Acute phase protein

Acute-phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called the "acute-phase reaction" (also called acute phase response).In response to injury, local inflammatory cells (neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages) secrete a number of cytokines into the bloodstream, most notable of which are the interleukins IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, and TNF-α.

The liver responds by producing a large number of acute-phase reactants. At the same time, the production of a number of other proteins is reduced; these are therefore referred to as "negative" acute phase reactants.

Positive

Positive acute-phase proteins serve different physiological functions for the immune system. Some act to destroy or inhibit growth of microbes, e.g. C-reactive protein, Mannose-binding protein, complement factors, ferritin, ceruloplasmin, Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin. Others give negative feedback on the inflammatory response, e.g. serpins. Alpha 2-macroglobulin and coagulation factors affect coagulation.

Negative

Clinical significance

Measurement of acute phase proteins, especially C-reactive protein, is a useful marker of inflammation in both medical and veterinary clinical pathology. It correlates with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).

They may also indicate liver failure [ cite journal |author=Ananian P, Hardwigsen J, Bernard D, Le Treut YP |title=Serum acute-phase protein level as indicator for liver failure after liver resection |journal=Hepatogastroenterology |volume=52 |issue=63 |pages=857–61 |year=2005 |pmid=15966220 |doi=]

References

ee also

*

External links

*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • acute phase protein — any of the non antibody proteins, produced mainly in the liver, found in increased amounts in serum during the acute phase response; they include C reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, fibrinogen, α1 acid glycoprotein, and… …   Medical dictionary

  • acute phase protein — Proteins found in the serum of organisms showing acute inflammation. In particular C reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • Acute phase — The Acute phase of an injury is the period of time in between when the injury is sustained, and the beginning of the sub acute phase. Depending on the severity of injury, and the age and health of the patient, this phase can take up to four or… …   Wikipedia

  • Acute-phase proteins — Proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (or decrease) by 25% or more during certain inflammatory disorders. Perhaps the best known of acute phase proteins is C reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a plasma protein that rises in the blood with the …   Medical dictionary

  • acute phase response — a group of physiologic processes occurring soon after the onset of infection, trauma, inflammatory processes, and some malignant conditions. The most prominent change is a dramatic increase of acute phase proteins, especially C reactive protein,… …   Medical dictionary

  • acute phase reactant — see under protein …   Medical dictionary

  • Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein — protein Name=steroidogenic acute regulatory proteinth caption= width= HGNCid=11359 Symbol=StAR AltSymbols= EntrezGene=6770 OMIM=600617 RefSeq=NM 000349 UniProt=P49675 PDB= ECnumber= Chromosome=8 Arm=p Band=11.2 LocusSupplementaryData=The… …   Wikipedia

  • Proteins, acute-phase — Proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (or decrease) by 25% or more during certain inflammatory disorders. C reactive protein (CRP) is perhaps the best known of acute phase proteins. CRP is a plasma protein that rises in the blood with the …   Medical dictionary

  • Acute lung injury — (ALI) is a diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by hypoxemia, non cardiogenic pulmonary edema, low lung compliance and widespread capillary leakage. ALI is caused by any stimulus of local or systemic inflammation, principally sepsis.… …   Wikipedia

  • Protein — A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the DNA coding for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body s… …   Medical dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.