- Tripartite Pact
name = Tripartite Pact
image_width = 300px
caption = Tripartite Pact signing. Seated on the left starting with Saburo Kurusu, Galeazzo Ciano and Adolf Hitler.
September 27, 1940
parties = flagicon|Germany|Nazi Germany flag|Empire of Japan|name=Japan flagicon|Italy|1861 Italy ----
flagicon|Hungary|1940 Hungary flagicon|Romania Romania flagicon|Slovakia|1938 Slovakia flagicon|Bulgaria Bulgaria flagicon|Yugoslavia|kingdom Yugoslavia (for 2 days) flagicon|Croatia|1941 Croatia
wikisource = Tripartite Pact"The
Tripartite Treaty (1906)also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nileriver (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin.) "
The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a
pactsigned in Berlin, Germanyon September 27 1940by Saburo Kurusuof Italy, Adolf Hitlerof Germany, and Galeazzo Ciano(foreign minister) of Italy entering as a military allianceand officially founding the Axis Powersof World War IIthat opposed the Allied Powers.
Background and the agreement
The agreement formalized the Axis Powers' partnership, and can be read as a warning to the
United Statesto remain neutral in World War II — or become involved in a war on two fronts.Fact|date=May 2007
The pact the three nations agreed that for the next ten years they would "stand by and co-operate with one another in... their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things... to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned." They recognized each other's spheres of interest and undertook "to assist one another with all political, economic and military means when one of the three contracting powers is attacked" by a country not already involved in the war, excluding the
The pact supplemented the previous
German-Japanese Agreementand the Anti-Comintern Pact, both of 1936 and helped overcome the rift that had developed between Japan and Germany following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pactsigned by Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939.
The Tripartite Pact was subsequently joined by Hungary (
November 20, 1940), by Romania( November 23, 1940), by Slovakia ( November 24, 1940), by Bulgaria( March 1, 1941, prior to the arrival of German troops), by Yugoslavia( March 25, 1941) and by Croatia ( June 15, 1941).
Text of the pact
cquote|The Tripartite Pact between Japan, Germany, and Italy, 1940
The Governments of Japan, Germany, and Italy consider it the prerequisite of a lasting peace that every nation in the world shall receive the space to which it is entitled. They have, therefore, decided to stand by and cooperate with one another in their efforts in the regions of Europe and Greater East Asia respectively. In doing this it is their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things, calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned. It is, furthermore, the desire of the three Governments to extend cooperation to nations in other spheres of the world that are inclined to direct their efforts along lines similar to their own for the purpose of realizing their ultimate object, world peace. Accordingly, the Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy have agreed as follows:
ARTICLE 1. Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe.
ARTICLE 2. Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in Greater East Asia.
ARTICLE 3. Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to cooperate in their efforts on aforesaid lines. They further undertake to assist one another with all political, economic and military means if one of the Contracting Powers is attacked by a Power at present not involved in the European War or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict.
ARTICLE 4. With a view to implementing the present pact, joint technical commissions, to be appointed by the respective Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy, will meet without delay.
ARTICLE 5. Japan, Germany and Italy affirm that the above agreement affects in no way the political status existing at present between each of the three Contracting Powers and Soviet Russia.
ARTICLE 6. The present pact shall become valid immediately upon signature and shall remain in force ten years from the date on which it becomes effective. In due time, before the expiration of said term, the High Contracting Parties shall, at the request of any one of them, enter into negotiations for its renewal.
Austro-Hungarian Empirehad sided with Imperial Germanyduring World War Iand had collapsed following the defeat by the Allies. Following the Treaty of Trianon, the Kingdom of Hungary was reduced greatly in size and this caused much resentment. In order to assuage this resentment, Germany and Italy implemented the Vienna Awardsin 1938 and 1940 and this was subsequently followed by Hungary joining the Tripartite Pact in November 1940. Collusion was further heightened when the Fascist Arrow Cross Partylater came to power.
Kingdom of Romaniahad joined the Allied Powers in World War I and had received Transylvaniafrom Austro-Hungary. After Germany and Italy awarded parts of Transylvania back to Hungary and southern Dobrujaback to Bulgaria and after the Soviet Unionhad taken Bessarabia, the Fascist Iron Guardparty came to power and Romania joined the Tripartite Pact on November 23, 1940. This was partly due to the Romanian desire for protection against the Soviet Union.
14 March 1939, after the Munich Agreement, the Slovak Republic was formed from a portion of the dismembered Czechoslovakia. Hitler invited Monsignor Jozef Tisoto be the new nation's leader. Soon after it was formed, Sovakia was involved in a war with neighboring Hungary. Although Slovakia had signed a "Protection Treaty" with Nazi Germany, Germany refused to help Slovakia in direct violation of that treaty. The war resulted in territorial gains by Hungary at Slovakia's expense. Even so, Slovakia supported the German invasion of Poland. Slovakia joined the Tripartite Pact on 24 November 1940.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria had been on the losing side in World War I, losing territory to Serbia and
Greece. During World War II, Germany needed military access through Bulgaria in order to attack Greece. Adolf Hitler promised the Bulgarian Tsar Boris III that Bulgaria would receive all the territory she had lost in return for Bulgaria joining the Axis. Boris agreed and signed the Pact on March 1, 1941.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
March 25 1941in Vienna, Prince Paul "(Pavle)", Regentof the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, signed the Tripartite Pact, which was declared defunct only two days later. It was not easy for Hitler to gain Yugoslavia's cooperation. There were strong anti-German feelings in the country, especially among the dominant Serbian population. On March 27, the regime was overthrown by a military coup d'étatwith British support, and the 18 year old King Peter II of Yugoslaviaseized power. General Dušan Simović became Peter's Prime Minister and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia withdrew from the pact with the Axis.
The initial agreement of the document was only regarding Yugoslavia's acceptance of the free movement of German troops around the country, but Serbia declined, this was unsatisfactory to the
FührerFact|date=January 2008, and resulted in the invasion of Yugoslavia.
Operation Barbarossa, the Germans simultaneously attacked Yugoslavia and Greece. Starting on April 6, the German Air Force (" Luftwaffe") bombed Belgradefor three days and nights. German ground troops (" Wehrmacht Heer") moved in, and Yugoslavia capitulated on April 17.
Independent State of Croatia("Nezavisna Država Hrvatska", or NDH) was declared to be a member of the Axis on 10 April 1941and joined the Tripartite Pact on June 15, 1941.
Other nations involved
Just prior to the formation of Tripartite Pact, the Soviet Union was informed of its existence, and the potential of its joining.Weinberg, Gerhard L. "A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II", pg. 199]
Vyacheslav Molotovwas thus sent to Berlin to discuss the pact and the possibility of the Soviet Union joining it.
For the Soviets, they considered joining the Tripartite Pact to be an update of existing agreements with Germany. On Molotov's visit, he agreed in principle to the Soviet Union joining the pact so long as some details, such as Soviet annexation of Finland, could be worked out.Weinberg, Gerhard L. "A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II", pg. 200] The Soviet government sent a revised version of the pact to Germany on November 25.Weinberg, Gerhard L. "A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II", pg. 200] To demonstrate the benefits of partnership, the Soviet Union made large economic offerings to Germany.Weinberg, Gerhard L. "A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II", pg. 201]
Regardless of the talks however, the Germans had no intention of allowing the Soviets to join the pact. They were already in the preparation stages for their invasion of the Soviet Union and were committed to doing so regardless of any action the Soviets took.When they received the Soviet offer in November, they simply did not reply. They did, however, accept the new economic offerings, and signed an agreement for such on January 10, 1941.Weinberg, Gerhard L. "A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II", pg. 202]
End of the Pact
The Kingdom of Italy surrendered to the
Western Alliesin 1943, marking the beginning of the end for the Tripartite Pact. While dictator Benito Mussolini's Italian Social Republic("Repubblica Sociale Italiana", or RSI) continued to maintain its alliance with Germany until the end of the war, the RSI was never more than a puppet state. In 1944, both Bulgaria and Romania changed sides and became military allies of the Soviet Union. After the Slovak National Uprisingin mid- 1944, the Germans ended what little was left of the independence of Slovakia. Hungary was the last "minor" member of the pact aside from the big two (Germany and Japan). But, by early April 1945, Hungary was completely overrun and its pro-German dictator Ferenc Szálasiand his Fascistgovernment were forced to flee. While technically still in operation until Japan's surrender, the quelling of Germany brought an end to any effective meaning of the treaty.
Pact of Steel
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/triparti.htm The text of the Tripartite Pact]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0dL7SiosIE&feature=related Youtube: The signing of the Tripatite Pact]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hU-tx0lKt4E&feature=related Youtube: Japanese Ambassador visits Berlin]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Tripartite Pact — Three Power Pact, agreement made in 1940 that formed the military alliance between Japan Germany and Italy during World War II … English contemporary dictionary
Tripartite — means composed of or split into three parts, or refers to three parties. Specifically, it may also refer to any of the following:* 3 (number) * Tripartite (theology) body, soul and spirit * Tripartite monotheism, the technical term for the… … Wikipedia
Pact of Steel — Infobox Treaty name = Pact of Steel long name = Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy image width = caption = type = date drafted = date signed = May 22, 1939 location signed = Berlin, Germany date sealed = date effective =… … Wikipedia
Pact — For other uses, see Pact (disambiguation). A pact, from Latin pactum ( something agreed upon ), is a formal agreement. In international relations, pacts are usually between two or more sovereign states. In domestic politics, pacts are usually… … Wikipedia
Tripartite agreement — A tripartite agreement is an agreement among three parties. Specifically, it can refer to: *Germany, Italy and Japan Tripartite Pact, signed in 1940 specified the parties that would control Europe and Greater Asia. *Britain India Nepal Tripartite … Wikipedia
Three Power Pact — Tripartite Pact, agreement made in 1940 that formed the military alliance between Japan Germany and Italy during World War II … English contemporary dictionary
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact — Treaty of Non Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union Molotov signs the German–Soviet non aggression pact. Behind him are Ribbentrop and Stalin. Signed August 23, 1939 Location Moscow, Russian SFSR … Wikipedia
Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact — Soviet Japanese Neutrality Pact, 13 April 1941 … Wikipedia
Anti-Comintern Pact — /an tee kom in terrn , kom in terrn , an tuy / a pact formed in 1936, based on agreements between Germany and Japan to oppose communism and the Third International: Italy and Spain subsequently became signatories. * * * Agreement concluded first… … Universalium
Anti-Comintern Pact — The Anti Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other countries) on November 25, 1936 and was directed against the Communist International (Comintern) in general, and the Soviet Union in… … Wikipedia