4000 Greek islanders from Tenedos were resettled in Creteand Euboea. [ For the islanders, see [http://www.doaks.org/Crusades/CR12.pdf here] ] The Spanish traveller Clavijo visited the island in 1401, and wrote that it was deserted, but he found many vineyards, fruit trees, rabbits and the ruins of a great castle. [ [http://www.gardenvisit.com/travel/clavijo/turkishcoast.htm] ] Another Spanish traveller, Pero Tafur, visited the island in 1437 and found it deserted, with many rabbits, the vineyards covering the island still uncultivated, but the port well-maintained. He mentions frequent Turkish attacks on shipping in the harbor, now that the Castle no longer existed. [ [http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG0832/_P20.HTM History of the Byzantine empire: text - IntraText CT ] ]
In the middle of 15th century, during the reign of
Mehmet II, the Ottoman navy used the island as a supply base. The Venetians, realizing the strategic importance of island, deployed forces on it. In 1464, Ottoman Admiral Mahmud Pasha recaptured the island. During the Ottoman regime, the island was repopulated (by granting a tax exemption) and reengaged with its traditional economic activities. Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebiwrote in the 16th century that the finest wines in the world were being produced in Bozcaada. [ [http://www.tenedos-ege.com/eng_grape_wine.htm Tenedos - Bozcaada - Grape & Wine ] ] Ottomans rebuilt the castle as well. "Bozcaada", the name of the island in Turkish, is attested from the 16th century map of Piri Reis.
The Venetians were able to control the island for a brief period once more. After the
Battle of the Dardanellesin 1657, the Ottoman Empiretook it back. In the 19th century Russians repeatedly captured Bozcaada during the Russo-Turkish Warsand they used it as their military base to achieve the victories at the Dardanelles and Athos; but they could not hold it.
The Ottomans adopted the Byzantine practice of using islands as places for the internal exile of state prisoners, such as
Between Turkey and Greece
The island is close to
Anatolia(the Asian mainland), and it had been ethnically divided between Greeks and Turks since the 14th century. The division was more or less equal when counts were taken.Fact|date=November 2007
Because of their strategic position near the
Dardanelles, the western powers, particularly Britain, insisted at the end of the Balkan Warsin 1913 that the islands of Tenedos and Imbrosshould be retained by the Ottoman Empirewhen the other Aegean islands were ceded to Greece.Fact|date=November 2007
In 1920, following the WWI, the
Treaty of Sèvreswith the defeated Ottoman Empiregranted the island to Greece, who joined the war in Allies' side in May 1917. The Ottoman government, which signed but did not ratify the treaty, was overthrown by the new Turkish Government of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, based in Ankara, which was not party to the treaty. After the Turkish War of Independenceended in Greek defeat in Anatolia, and the fall of Lloyd Georgeand his Middle Eastern policies, the western powers agreed to the Treaty of Lausannewith the new Turkish Republic, in 1923. This treaty made Tenedos and Imbrospart of Turkey; and it guaranteed a special autonomous administrative status there to accommodate the Greeks, and excluded them from the population exchange that took place between Greece and Turkey, due to their presence there as a majority. The treaty also provided for the rights of Greeks remaining in Turkey, and declared such rights fundamental laws unalterable by Turkish law or administrative decree, an international matter, to be amended only with the consent of a majority of the Council of the League of Nations.
However shortly after the Civil Law legislation of 17 February 1926 (Medeni Kanun), the rights accorded to minorities in Turkey were revoked, in violation of the
Lausanne Treaty. [ [http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918p/lausanne.html Treaty of Lausanne] §37, 44; For the revocation, see "Struggle for Justice". ]
The Greek population
In all likelihood, the island was inhabited primarily by ethnic Greeks from ancient times through to around the middle of the twentieth century except for a hiatus of nearly half a century at the end of 14th - beginning of 15th century after Venetians evacuated it. Because precise census records are a recent phenomenon, the detailed historic ethnic makeup of the islands must remain a matter of conjecture; however, a census taken under Greek rule in 1922 showed a bare majority of Greek inhabitants on Tenedos.Fact|date=February 2007 The
Greek Orthodox Churchhad a strong presence on the island.
Article 14 of the
Treaty of Lausanne(1923) exempted Imbros and Tenedos from the large-scale population exchange that took place between Greece and Turkey, and required Turkey to accommodate the local Greek majority and their rights. Specifically:
The islands of Imbros and Tenedos, remaining under Turkish sovereignty, shall enjoy a special administrative organisation composed of local elements and furnishing every guarantee for the native non-Moslem population in so far as concerns local administration and the protection of persons and property. The maintenance of order will be assured therein by a police force recruited from amongst the local population by the local administration above provided for and placed under its orders.
Subsequently, the islands were to be largely autonomous and self-governing, with their own police force. Turkish policy consistently undermined both the spirit and letter of this commitment: Schools were required to teach exclusively in Turkish, and the local Greek population was marginalized in multiple ways.
Large numbers of mainland Turks were settled on the two islands, and Greek property was expropriated by the Turkish government, which asserted security concerns. The adequacy of the compensation is disputed. Guarantees that were made to all the Greek inhabitants of Turkey in the
Treaty of Lausannewere ignored, and the Turkish government implemented a policy of intimidation.
Cyprus disputebetween Greece and Turkey escalated in the 1960s, the situation of the Greeks of the two islands continually deteriorated. These events have led to the Greeks emigrating from both islands. There remains only a very small Greek community on Tenedos today, comprising several dozen mostly elderly people. Most of the former Greeks of Imbros and Tenedos are in diasporain Greece, the United States, and Australia. ["Struggle for Justice", "passim".]
Traditional economical activities are fishing and wine production. Most of the cultivated lands are covered with vineyards. Grape harvest festivities are held on 26-27 July.
Tourism was an important activity since 1970's but it developed rapidly from 1990's onwards. Long and fine beaches and the historical town of the island attract Turkish and foreign tourists. Residents hire parts of their houses as pensions. There also are small hotels.
Red poppies of the island are used to produce small quantities of sharbat and jam.
In year 2000, a
wind farmof 17 turbines was erected at the western cape. It produces 10.2 MW energy, much more than the need of island. Excess power is transferred to mainland Anatolia.
*Bozcaada is the only rural district ("ilçe") of Turkey without any villages. It has only one major settlement, Bozcaada town center.
*One well known islander born in the modern times is 19th century Ottoman Naval Minister
Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Pasha, who founded the Naval Museum of Istanbul, built a library and a mosque and a hammamfor women in that city. [ [http://www.librijournal.org/pdf/2004-4pp247-255.pdf] , [http://www.eyuprehberi.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=49] ]
*"Oxford Classical Dictionary" "s." "Tenedos"
*Loeb Classical Library
*"The struggle for justice : 1923-1993 : 70 years of Turkish provocation and violations of the Treaty of Lausanne : a chronicle of human rights violations"; Citizen’s Association of Constantinople-Imvros-Tenedos-Eastern Thrace of Thrace. Komotini (1993)
* [http://chicago.agrino.org/turkish_pogrom_against_the_greeks.htm Website on the misfortunes of the Greeks.] While tendentious, the section (in the middle of the page) about the islands is not strident, and asserts several matters of fact.
* [http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918p/lausanne.html Text of the Treaty of Lausanne] .
* [http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/asie/turquie_imbros.htm Les îles d'Imbros et de Tenedos] fr icon Source for population.
*Homer - The Iliad - Book XIII - Reference is made to a cavern located between the rocky isles of Imbros and Tenedos supposedly the home of the God Poseidon
* [http://www.gardenvisit.com/travel/clavijo/turkishcoast.htm Travels of Spanish Ambassador Clavijo]
* [http://www.doaks.org/Crusades/CR12.pdf The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World] by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh.
* [http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG0832/_P20.HTM Account of Spanish traveller Pero Tafur in 1437]
* [http://www.katolsk.no/utenriks/kronologi/greece.htm Norwegian source on the island being abandoned in 15th century.]
* [http://www.capurromrc.it/mappe/!011594darda.html Bozcaada map by]
Piri Reis. It has to be flipped for correct orientation.
* [http://www.tenedos-ege.com/eng_grape_wine.htm Account of Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi about the wines of Bozcaada]
* [http://www.demirerholding.com/bores/bores.html Bores windfarm]
Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Sèvres
* Mother Land, a memoir about Tenedos by Dmetri Kakmi, Giramondo Publishing, Australia, 2008
* [http://wikitravel.org/en/Bozcaada Wikitravel article on Bozcaada]
* [http://www.bozcaada.gov.tr Bozcaada government site]
* [http://www.bozcaadamuzesi.com/index_eng.htm Local History Research Center]
* [http://www.canakkale.gov.tr/eng_bozcaada.htm Government web site about the island]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Tenedos — • A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Tenedos Tenedos † … Catholic encyclopedia
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Tenedos — ist der griechische Name der türkischen Insel Bozcaada, eine Gattung der Webspinnen, siehe Tenedos (Spinne). Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tenĕdos — Tenĕdos, 1) Insel im Ägäischen Meer, zum türkischen Ejalet Dschesair gehörig, an der Küste von Troas gelegen, bes. berühmt durch Wein, Töpferwaaren u. durchstrenge Gesetze hinsichtlich des Ehebruches, dessen Überwiesene wurden mit dem Beile… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Tenĕdos — Tenĕdos, griech. Insel im Ägäischen Meer (s. Karte »Griechenland«), an der Küste der Landschaft Troas, war berühmt im Altertum wegen der Rolle, die sie im Trojanischen Kriege spielte. Sie stand unter der Herrschaft erst der Perser, dann der… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Tenedos — Tenĕdos, türk. Bogdscha Adassi, Insel im Ägäischen Meer, an der Küste von Troas, südl. vom Eingang in die Dardanellenstraße, türk. Wilajet Dschesairi Bahri Sefid, 42 qkm, 4140 E.; Hauptstadt T., Handel. Hier Seekrieg der Griechen über die Türken… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Tenedos — Tenedos, türk. Bogdscha Adassi, 2 etc. St. lange, 1 St. breite Insel, wenige Meilen vor dem Eingang der Dardanellenstraße gelegen, deßwegen von jeher ein wichtiger Punkt, ist gebirgig, aber fruchtbar an Muskatwein u. Südfrüchten, hat 7000 E.,… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Tenedos — [ten′ə däs΄] ancient name for BOZCAADA … English World dictionary