Canadian Coast Guard

Infobox Government agency
agency_name = Canadian Coast Guard
nativename = Garde côtière canadienne
nativename_a =
nativename_r =

logo_width = 75px
logo_caption =


seal_width =
seal_caption =
formed = 1962
jurisdiction = Government of Canada
headquarters = Ottawa, Ontario
employees =
budget =
minister1_name = Loyola Hearn
minister1_pfo = Minister of Fisheries and Oceans
chief1_name = George Da Pont
chief1_position = Commissioner
website = [http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca]
footnotes =

The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) ( _fr. Garde côtière canadienne (GCC)) is the coast guard of Canada.It is the civilian federal agency responsible for providing marine search and rescue (SAR) under the auspices of the National Search and Rescue Program, aids to navigation, marine pollution response and icebreaking. CCG is responsible for patrolling Canada's 202,080 [ [http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/learningresources/facts/coastline.html The Atlas of Canada - Coastline and Shoreline] ] km long coastline; the longest of any nation in the world. CCG is headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario and is the responsibility of the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

History

Formation

Originally a variety of federal departments and even the navy performed the work which CCG does today. Following Confederation in 1867, the federal government placed many of the responsibilities for maintaining aids to navigation (primarily lighthouses at the time), marine safety, and search and rescue under the Marine Service of the Department of Marine and Fisheries, with some responsibility for waterways resting with the Canal Branch of the Department of Railways and Canals.

After the Department of Marine and Fisheries was split into separate departments, the Department of Marine continued to take responsibility for the federal government's coastal protection services. During the inter-war period, the Royal Canadian Navy also performed similar duties at a time when the navy was wavering between becoming a civilian organization. A government reorganization in 1936 saw the Department of Marine and its Marine Service, along with several other government departments and agencies, folded into the new Department of Transport.

Following the Second World War, Canada experienced a major expansion in ocean commerce, culminating with the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1958. The shipping industry was changing throughout eastern Canada and required an expanded federal government role in the Great Lakes and the Atlantic coast, as well as an increased presence in the Arctic and Pacific coasts for sovereignty purposes. The government of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker decided to consolidate the duties of the Marine Service of the Department of Transport and on January 28, 1962 the Canadian Coast Guard was formed as a subsidiary of DOT. One of the more notable inheritances was the icebreaker "Labrador", transferred from the Royal Canadian Navy.

Expansion years

A period of expansion followed the creation of CCG between the 1960s to the 1980s. The outdated ships CCG inherited from the Marine Service were scheduled for replacement, along with dozens of new ships for the expanding role of the organization. Built under a complementary national shipbuilding policy which saw the CCG contracts go to Canadian shipyards, the new ships were delivered throughout this "Golden Age" of the organization.

In addition to expanded geographic responsibilities in the Great Lakes, the rise in coastal and ocean shipping ranged from new mining shipments such as Labrador iron ore, to increased cargo handling at the nation's major ports, and Arctic development and sovereignty patrols - all requiring additional ships and aircraft. The federal government also began to develop a series of CCG bases near major ports and shipping routes throughout southern Canada.

The expansion of the CCG fleet required new navigation and engineering officers, as well as crewmembers. To meet the former requirement, in 1965 the Canadian Coast Guard College (CCGC) opened on the former navy base warship|HMCS|Protector at Point Edward, Nova Scotia on Sydney Harbour, Cape Breton Island. By the late 1970s the college had outgrown the temporary navy facilities and a new campus was opened in the adjacent community of Westmount in 1981.

During the mid-1980s, the long-standing disagreement between the U.S. and Canada over the legal status of the Northwest Passage came to a head after the USCGC "Polar Sea" transited the passage in what were asserted by Canada to be Canadian waters and by the U.S. to be international waters. During the period of increased nationalism that followed this event, the Conservative administration of Brian Mulroney announced plans to build several enormous icebreakers, the "Polar 8"-class which would be used primarily for sovereignty patrols.

However the proposed "Polar 8"-class was abandoned during the late 1980s as part of general government budget cuts; in their place a program of vessel modernizations was instituted. Additional budget cuts to CCG in the mid-1990s following a change in government saw many of CCG's older vessels built during the 1960s and 1970s retired.

In the 1990s-2000s, CCG modernized part of its SAR fleet after ordering British Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI)-designed "ARUN"-class high endurance lifeboat cutters for open coastal areas, and the USCG-designed 47-foot Motor Life Boat (designated by CCG as the "Cape"-class) as medium endurance lifeboat cutters for the Great Lakes and more sheltered coastal areas.

CCG announced plans in 2006 to order four new Midshore Patrol Vessels.cite web
url=http://www.sfu.ca/casr/doc-ccg-mid-shore-patrol-vessels.htm
title=Mid-Shore Patrol Vessels – What Happened to MSPVs and Fisheries Research Vessels for the Canadian Coast Guard?
page=
pages=
publisher=Canadian American Strategic Review
author=
month=March |year=2007
accessdate=2008-02-01
] CCG announced on April 12, 2007 plans to order an additional eight new vessels.cite web
url=http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/backgrou/2007/hq-ac15c_e.htm
title=12 Mid-shore Patrol Vessels
publisher=Department of Fisheries and Oceans
author=
date=April 12 2007
accessdate=2008-02-01
] cite news
url=http://www.tc.gc.ca/mediaroom/backgrounders/b05-M006e.htm
title=Marine Security
publisher=Transport Canada
date=April 27 2007
accessdate=2008-02-01
] Seven of these new vessels are scheduled to replace CCGS "Québécois", CCGS "Cumella", CCGS "Atlin Post", CCGS "Sooke Post", CCGS "Kitimat II", CCGS "Arrow Post", and CCGS "Comox Post". CCG is also planning to order an additional five new vessels. The new vessels will have a maximum speed of 25 knots, be approximately 40 meters in length and carry a crew of 8-10 with additional room to carry DFO fisheries officers or RCMP officers. Delivery is planned from 2009 through 2014.

Bureaucratic oversight

From its formation in 1962 until 1995, CCG was the responsibility of the Department of Transport. Both the department and CCG shared complementary responsibilities related to marine safety, whereby DOT had responsibility for implementing transportation policy, regulations and safety inspections, and CCG was operationally responsible for navigation safety and SAR, among others.

Following the 1994 budget, the federal government announced that it was transferring responsibility for CCG from the Department of Transport to the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. The reason for placing CCG under DFO was ostensibly to achieve cost savings by amalgamating the two largest civilian vessel fleets within the federal government under a single department.

Arising out of this arrangement, CCG became ultimately responsible for crewing, operating, and maintaining a larger fleet - both the original CCG fleet before 1995 of dedicated SAR vessels, NAVAID tenders, and multi-purpose icebreakers along with DFO's smaller fleet of scientific research and fisheries enforcement vessels, all without any increase in budget - in fact the overall budget for CCG was decreased after absorbing the DFO patrol and scientific vessels.

Unfortunately there were serious stumbling blocks arising out of this reorganization, namely in the different management practises and differences in organizational culture at DFO, versus DOT. DFO is dedicated to conservation and protection of fish through enforcement whereas CCG's primary "raison d'etre" is marine safety and SAR. There were valid concerns raised within CCG about reluctance on the part of the marine community to ask for assistance from CCG SAR vessels, since CCG was being viewed as aligned with an enforcement department. In the early 2000s, the federal government began to investigate the possibility of making CCG as a separate agency, thereby not falling under a specific functional department and allowing more operational independence.

In one of several reorganization moves of the federal ministries following the swearing-in of prime minister Paul Martin's administration on December 12, 2003, several policy/regulatory responsibilities were transferred from CCG to the Department of Transport to provide Canadians with a single point of contact for issues related to marine safety and security, although CCG would maintain operational responsibility for some of these tasks. The services now offered by the Canadian Coast Guard include:

* Icebreaking and Arctic Sovereignty
* Search and Rescue
* Environmental Response
* Marine Navigation Services (buoytending and light station keeping)
* Support to Fisheries Research (as a platform)
* Offshore (NAFO), midshore and coastal enforcement

Finally, on April 4, 2005 it was announced by the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans that CCG was being redesignated a "special operating agency" - the largest one in the federal government. Although CCG still falls under the ministerial responsibility of the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, it has more autonomy where it is not as tightly integrated within the department.

An example being that now all CCG bases, aids to navigation, vessels, aircraft, and personnel are wholly the responsibility of the Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard. The Commissioner is in-turn, supported by the CCG headquarters which develop a budget for the organization. The arrangement is not unlike the relationship of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police toward that organization's parent department, the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness.

The special operating agency reorganization is different from the past under both DOT and DFO where regional director generals for these departments were responsible for CCG operations within their respective regions. Now all operations of CCG will be directed by the commissioner and CCG in the regions. This management and financial flexibility is being enhanced by an increased budget for CCG to acquire new vessels and other assets to assist in its growing role of helping to ensure maritime security, although CCG will not be usurping the traditional role of the Canadian Navy.

CCG will still provide the vessel and crew support for DFO's fisheries science, conservation, and protection requirements. Unfortunately the changes in making CCG a special operating agency under DFO do not address some of the key concerns raised by an all-party Parliamentary committee investigating low morale among CCG employees since the transfer from DOT to DFO and budget cuts since 1995. The committee had recommended that CCG become a separate agency under DOT and that its role be changed to a paramilitary organization involved in maritime security by arming its vessels with deck guns, similar to the United States Coast Guard and that employees be given peace officer status for enforcing federal laws on the oceans and Great Lakes.

Non-military

Unlike the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), CCG is a civilian organisation. None of CCG's personnel is a peace officer. Enforcing and protecting Canada's maritime sovereignty is a military task and the complete responsibility of Canada's navy, Canadian Forces Maritime Command.

The enforcement of laws in Canada's territorial sea is the responsibility of Canada's federal police force, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) as all ocean waters in Canada are considered federal jurisdiction. Saltwater fisheries enforcement is a specific responsibility of DFO's Fishery Officers.

Note that the Great Lakes are not coastal waters and are therefore not part of the territorial sea - thus certain laws on the Canadian side of the US-Canada border in the Great Lakes may be enforced by the Ontario Provincial Police or municipal police forces, although enforcing any federal laws in these waters is still the ultimate responsibility of the RCMP.

Command structure

CCG's command structure is also reflective of its non-military role. The head of CCG is called the "Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard"; the term "commissioner" is also used as the title for the senior commanding officer of the RCMP. The CCG bureaucracy supports several functional departments which are outlined as follows:
* Fleet Directorate
* Maritime Services Directorate
* Integrated Technical Services Directorate
* Major Crown Projects Directorate

CCG as a whole is divided into five regions: [ [http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/regions_e.htm Canadian Coast Guard - Regions] ]
* Newfoundland and Labrador Region
* Maritimes Region
* Quebec Region
* Central and Arctic Region
* Pacific Region

Bases

CCG maintains a number of major bases and operating locations/stations on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as in the St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes and major navigable inland waterways such as Lake of the Woods, Lake Winnipeg, and Great Slave Lake/Mackenzie River.

Currently, there are no vessels permanently based in the eastern Arctic, although CCG vessels and aircraft frequently operate there, staging out of bases on the Atlantic coast and supported by a base in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

* Newfoundland Region
** CCG Base St. John's, St. John's, Newfoundland
** CCG Station St. Anthony, St. Anthony, Newfoundland
** CCG Station Port au Choix, Port au Choix, Newfoundland
** CCG Station Lark Harbour, Lark Harbour, Newfoundland
** CCG Station Burgeo, Burgeo, Newfoundland
** CCG Station Burin, Burin, Newfoundland

* Maritimes Region
** CCG Base Charlottetown, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island
** CCG Base Dartmouth, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
** CCG Base Saint John, Saint John, New Brunswick
** CCG Station Shippagan, Shippagan, New Brunswick
** CCG Station Summerside, Summerside, Prince Edward Island
** CCG Station Souris, Souris, Prince Edward Island
** CCG Station Louisbourg, Louisbourg, Nova Scotia
** CCG Station Bickerton, Bickerton East, Nova Scotia
** CCG Station Sambro, Sambro, Nova Scotia
** CCG Station Clark's Harbour, Clark's Harbour, Nova Scotia
** CCG Station Westport, Westport, Nova Scotia
** CCG College, Westmount, Nova Scotia

* Quebec Region
** CCG Base Québec, Quebec City
** CCG Base Sorel, Sorel
** CCG Station Tadoussac, Tadoussac
** CCG Station Havre-Saint-Pierre, Havre-Saint-Pierre
** CCG Station Rivière-au-Renard, Rivière-au-Renard
** CCG Station Cap-aux-Meules, Cap-aux-Meules
** CCG Hoverport Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières

* Central and Arctic Region
** CCG Base Parry Sound, Parry Sound, Ontario
** CCG Base Prescott, Prescott, Ontario
** CCG Base Sarnia, Sarnia, Ontario
** CCG Base Sault Ste Marie, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
** CCG Base Thunder Bay, Thunder Bay, Ontario
** CCG Base Iqaluit, Iqaluit, Nunavut
** CCG Base Hay River, Hay River, Northwest Territories
** CCG Base Selkirk, Selkirk, Manitoba
** CCG Base Burlington, Burlington, Ontario
** CCG Sub-Base Amherstburg, Amherstburg, Ontario
** CCG Sub-Base Kenora, Kenora, Ontario
** CCG Station Cobourg, Cobourg, Ontario
** CCG Station Kingston, Kingston, Ontario
** CCG Station Port Weller, Port Weller, Ontario
** CCG Station Port Dover, Port Dover, Ontario
** CCG Station Tobermory, Tobermory, Ontario
** CCG Station Meaford, Meaford, Ontario
** CCG Station Goderich, Goderich, Ontario

* Pacific Region
** CCG Base Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia
** CCG Base Seal Cove, Prince Rupert, British Columbia
** CCG Base Patricia Bay, Sidney, British Columbia
** CCG Base PBS, Nanaimo, British Columbia
** CCG Station Sea Island, Richmond, British Columbia
** CCG Station Kitsilano, Vancouver, British Columbia
** CCG Station Powell River, Powell River, British Columbia
** CCG Station Ganges, Saltspring Island, British Columbia
** CCG Station Tofino, Tofino, British Columbia
** CCG Station Bamfield, Bamfield, British Columbia
** CCG Station Port Hardy, Port Hardy, British Columbia
** CCG Station Campbell River, Campbell River, British Columbia
** CCG Station Bella Bella, Bella Bella, British Columbia
** CCG Station Sandspit, Sandspit, British Columbia

Vessels: ships and small boats

The Fleet Directorate is responsible for all ships and their manning requirements. Most vessels have between 5-30+ crewmembers. CCG as a whole numbers approximately 2,000 personnel.

All CCG vessels are painted uniformly regardless of their use. They are characterized by a red hull and white superstructure, designed to look like a "floating Canadian flag". The hull bears a 60-degree white stripe, similar to the markings on USCG vessels. Ship nameplates are typically affixed to the superstructure, and vessels are typically named for persons or places of historic (or geographic) significance.

From the 1960s-1990s, CCG did experiment with painting primary SAR vessels in a colour scheme with a yellow superstructure and red hull, meant to distinguish them from navaid tenders and icebreakers, and also to improve their visibility on the open ocean with a breaking waves environment. Today the only distinguishing markings for primary SAR vessels is the large RESCUE-SAUVETAGE lettering on the superstructure. Following the move from DOT to DFO in the 1990s, the "Fisheries and Oceans Canada" departmental logo was sometimes affixed to CCG ships in place of the Coast Guard/Guard Cotiere lettering. This has since been reverted to official coast guard symbols and lettering.

The prefix "Canadian Coast Guard Ship", abbreviated CCGS, is affixed to any major vessel. Several minor vessels such as patrol boats and life boats carry the prefix "Canadian Coast Guard Cutter", abbreviated CCGC.

The list of various classes of CCG vessels includes:

Heavy Arctic Icebreaker:"Large powerful icebreaker approximately 130 metres long and is capable of sustained operations in the Canadian Arctic with minimal support, for the period of early June to mid-November, and for escort operation in the Gulf of St-Lawrence and East Coast of Newfoundland in the winter."

*CCGS "Louis S. St-Laurent"
*CCGS "Terry Fox"

Arctic Icebreaker:"Large icebreaker of approximately 100 metres in length capable of sustained ice breaking and escort operations in the Arctic during the summer, and in the Gulf, St. Lawrence River and the Atlantic Coast in winter. It is also capable conducting scientific missions, has a small cargo carrying capacity and can carry a helicopter if needed. "

*CCGS "Amundsen"
*CCGS "Des Groseilliers"
*CCGS "Henry Larsen"
*CCGS "Pierre Radisson"

CG Program Vessels:"Large multi-taskable vessels approximately 85 metres long, with an icebreaking capability that allows them to work mainly in southern waters and in the western Arctic."

*CCGS "Ann Harvey"
*CCGS "Edward Cornwallis"
*CCGS "George R. Pearkes"
*CCGS "Griffon"
*CCGS "Martha L. Black"
*CCGS "Sir Wilfrid Laurier"
*CCGS "Sir William Alexander"

Offshore Fishery and Oceanographic Research:"Large offshore vessels approximately 80 metres long that are multi-taskable to fishery and oceanographic missions, as well as geological and hydrographic surveys. These vessels have no icebreaking capabilities, are equipped with wet labs, trawl capability, bottom sampling capability and water column sampling capability, and can accommodate up to 26 scientists."

*CCGS "Hudson"
*CCGS "John P. Tully"

Offshore Fishery Science:"Large offshore Science vessels that are multi-taskable to acoustic and environmental research. They are able to do trawl surveys and some water column sampling and are equipped with wet labs."

*CCGS "Alfred Needler"
*CCGS "Teleost"
*CCGS "W.E. Ricker"
*CCGS "Wilfred Templeman"

Marine Service:"Multi-taskable, shallow draft vessels that are about 65 metres in length. They have some icebreaking capability and can launch and recover Fast Response Craft. They are primarily used for aids to navigation, icebreaking, science and environmental response."

*CCGS "Bartlett"
*CCGS "Earl Grey"
*CCGS "Provo Wallis"
*CCGS "Samuel Risley"
*CCGS "Tracy"

Offshore Patrol:"Patrol vessels of up to 60 metres in length and can operate year-round beyond 120 nautical miles, including outside 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (except the Arctic). They carry 2 Rigid-hull Inflatable boats, and their main use is fisheries enforcement and search and rescue."

*CCGS "Cape Roger"
*CCGS "Cygnus"
*CCGS "Leonard J. Cowley"
*CCGS "Sir Wilfrid Grenfell"

Mid-shore Patrol:"Medium sized patrol vessels of about 37 – 42 metres which operate up to 120 nautical miles offshore. These vessels carry one or two Rigid-hull Inflatable boats (depending on the variant design) and have accommodation for two fisheries or police officers. The main use is for maritime security and fisheries enforcement."

*CCGS "Arrow Post"
*CCGS "E.P. Le Québécois"
*CCGS "Gordon Reid"
*CCGS "Harp"
*CCGS "Louis M. Lauzier"
*CCGS "Louisbourg"
*CCGS "Tanu"

Hydrographic Survey:"These vessels are meant to carry out hydrographic survey work primarily for the production of nautical charting products on the East and West Coast, but can also be used for stock assessment using sonar."

*CCGS "Frederick G. Creed
*CCGS "Limnos"
*CCGS "Matthew"
*CCGS "R.B. Young"
*CCGC "Otter Bay"
*CCGS "Vector"

Special Navaids Tender:"Shallow draft, flat bottom vessels used for the placement and maintenance of fixed and floating navigational aids on the Mackenzie River. They are very specialized vessels that can sustain repeated groundings while they search for shifts in the channel and are not suitable for any open-sea work."

*CCGS "Dumit"
*CCGS "Eckaloo"
*CCGS "Nahidik"
*CCGS "Tembah"

Mid-shore Fishery Research:"Medium-sized vessels that are multi-taskable to fishery and oceanographic missions, as well as geological and hydrographic surveys. These vessels have no icebreaking capabilities, are equipped with wet labs, trawl capability, bottom sampling capability and water column sampling capability."

*CCGS "Calanus II"
*CCGS "Neocaligus"
*CCGS "Opilio"
*CCGS "Pandalus III"
*CCGS "Shamook"
*CCGS "Shark"

Channel Survey & Sounding:"Small twin-hull sounding vessels designed to conduct depth survey operations of the main shipping channel in the St-Lawrence River, between Ile aux Coudres and Montreal during the period or spring break-up until end of November."

*CCGC "F.C.G. Smith"
*CCGC "GC-03"

Air Cushion Vehicle:"Medium sized multi-taskable vehicles, which float on a cushion of air, making them capable of working in very shallow areas. They are very fast vehicles (up to 60 knots), which makes them ideally suited for search and rescue, and environmental response where response time is critical. They are also used for icebreaking in shallow waters and in the St. Lawrence River for ice management."

*CCGS "Penac"
*CCGS "Sipu Muin"
*CCGS "Siyay"
*CCGS "Waban-Aki"

SAR Lifeboats:"Small shore-based self-righting lifeboats approximately 15 metre long, capable of search and rescue operations of up to 100 nautical miles with a top speed of approximately 25 knots. They carry a crew of four or five persons."

*CCGC "Bickerton"
*CCGC "Cap aux Meules"
*CCGC "Cap Breton"
*CCGC "Cap D'Espoir"
*CCGC "Cap De Rabast"
*CCGC "Cap Nord"
*CCGC "Cap Perce"
*CCGC "Cap Rozier"
*CCGC "Cap Tourmante"
*CCGC "Cape Ann"
*CCGC "Cape Calvert"
*CCGC "Cape Caution"
*CCGC "Cape Chaillon"
*CCGC "Cape Cockburn"
*CCGC "Cape Commodore"
*CCGC "Cape Discovery"
*CCGC "Cape Dundas"
*CCGC "Cape Edensaw"
*CCGC "Cape Fox"
*CCGC "Cape Hearne"
*CCGC "Cape Kuper"
*CCGC "Cape Farewell"
*CCGC "Cape Lambton"
*CCGC "Cape McKay"
*CCGC "Cape Mercy"
*CCGC "Cape Mudge"
*CCGC "Cape Norman"
*CCGC "Cape Providence"
*CCGC "Cape Spry"
*CCGC "Cape St. James"
*CCGC "Cape Storm"
*CCGC "Cape Sutil"
*CCGC "Clarks Harbour"
*CCGC "Courtney Bay"
*CCGC "Sambro"
*CCGC "Spindrift"
*CCGC "Spray"
*CCGC "Thunder Cape"
*CCGC "W.G. George"
*CCGC "W. Jackman"
*CCGC "Westport"

Near/Inshore Patrol Vessel:"Medium range with moderate speed, capable of operating in moderate weather conditions in sheltered waters - station mode."

*CCGC "6C-4828"
*CCGC "A.H. Chevarie"
*CCGC "Atlin Post"
*CCGC "Cape Hurd"
*CCGC "Cape Light"
*CCGC "CG 119"
*CCGC "Cumella"
*CCGC "Geliget"
*CCGC "Isle Rouge"
*CCGC "Kitimat II"
*CCGC "Mallard"
*CCGC "Osprey"
*CCGC "Point Henry"
*CCGC "Point Race"
*CCGC "Pointe Caveau"
*CCGC "Skua"
*CCGC "Sooke Post"
*CCGC "Sterne"

Small CG Program Vessels:"Small multi-taskable vessels that have a shallower draft overall and are configured to service marine aids to navigation.and have no helicopter carrying capability "

*CCGS "Caribou Isle"
*CCGS "Cove Isle"
*CCGS "Gull Isle"
*CCGS "Île des Barques"
*CCGS "Île Saint Ours"
*CCGS "Traverse"
*CCGS "Tsekoa II"
*CCGS "Vakta"

Training Vessels:"Vessels used for training at the Coast Guard College"

*CCGC "CG 117"
*CCGC "CG 118"
*CCGC "Tuebor"

Utility craft:"CCG employs various makes and models of small craft aboard ships and at shore stations for utility and SAR tasks. Large vessels carry "sea trucks", similar to small landing craft, deployed by davits and used for delivering supplies ashore to light stations and remote communities. RHIBs equipped with outboard or inboard engine propulsion systems are deployed aboard CCG ships or at shore stations as tenders and as fast response boats for utility and search and rescue (SAR) tasks.

* Sea trucks: Seatruck 3 (Canadian Forces), CGE 731
* Zodiac Hurricane Mark IV, Mark V, Mark VI, 733 SOLAS designs
* Roseborough RHIB

Procurement

Many larger vessels in the CCG are close to the end of their planned lifetime, having been constructed from the 1960s-1980s with no replacements in the 1990s-2000s.

;Polar 8 ProjectThe Polar 8 Project announced in 1985 would have built several $700 million (1985 CAD) icebreakers with polar class of PC-1 for use in the Arctic Ocean. The project was cancelled in 1990 in lieu of refitting CCGS "Louis S. St-Laurent".

;Mid-shore patrol shipsThe federal government announced plans in 2006 to acquire 12 mid-shore patrol ships for CCG to supplement fisheries conservation and protection duties (fisheries patrol ships) in Maritime, Newfoundland and Pacific regions. It was expected that 4 of these ships were to be tasked with marine security duties in the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Seaway. This $350 million procurement project was canceled in 2008 before final tendering was completed with no replacement project identified.cite news
url=http://www.thechronicleherald.ca/Front/9008124.html
title=Navy’s support ship replacement program and new coast guard ships quietly scuttled
publisher="The Chroncile-Herald"
date=August 24, 2008
accessdate=2008-08-24
quote=
]

;Arctic Icebreaker

The February 2008 federal budget designated $720 million for the Polar Class Icebreaker Projectcite news
url=http://www.cbc.ca/canada/north/story/2008/02/27/north-reax.html
title=Arctic icebreaker, fishing port, tax break a start: northerners
publisher=CBC News
date=February 27, 2008
accessdate=2008-03-04
quote=
] cite news
url=http://www.nunatsiaq.com/news/nunavut/80229_964.html
title=Feds to replace old icebreaker
publisher=Nunatsiaq News
author=Chris Windeyer
date=February 29, 2008
accessdate=2008-03-04
quote=Ottawa will put aside $720 million this year to commission the icebreaker, which the government says will have better ice breaking capability than the Louis St. Laurent, considered the workhorse of the Coast Guard.
] to replace CCGS "Louis S. St-Laurent" in FY 2017. In August 2008 the name for this project's sole vessel was announced as CCGS "John G. Diefenbaker".cite news
url=http://www.embassymag.ca/html/index.php?display=story&full_path=/2008/february/27/icebreaker_deadline/
title=Icebreaker Replacement Deadline Looms: Despite $720 million in yesterday's federal budget, procurement for a new polar icebreaker will take eight to 10 years
publisher=Embassy, Canada's Foreign Policy Newsletter
author=Lee Berthiaume
date=February 27, 2008
accessdate=2008-03-04
quote=Despite setting aside $720 million in yesterday's budget to purchase a new polar class icebreaker, the government will be cutting things close if it wants to decommission the ageing Louis St. Laurent heavy icebreaker as scheduled by 2017, according to Canadian Coast Guard commissioner George Da Pont.
]

It should be noted that the name of this project is confusing, since every vessel authorized by the International Maritime Organization to operate in ice (including icebreakers) must have a polar class.

Aircraft

In addition to various bases located in deep water ports, rescue stations in smaller minor ports, and its fleet of vessels, CCG also operates a small number of rotary and fixed wing aircraft. Rotary wing aircraft are used as ice surveillance platforms in the winter (operating from icebreakers and shore bases), while flying maintenance personnel and supplies for servicing aids to navigation year-round. Fixed wing aircraft are used for marine pollution surveillance patrols.

The majority of CCG aircraft are stationed at municipal airports located near major CCG bases and are primarily located in eastern Canada, given the absence of ice surveillance requirements for the west coast.

;Fixed & Rotary wing maintenance
* Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport (YOW), Ottawa, ON

;Fixed wing operations and maintenance
* Vancouver International Airport (YVR), Richmond, BC
* Greater Moncton International Airport (YQM), Dieppe, NB
* Iqaluit Airport (YFB), Iqaluit, NU

note - The 3 Fixed wing operations bases are not Coast Guard bases. The fixed wing aircraft are flown out of Transport Canada Civil Aviation bases.

;Rotary wing operations and maintenance
*Stephenville International Airport (YJT), Stephenville, NL
* St. John's International Airport (YYT), St. John's, NL
* CFB Shearwater (YAW), Dartmouth, NS
* Saint John Airport (YSJ), Saint John, NB
* Charlottetown Airport (YYG), Charlottetown, PEI
* Parry Sound Area Municipal Airport (YPD), Parry Sound, ON
* Victoria International Airport (YYJ), Sidney, BC
* Prince Rupert Airport (YPR), Prince Rupert, BC

Maintenance for CCG aircraft is provided by both CCG and Transport Canada personnel.

As with any government vessels being called upon to assist Canadian Forces Maritime Command, government civilian aircraft such as CCG aircraft may be called upon at any time to assist Canadian Forces Air Command.

! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Aircraft! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Origin! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Type! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Versions! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|In service! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Notes
-----
MBB Bo 105
GER
rotary wing|
16
ship-based and shore-based ice surveillance, navigation aid maintenance
-
Bell 407
USA
rotary wing|
2
shore-based ice surveillance, navigation aid maintenance
-
Bell 212 Twin Huey
USA
rotary wing|
4
shore-based ice surveillance, navigation aid maintenance
-
Bell 206 JetRanger
USA
rotary wing|
6
shore-based ice surveillance, navigation aid maintenance
-
Sikorsky S-61
USA
rotary wing
S-61N
1
navigation aid maintenance
-
de Havilland Canada Dash 8
CAN
fixed wing|
2
marine pollution surveillance
-
Beech Super King Air 200
USA
fixed wing|
?
marine pollution surveillance
-
de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
CAN
fixed wing|
1
marine pollution surveillance
-
de Havilland Canada Dash 7
CAN
fixed wing|
1
marine pollution surveillance

Lighthouses and Aids to Navigation

CCG operates one of the world's largest network of navigational buoys, lighthouses and foghorns assisting mariners on the Atlantic, Pacfic and Arctic Coastlines as well as selected inland waters. CCG completed a large-scale program of automation and destaffing which began in 1968 and was largely completed in the 1990s. ["Lighthouses and Lights" E.R. Irwin, Nimbus, 2003, p. viii] The result of this program saw the automation of all lighthouses and the removal of light keepers except for a handful of stations in British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador and New Brunswick. Budget cuts and technological changes in the marine shipping industry, such as the increased use of GPS, electronic charting and GMDSS, has led CCG through several "Level of Service Reviews" pertaining to aids to navigation. This had led to the further decommissioning of buoys and shore-based light stations as well as a dramatic reduction in the number of foghorns. [Heritage Canada Foundation, Presentation to the Standing Committee of fisheries and Oceans, http://www.heritagecanada.org/eng/news/s220_brief.htm]

Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary

The Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary (CCGA), formerly the Canadian Marine Rescue Auxiliary (CMRA), is a nonprofit organization of volunteer recreational boaters and commercial fishermen who assist CCG with search and rescue as well as boating safety education. CCGA members who assist in SAR operations have their vessel insurance covered by CCG, as well as any fuel and operating costs associated with a particular tasking.

The CCGA permits CCG to provide marine SAR coverage in many isolated areas of Canada's coastlines without having to maintain an active base and/or vessels in those areas.

Heritage

The Canadian Coast Guard is the owner of many significant heritage buildings, including the oldest lighthouse in North America, the Sambro Island Lighthouse. The Coast Guard has selectively maintained some heritage lighthouses and permitted some alternative use of its historic structures. However many historic buildings have been neglected and the Coast Guard has been accused of ignoring and abandoning even federally recognized buildings. Critics have pointed out that the Canadian Coast Guard has lagged far behind other nations such as the United States in preserving its historic lighthouses. ["Facts About Canada's Threatened Lighthouses" "Nova Scotia Lighthouse Preservation Society http://www.nslps.com/r&p_lighthouse_protection_act.asp#facts] These concerns have led community groups and hertage building advocates to promote An Act to Protect Heritage Lighthouses in the Canadian Parliament. [Heritage Canada Foundation, Presentation to the Standing Committee of fisheries and Oceans, http://www.heritagecanada.org/eng/news/s220_brief.htm]

Insignias and Badges of the CCG

Epaulettes

In the military these represent ranks, in the Canadian Coast Guard they represent levels of responsibility and commensurate salary levels.

Branch is denoted by coloured cloth between the gold braid. Deck Officers, Helicopter Pilots, Hovercraft Pilots and JRCC/MRSC Marine SAR Co-ordinators do not wear any distinctive cloth.

Cap Badges

Qualification Insignia

Medals, Awards, & Long Service Pins

External links

* [http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca Canadian Coast Guard homepage]
* [http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/eng/CCG/USQUE_Table_Contents "Usque Ad Mare" A History of the Canadian Coast Guard and Marine Services]
* [http://www.marinfo.gc.ca "Marinfo" Canadian Coast Guard homepage - Quebec Region]

References


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