Sun Bear


Sun Bear

Taxobox
name = Sun Bear



status = VU
status_ref = IUCN2007 | assessors = Bear Specialist Group | year = 1996 | title = Helarctos malayanus | id = 9760 | downloaded = 2008-05-18]
status_system = iucn2.3
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Carnivora
familia = Ursidae
genus = "Helarctos"
genus_authority = Horsfield 1825
species = "H. malayanus"
binomial = "Helarctos malayanus"
binomial_authority = (Raffles, 1821)
synonyms ="Heliarctus" Tilesius, 1850 (unjustified emendation)----"Ursus malayanus" Raffles, 1821
"Helarctos euryspilus" Horsfield, 1825
"Helarctos malayanus" Horsfield, 1825
"Helarctos anmamiticus" Heude, 1901
The Sun Bear ("Helarctos malayanus") is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. Its Malay and Indonesian name is "Beruang Madu" ("Honey Bear").

Description

The Sun Bear stands approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) in length, making it the smallest member in the bear family. It has a 5 cm (2 in) tail and usually weighs less than 65 kg (145 lb). Males tend to be 10-45% larger than femalescite book | author = Brown, Gary | title = Great Bear Almanac | year = 1996 | pages = pp.340 | id = ISBN 1558214747] ; the former normally weigh between 30 and 60 kg (66-132 lb), the latter between 20 and 40 kg (44-88 lb).cite journal | author = Fredriksson, Gabriella M. | year = 2005 | title = Predation on Sun Bears by Reticulated Python in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo | journal = Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | volume = 53 | pages = 165–168 | url = http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/53/53rbz165-168.pdf | issue = 1] The Sun Bear possesses sickle-shaped claws that are relatively light in weight. It has large paws with naked soles, probably to assist in climbing. Its inward-turned feet make the bear's walk pigeon-toed, but it is an excellent climber. It has small, round ears and a stout snout. The tail is 1.2-2.8 inches (3 to 7 cm) long. Despite its small size, the Sun Bear possesses a very long, slender tongue, ranging from 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm) in length. The bear uses it to extract honey from beehives. [ [http://arktofile.net/pages/bear_sun.html Sun Bear at Arktofile] ]

Unlike other bears, the Sun Bear's fur is short and sleek. This adaptation is probably due to the lowland climates it inhabits. Dark black or brown-black fur covers its body, except on the chest, where there is a pale orange-yellow marking in the shape of a horseshoe. Similar colored fur can be found around the muzzle and the eyes. This distinct marking gives the Sun Bear its name.

Diet

The diet of the Sun Bear varies widely and includes small vertebrates such as lizards, birds, and other mammals, in addition to fruits, eggs, termites, the young tips of palm trees, nests of bees, berries, sprouts, insects, roots, cocoa, and coconuts. Its powerful jaws can crack open nuts. Much of the Sun Bear's food must be detected using its keen sense of smell, as its sight is poor.

Lifestyle and reproduction

The Sun Bear does not hibernate, and, as a result, it can reproduce year-round. It is not uncommon for it to give birth to two cubs at a time weighing approximately 10–12 oz (280–340 g) each. The gestation period is about 96 days, but suckling can continue for about 18 months. The offspring reach sexual maturity after 3-4 years and live up to 28 years in captivity.

Being a primarily nocturnal creature, the Sun Bear tends to rest during the day on lower limbs not far above the ground. Because it spends so much time in trees, the Sun Bear can sometimes cause a good amount of damage to private property. It has been known to destroy coconut palms and cacao trees on plantations.

Threats

Adult Sun Bears have almost no predators except humans, due to their fierce reputation and formidable teeth. [ [http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-sun_bear.html San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Sun Bear ] ] Occasionally it may be overwhelmed by tigers and by large reticulated pythons. Possible predators include the leopard, the clouded leopard, and the Sun Bear's larger sympatric relative, the Asiatic Black Bear. The bear's loose skin on its neck allows it to wriggle its body inside its skin, far enough to turn around and bite its attacker when grabbed there.

The recent decline in the Sun Bear population can be largely attributed to the hunting of "nuisance bears" that destroy crops and poaching driven by the market for their fur and for their bile, which is used in Chinese medicine.

Sometimes, Sun Bears are captured or bred to be domestic pets--a role for which they are considered desirable, due to their relatively inoffensive nature and small size in compared with other bearscite book |editor=Macdonald, D.|author= Bunnell, Fred|year=1984 |title= The Encyclopedia of Mammals|publisher= Facts on File|location=New York|pages= 97|isbn= 0-87196-871-1] .

The IUCN reclassified the Sun Bear from "data deficient" to "vulnerable" status in 2007 [Concern grows for the smallest bear, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7087345.stm BBC News] , accessed 2007-11-12] ..

ubspecies

* "Helarctos malayanus malayanus"
* "Helarctos malayanus euryspilus", found only on the island of Borneo.

References

External links

*ARKive - [http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/mammals/Helarctos_malayanus/ images and movies of the Malayan Sun Bear "(Helarctos malayanus)"]
* [http://www.zoo.org/factsheets/mal_sunbear/malayanSunBear.html Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle, Washington, USA]
* [http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-sun_bear.html Sun Bear writeup at the San Diego Zoo Web site]


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