Architecture of Australia
Architecture in Australia, at least in the early stages of the country's history shows the substantial influence of that of English architecture, and to an extent United States architecture. At best, Australian architects sought to be early adopters of imported styles and to put local interpretations on them. Contemporary Australian architecture post
World War IIreflects the multiculturalismof Australian society and an emerging identity as a melting pot of ideas.
thumb|right|A 19th century engraving of an indigenous Australian encampment, representing the indigenous mode of life in the cooler parts of Australia before the arrival of Europeans
In the period before
european settlement of Australiain 1788, evidence of permanent structures built by Indigenous Australiansin Australia is limited, much of what they built was temporary for housing and other needs. As a British colony, the first European buildings were derivative of the European fashions of the time. Tents and wattle and daubhuts preceded more substantial structures. Georgian architectureis seen in early government buildings and the homes of the wealthy. With the Australian gold rushesof the mid-19th century major buildings, largely in Sydneyand Melbourneand to a lesser extent in regional capitals such as Ballarat and Bendigo were built in the style of Victorian architecture. Other significant architectural movements in Australian architecture include the Federation style of the turn of the 20th century, which Australia began to play with the idea of a "style of our own", and the modern styles of the late 20th century which sought to reject historicism. Walter Burley Griffinwas an American architectand landscape architect who played a key role in designing Canberra, Australia's capital city. A legacy of his unique building designs remains in a small number of Melbourne buildings and the Sydney suburb of Castlecrag. Castlecrag was planned by Griffin and also features a number of houses designed in the organic Modernist style he developed after the Prairie Schoolarchitecture that marked his earlier career in the United States. The simple, flat-roofed cottages that Griffin built in Canberra used his innovative, patented techniques for concreteconstruction.
Like elsewhere in the world, socio-political factors have played their roles in shaping Australian architecture. During the early 20th Century, cities across Australia had placed building height limits, typically 150 feet (45 m), thus hampering the development of American-style
skyscrapers until the limits were lifted in the late 1950s. Likewise the popular notion of the " Australian Dream", in which families seek to own their free-standing houses with backyards, meant that high-density housings were rare in Australia until the end of the 20th Century.
Significant concern was raised during the 1960s, with
green bans and heritage concerns responding to the destruction of earlier buildings and the skyscraper boom, particularly in Sydney. Green bans helped to protect historic eighteenth century buildings in The Rocksfrom being demolished to make way for office towers, and prevented the Royal Botanic Gardens from being turned into a carpark for the Sydney Opera House. In Melbourne a battle was fought to preserve historic Carlton, Victoriafrom slum reclamation for public housing, while gentrificationplayed a big part in the suburb's salvation.
In the 21st century, many Australian architects have taken a more
Avant-gardeapproach to design, and many buildings have emerged that are truly unique and reflective of Australia's culture and values. As a result, many Australian practices are beginning to expand their influence overseas rather than the reverse which was often the case.
Australian architectural styles
Architectural styles have been basically exotic and derivative. Only recently have
climateand environment played a major role.
During the nineteenth century, Australian architects were inspired by developments in
England. From the 1930s on, North American and International influences started to appear.
There are 2 main categories: "Residential" and "Non-Residential". Residential styles are the most prolific and account for the majority of the buildings constructed in Australia.
Buildings were often heavily influenced by the origins of their patrons, hence while the British would like to be reminded of their Gothic churches and Tudoresque cottages of a perfect
England, the Dutch, German, Polish, Greek, Italian and other nationalities would also attempt to recreate the architecture of their homelands.
seealso|Australian residential architectural styles (30,000 BCE - present)seealso|Australian non-residential architectural styles (1788 - present)
Significant architects include:
John James Clark
Significant firms include:
Denton Corker Marshall
There are many notable structures, of particular importance are:
Sydney Opera House(the original design being by Jorn Utzon)
Royal Exhibition Buildingin Melbourne
Federation Square, Melbourne
Parliament House, Canberra.
* [http://www.australian-architects.com/ Australian Architects under World Architects www.world-architects.com]
* [http://www.architecture.com.au/ Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA)]
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Australian_Architecture Gallery of Australian Architecture]
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Federation_Architecture_of_Australia Gallery of Federation Architecture]
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Architecture Gallery of Sydney Architecture]
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