A barograph is a recording
aneroid barometer. It produces a paper or foil chart called a barogram that records the barometric pressureover time.
Barographs use one or more aneroid cells acting through a gear or lever train to drive a recording arm that has at its extreme end either a scribe or a pen. A scribe records on smoked foil while a pen records on paper using ink, held in a knib. The recording material is mounted on a cylindrical drum which is rotated slowly by
clockwork. Commonly, the drum makes one revolution per day, per week, or per monthand the rotation rate can often be selected by the user.
Because the amount of movement that can be generated by a single aneroid is minuscule, up to seven aneroids (so called Vidie-cans) are often stacked "in series" to amplify their motion. It was invented in 1843 by the Frenchman
As atmospheric pressure responds in a predictable manner to changes in altitude, barographs may be used to record elevation changes during an aircraft flight. Barographs were required by the FAI to record certain tasks and record attempts associated with
sailplanes. A continuously varying trace indicated that the sailplane had not landed during a task, while measurements from a calibrated trace could be used to establish the completion of altitude tasks or the setting of records. Examples of FAI approved sailplane barographs included the Replogle mechanical drum barograph and the EW electronic barograph (which may be used in conjunction with GPS). Mechanical barographs are not commonly used for flight documentation now, having been displaced by GNSS Flight Recorders.
Nowadays, mechanical recording barographs for meteorlogical use have commonly been superseded (though not all) by electronic weather instruments that use
computermethods to record the barometric pressure. These are not only less expensive than mechanical barographs but they may also offer both greater recording length and the ability to perform further data analysison the captured data including automated use of the data to forecast the weather. Older Mechanical Barographs are highly prized by collectors as they make good display items, often being made of high quality woods and brass.
The most common weather Barograph found in homes and public buildings these days are the 8-day type. Some important manufacturers of Barographs are
Negretti and Zambra, Short and Mason, and Richard Ferris among others. The late Victorian to early 20th century is generally considered to be the heyday of Barograph manufacture, many important refinments were made at this time, including improved temperature compensation and modification of the pen arm, to allow less weight to be applied to the paper, allowing better registration of small pressure changes (i.e Less frictionon the knib). Marine barographs (used on ships) often include damping, this evens out the motion of the ship so that a more stable reading can be obtained, this can be either oil damping of the mechanism or simple coiled spring feet on the base.
On the top right of the picture of the three day barograph can be seen a silver knurled knob. This is to adjust the barograph so that it correctly reflects the station pressure. Barely visible below the knob is a small silver plunger. This is pressed every three hours to leave a time mark on the paper.
The line between two of these marks is called the 'characteristic of barometric tendency' and is used by
weather forecasters. The observer would first note if the pressure was lower or higher than three hours prior. Next, a code number would be chosen that best represents the three hour trace. There are nine possible choices (0 to 8) and no single code has preference over another. In the case of the graph on the barograph, one of two codes could be picked. An 8 (steady then decreasing) or 6 (decreasing then steady). The observer should pick the 6 because it represents the last part of the trace and is thus most representative of the pressure change.
In the bottom centre is the aneroid (large circular silver object). As the pressure increases the aneroid is pushed down causing the arm to move up and leave a trace on the paper. As the pressure decreases the spring lifts the aneroid and the arm moves down.
After three days the drum to which the graph is attached is removed. At this point the clockwork motor is wound and if necessary corrections can be made to increase or decrease the speed and new chart is attached.
Images of barographs
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Barograph — Bar o*graph (b[.a]*r[=o] k[ o]), n. [Gr. ba ros weight + graph.] (Meteor.) An instrument for recording automatically the variations of atmospheric pressure. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Barograph — (griech.), ein selbstaufzeichnendes Barometer, s. Meteorologische Registrierapparate … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Barograph — Barograph, Registrierapparat für den Luftdruck, der diesen in gewissen Zeiträumen oder kontinuierlich aufzeichnet, bedient sich entweder des Quecksilberbarometers oder der Aneroidbarometer. Die Mängel dieser Instrumente haften auch den… … Lexikon der gesamten Technik
Barograph — Barogrāph (grch.), s.v.w. Barometrograph (s. Barometer) … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
barograph — ► NOUN ▪ a barometer that records its readings on a moving chart … English terms dictionary
barograph — [bar′əgraf΄] n. a barometer that records changes in atmospheric pressure on a revolving cylinder barographic adj … English World dictionary
Barograph — Barogramm eines Sturmtiefs (Nordseeküste Deutschland 2005) Tagesgang des Luftdrucks in … Deutsch Wikipedia
Barograph — barografas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. barograph vok. Barograph, m rus. барограф, m pranc. barograph, m; baromètre enregistreur, m … Automatikos terminų žodynas
Barograph — barografas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Įtaisas, automatiškai užrašantis atmosferos slėgį ir jo pokyčius. atitikmenys: angl. barograph vok. Barograph, m rus. барограф, m pranc. barographe, m … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
Barograph — barografas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. barograph vok. Barograph, m rus. барограф, m pranc. barographe, m; baromètre enregistreur, m … Fizikos terminų žodynas