The term Spanish literature refers to
literaturewritten in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. For Spanish American literature specifically, see Latin American literature. This article uses the notion of Spanish literature as the literature of Spain. It includes Spanish poetry, proseand novels.
Due to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and it is very diverse. Some major literary movements can be identified within it.
Early Spanish Literature and the Middle Ages
It was believed that the first Ibero-Romance literature began with the anonymous epic poem, the "Poema del Cid", written around 1140AD. However, in 1948, Hebrew scholar Samuel M. Stern published 24 "jarchas", "short lyric poems written in very archaic Spanish," which he had found in a
synagoguein Cairo. Stern and Spanish scholar Emilio García Gómezlater found more jarchas, and since 1948 their sum total is over fifty. The jarcha is usually the lament of a lower-class woman for her absent sweetheart. It is the final three- or four-lined stanzaof the muwashshah, a form of verse used by Arabic and Hebrew poets from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. The jarcha is written in Mozarabic, a Romance language spoken by the majority of the population during this period [Linda Fish Compton: Review of "Andalusian Lyrical Poetry and Old Spanish Love Songs: The "Muwashshah" and Its "Kharja." by S. G. Armistead", "Hispanic Review", Vol. 46, No. 1. (Winter, 1978), pp. 92-95 [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2176%28197824%2946%3A1%3C92%3AALPAOS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F] : "The use of Mozarabic should not be limited to "Christians and Jews living under Muslim rulers", since it is clear that most Hispano-Moslems also spoke [it] "] . Because the Arabic and Hebrew characters lacked certain vowel signs, scholars have trouble in transliterating the jarchas. The lack of knowledge of the Mozarabic language also hinders interpretationsLIPSKI, John M.: "Review of "El Mozarabe de Valencia" by Leopoldo Penarroja Torrejon", "International Journal of Middle East Studies".Vol. 24, No. 3 (Aug., 1992), pp. 519-521 [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0020-7438%28199208%2924%3A3%3C519%3AEMDV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z] ] . Nonetheless, it is now widely accepted that Mozarabic was a separate Romance language which evolved directly from Vulgar Latin, not from Castilian Spanish. [CASTRO, Américo: "Mozarabic Poetry and Castile", "Comparative Literature". Vol. 4, No. 2 (Spring, 1952), pp. 188-189. [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-4124%28195221%294%3A2%3C188%3AMPACAR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V] : " [...] The new-found Mozarabic poetry is not written in Castilian, and that therefore its existence cannot be used to prove that there was a lyric poetry in Castile"]
Cantar de Mio Cid
Cantar de Mio Cidwas written about a real man--his battles, conquests, and daily life. The poet, name unknown, wrote the epic in about 1140 and Cid supposedly died forty years before in 1099. This epic represents realism, because nothing was exaggerated and the details are very real, even the geography correctly portrays the areas in which Cid traveled and lived. Unlike other European epics, the poem is not idealized and there is no presence of supernatural beings. It has assonance instead of rhyme and its lines vary in length, the most common length being fourteen syllables. This type of verse is known as "mester de juglaria" (verse form of the minstrels). The epic is divided into three parts, also known as cantos.
*"Part I" is about Ruy Diaz de Vivar, who is called Cid (meaning my Lord) by the Moors. His current task is to collect the tributes from the Moorish territory owed to his king, Alfonso VI of Leon. Cid's enemy accuses him of taking some of these tributes and the king exiles him from Leon and Castilla. Before he leaves, he places his wife, Doña Jimena, and his two daughters, Doña Elvira and Doña Sol, in the Monastery of Cardeña. The canto then accounts of raids in the Moorish territory in which Cid and his men get rich off of the spoils.
*"Part II" begins with Cid's capture of the city of Valencia. He brings his family to live with him. It is discovered that the Infantes (princes) de Carrión, the nephews to the king, are the enemies who caused Cid's exile. They plot to marry his daughters to take some of his wealth. The king acts on behalf of his nephews and pardons Cid and allows the marriages. Cid suspects that something bad will happen from the marriages.
*"Part III" shows that the Infantes are cowards in battles with the Moors. They are made fun of and decided to get revenge by attacking their wives. They set out for Carrión with their wives and an escort, Felix Muñoz, the cousin of the daughters. Once on the journey, they send the escort ahead of them, steal their wives' great dowries (including two beautiful swords) and beat them and leave them for dead. Muñoz suspects trouble and returns to his cousins and takes them to receive help. Cid seeks to right the wrongs done to his daughters and a trial is held. A duel is held between some of Cid's men and the Infantes in which the Infantes lose. In the middle of the trial, a message was sent from the kings of Navarra and Aragon, proposing to marry their sons to Cid's daughters. These marriages take place after the defeat of the Infantes.
Mester de Juglaría
Medieval Spanish poets recognized the
Mester de Juglaríaas a literary form written by the minstrels (juglares) and composed of varying line length and use of assonance instead of rhyme. These poems were sung to uneducated audiences, nobles and peasants alike.
Mester de Clerecía
This Castilian narrative poetry known as the
Mester de Clerecíabecame popular in the thirteenth century. It is the verse form of the learned poets, usually clerics (hence the name 'clerecía'). These poets carefully counted the number of syllables in each line and strived to achieve perfect lines. The line form is the Alexandrine line (14 syllables) with consonantal rhyme in stanzas of four lines each. This form is also known as the "cuaderna vía" or the fourfold way, and was borrowed from France and was popular until the late fourteenth century. Popular themes of these poets were: Christian legends, lives of saints, and tales from classical antiquity. The poems were cited to villagers in public plazas. Two traits separate this form from the mester de juglaría: didacticism and erudition. Castilian priest and poet Gonzalo de Berceowas one of the greatest followers of the mester de clerecía. All of his works were religious and two of the most well-known are "Milagros de Nuestra Señora" (about the miracles worked by the Virgin Mary) and "Vida de Santa Oria". Fourteenth century poet Juan Ruíz, also known as the Arcipreste de Hita, used the cuadernia vía in parts of his famous work "Libro de buen amor". He introduced sixteen syllable lines.
Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century when King Alfonso X el Sabio of Castilla gave support and recognition to the writing form. He, with the help of his groups of intellectuals, directed the composition of many prose works including "Las siete partidas," the first modern book of laws of the land written in the people's language. Another work was "La primera crónica general" which accounted for the history of Spain from the creation until the end of Alfonso's father's reign, San Fernando. It is the first national history ever written. For his direction of these works and many others he directed, Alfonso X is called the father of Spanish prose. His nephew, Don Juan Manuel is famous for his prose work "
El Conde Lucanor" which is a frame story or short stories within an overall story. In this work, the Conde Lucanor seeks advice from his wise counselor, Patronio, who gives the advice through the telling of stories. Juan Manuel also wrote lesser-known works such as "El libro de los estados" on the social classes and "El libro del caballero y escudero" on philosophical discussions. Toward the end of the Middle Ages, writer Fernando del Pulgar (1436-1490?) created a new type of prose named the "verbal portrait." This form is demonstrated by Pulgar's work "Claros varones de Castilla" in which he represents the detailed lives of twenty-four distinguished contemporaries. He explores their moral and psychological natures as well as physical traits. Pulgar was the official historian of the monarchs Fernando and Isabel, the famous Catholic Monarchsof Spain. This position gave him close encounters with the characters in this book, making the work realistic and detailed.
Lyric Poetry of the Middle Ages
Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages can be divided into three groups: the "jarchas," the popular poems originating from folk-songs sung by commoners, and the courtly poetry of the nobles. Alfonso X el Sabio fits into the third group with his series of three hundred poems, written in Galician: "Las cantigas de Santa María." Another poet, Juan Ruíz, or the
Arcipreste de Hitais an outstanding lyricist of the fourteenth century. His only work, "Libro de buen amor" is a framework tale in which he includes translations from Ovid, satires, little poems called "serranillas", twenty-nine fables, a sermon on Christian armor, and many lyric poems that praise the Virgin Mary. Poet "Íñigo López de Mendoza," the Marqués de Santillana (1398-1458) begins to show the movement away from the traditions of the Middle Ages. He shows a knowledge of Latin authors and familiarity with the works of Dante and Petrarch. Mendoza was also the first to introduce the sonnet into Spanish literature. The last great poet of the Middle Ages is Jorge Manrique. He is famous for his work which laments the death of his father, Coplas que hizo por la muerte de su padre. In this piece, Manrique shows classical feelings by expressing himself in a universal manner (all things come to an end). He is still considered a poet of the Middle Ages in that he finds peace and finality in religion.
During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance occurs. The literary production increased exponentially. Some outstanding poets of this century are
Juan de Menaand Íñigo López de Mendoza(Marquess of Santillana). The Spanish literature of the Middle Ages concludes with the work " La Celestina" by Fernando de Rojas.
In the Renaissance important topics are: the Renaissance poetry, with
Garcilaso de la Vegaand Juan Boscán; the religious literature, with Fray Luis de León, San Juan de la Cruz, and Santa Teresa de Jesús; and the Renaissance prosa, with the anonymous "El Lazarillo de Tormes". The principal features of the Renaissance were the revival of learning based on classical sources, the rise of courtly patronage, the development of perspective in painting, and the advancements of science.
The most important characteristics of the Renaissance are:
* The language in this age is dominated by the naturality and simplicity, which avoids the affectation, the "amaneramiento" and the over-searched phrase. Thus the vocabulary and the syntax will be simple.
* The preferred themes are, fundamentally, love, conceived from the platonic point of view; nature, as somewhat idyllic (bucolic); pagan mythology, from which the histories of gods and the female beauty are reflected, following always the same classical ideal. In relation to these themes mentioned, various Renaissance points exist, some of them taken from the classical world:
** The "Carpe Diem", whose translation would be "catch the day" or "take advantage of the moment". It advises the enjoyment of the life before the arrival of old age.
** The female beauty, described always following the same plan: blond youth, of serene, clear eyes, of white skin, red lips, rosy cheeks, etc.
** The "Beatus Ille" or praise of the life in the field, apart from the material things, as opposed to the life in the city, with its dangers and intrigues.
** The "Locus Emoenus" or description of a perfect and idyllic nature.
Don Quixoteis considered the most emblematic work in the canon of Spanish literature and a founding classic of Western literature] In the Baroque of the 17th century important topics are: the prose of Francisco de Quevedoand Baltasar Gracián; also the theater is remarkable ( Lope de Vega, Pedro Calderon de la Barca, and Tirso de Molina), as well as the poetry with Luis de Góngora(who is a Culteranist) and Francisco de Quevedo(who is a Conceptist). In the works of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedraremarkable novels are: " La Galatea", and " Don Quixote de la Mancha". The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music.
The Baroque is characterized by the following points:
* Pessimism: The Renaissance did not obtain its purpose of imposing the harmony and the perfection in the world, just as the humanists intended, neither had done the man happier; the wars and the social inequalities continued to be present; the pain and the calamities were common in the whole Europe. An intellectual pessimism got installed, which accentuated as time passed; this shows united to the unangry character that the comedies of that epoch give testimony and the rascality in which the picaresque novels are based.
* Disillusion: As the Renaissance ideals failed and in the case of Spain, the political power was being dispelled, the disillusion continues and arises in the literature, that in many cases recalls that of two centuries before, with the "Dance of the Death" or the Manrique's "Couplets to the death of its father". Quevedo says that life is formed by "successions of deceased" : in them get converted the born, since the diapers to the mortise with the weak bodies are covered. In conclusion, nothing has importance, only one must obtain the eternal salvation.
* Worry about the passing of time.
* Loss of confidence in the Renaissance ideals.
In the Enlightenment of the 18th century, with the arrival of "the lights" to Spain, important topics are: the prose of Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo,
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, and José Cadalso; the lyric of the Salmantine school (with Juan Meléndez Valdés), the lyric of the Madrilenian group (with the story-tellers Tomás de Iriarteand Félix María Samaniego), and the lyric of the Sevillian school; and also the theater, with Leandro Fernández de Moratínand Ramón de la Cruz. Enlightenment thinkers sought to apply systematic thinking to all forms of human activity, carrying it into to the ethical and governmental spheres in exploration of the individual, society and the state.
Three phases in the Spanish literature of the 18th century are distinguished:
* Anti-Baroquism (approximately until 1750): It fights against the style of the last Baroque, which is considered excessively rhetorical and twisted. The recreational literature is not cultivated, but they are more interested in the essay and the satire, utilizing the language with simplicity and purity.
* Neoclassicism (until the end of the 18th century): It is strongly influenced by the French and Italian classicism. The writers also imitate the old classics (Greek and Roman); its boom extended since the reign of Fernando VI until the end of the century.
* Pre-Romanticism (final of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century): The influence of the English philosopher John Locke, together to that of the French Étienne Bonnot of Condillac, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Denis Diderot, will cause a new feeling, dissatisfied with the tyranny of the reason, that emphasizes the right of the individuals to express their personal emotions (repressed then by the neoclassicals), among which them figures fundamentally the love. This current announces the decadence of the Neoclassicism and opens the doors to the Romanticism.
In the Romanticism (principle of the 19th century) important topics are: the poetry of
José de Esproncedaand other poets; the prose, that can have several forms (the historical novel, the scientific prose, the description of regional customs, the journalism —where Mariano José de Larracan be mentioned—); the theater, with Ángel de Saavedra(Duke of Rivas), José Zorrilla, and other authors. In the latter romanticism (post-romanticism) some appear: Gustavo Adolfo Bécquerand Rosalía de Castro. Some anti-romantic poets are Ramón de Campoamorand Gaspar Núñez de Arce. In part a revolt against aristocratic, social, and political norms of the Enlightenment period and a reaction against the rationalization of nature, in art and literature Romanticism stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror, and the awe experienced in confronting the sublimity of nature. It elevated folk art, nature and custom.
The characteristics of the works of the Romanticism are:
* Refusal of Neoclassicism. Contrary to the scrupulous severity and order with which the rules were observed in the 18th century, the romanticist writers combine the genres and verses of different measures, at times mixing the verse and the prose; in theater, the rule of the three units (place, space and time) is despised and they alternate the comedy with the drama.
* Subjectivism. No matter which be the kind of the work, the exalted soul of the author pours in it all their feelings of dissatisfaction against a world that limits and breaks the flight of his desire about the love, the society, the patriotism, etc. They do so that the nature fuses with their state of spirit and it shows melancholic, tetric, mysterious, dark... as opposed to the neoclassicals, that barely showed interest about the landscape. The longings for passionate love, desire of happiness, and possession of the infinite, cause a discomfort in the romanticist, an immense deception that from time to time carries them to the suicide, as is the case of Mariano José of Larra.
* Attraction by the nocturnal and mysterious. The romantics situate their aching and defrauded feelings in mysterious or melancholic places, like ruins, forests, cemeteries... In the same way that feel attraction toward the supernatural, that which escapes from any logic, like the miracles, apparitions, visions of ultratumba, the diabolic and the witch-like...
* Escape from the world that surrounds them. The refusal of the bourgeois society in which they are forced to live, makes the romanticist be evaded from their circumstances, imagining passed epochs in which their ideals prevailed over the others, or being inspired in the exotic. Against the neoclassicals, who admired the Greco-Latin antiquity, the romanticists prefer the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. As more frequent kinds of works, they cultivate the novel, the legend and the historic drama.
Various are the themes of the romanticist works:
* Oneself. In Espronceda's "Song to Teresa," a heartwrenching confession of love and disillusion, who has managed to poeticize his feelings with most success.
* Passionate love, with sudden, total deliveries, and quick abandonments. The exaltation and the distaste.
* They are inspired in legendary and historic themes.
* Religion, although it is often in defiance with the consequent compassion and even exaltation of the devil.
* Social demands (revaluation of the marginal types, like the beggar).
* Nature, shown in all its modalities and variations. Usually set in mysterious places, like cemeteries, storms, the rough sea, etc.
* Satire, connected with political or literary events.
In Realism (final of the 19th century), which is mixed with Naturalism, important topics are: the novel, with
Juan Valera, José María de Pereda, Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Luis Coloma, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Armando Palacio Valdés, and Vicente Blasco Ibáñez; the poetry, with Ramón de Campoamor, Gaspar Núñez de Arce, and other poets; the theater, with José Echegaray, Manuel Tamayo y Baus, and other dramatists; and the literary critics, emphasizing Menéndez Pelayo. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism," Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation.
The realistic works of this period are characterized by:
* Objective vision of the reality through the direct observation of customs or psychological characters. They eliminate any subjective aspect, fantastic events, and every feeling that moves away of the reality: "The novel is the image of the life" (Galdós), "an artistic copy of the reality" (Clarín).
* Defense of a thesis: the narrators write their works focusing the reality from their moral conception. They are the so-called omniscient narrators. The defense of a thesis usually compromises the objectivity of the novel.
* Themes that are familiar to the reader: marital conflicts, infidelity, defense of the ideals, etc.
* The popular and colloquial language acquires great importance since it situates the characters in their real environment.
In Modernism several currents appear: Parnasianism, Symbolism, Futurism, and Creationism. Literary Modernism in Spain was influenced by the "disaster of '98", Regenerationism, and the Free Institution of Education (founded by "Giner de los Ríos"). Modernism was rooted in the idea that "traditional" forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, and daily life had become outdated; therefore it was essential to sweep them aside.
Some important Modernist authors are
Salvador Rueda, Miguel de Unamunoand Rubén Darío.
20th century literature
The destruction of Spain's naval armada in Cuba by U.S. gunboats in 1898 provoked a general cultural crisis in Spain. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of "Regeneracionismo." For a group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruíz (Azorín), the Disaster and its cultural repercussions inspired a deeper, more radical literary shift affecting both form and content. These writers, along with Ramón de Valle-Inclán, Antonio Machado, Ramiro Maeztu, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be know as the 'Generation of the 98.' The label from its outset was controversial and even Azorín, the source of its origin, came to reject it. Nevertheless, it stuck as a way to describe a group of writers who turned in content from the more general exploration of universal middle class values characteristic of Nineteenth Century Realism to an obsession with questions of a more particularly national nature. Their articles, essays, poems, and novels exploring Spanish history and geography carried existential overtones. The resurrection of a fallen Spanish nation was inseparable from the individual Spaniard´s discovery of personal meaning. Spain´s steady three-hundred year decline from Golden Age greatness was inseparable from the Spanish citizen´s inertia and indifference towards life. Renewal would be found as Spanish citizens rediscovered the adventurous, idealistic spirit of Don Quijote, trapsing, like the heroes of Pío Baroja and Azorín´s novels, out into the Spanish countryside to encounter the deep, hidden history of the Spanish "pueblo." This intellectually and politically restless generation of writers produced an equally restless shift in Spanish literary form. While not radically experimental, their sober, paired-down style, their exploration of alternating narrative voices and points of view, and their challenge of traditional genre divisions paved the way for a rising generation of avant-garde writers. Indeed, Unamuno´s play with narrative authority in his 1907 novel, "Niebla", in which the protagonist finds himself face-to-face with his author, a Salamanca don named Miguel de Unamuno, actually predates many of its more famous uses, and with its prologues and epilogues, actually goes much further than many later experiments in blurring ontological frontiers.
After the Generation of 1898 came Novecentism; Generation of 1927; and Literature subsequent to the Civil War (1936-1939), that can be during the pro-Franco dictatorship (1939-1975) or subsequent to it. The authors in liric, novel, and theater abound. Postmodernity refers to a movement of ideas contrary to those of modernism.
Some important authors in the
Generation of '98are Ángel Ganivet, Miguel de Unamuno, Antonio Machado, Ramón del Valle-Inclán, Azorín, Pío Baroja, Ramiro de Maeztu, Ramón Pérez de Ayala; and some in the Generation of '27are Rafael Alberti, Vicente Aleixandre, Dámaso Alonso, Manuel Altolaguirre, Luis Cernuda, Gerardo Diego, Federico García Lorca, Jorge Guillén, Emilio Prados, Pedro Salinas, Agustín Díaz Pacheco.
* Baroque (Siglo de oro)
** Anonymous ("
Lazarillo de Tormes")
Alonso de Ercilla(" La Araucana")
Miguel de Cervantes(" Don Quixote")
** The classical Spanish theater
Lope de Vega
Pedro Calderon de la Barca
Tirso de Molina
Luis de Góngora
Francisco de Quevedo
* The 18th century
Benito Jeronimo Feijoo
Jose Cadalso("Cartas marruecas")
Juan Meléndez Valdés
** Félix María de Samaniego
Leandro Fernández de Moratín("El sí de las niñas")
* The 19th century
*** Duque de Rivas
Mariano José de Larra
Ramón de Mesonero Romanos
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer("Rhymes", "Legends")
José de Espronceda(" El estudiante de Salamanca", "La canción del pirata")
José Zorrilla(" Don Juan Tenorio")
Benito Pérez Galdós(" Fortunata y Jacinta", "La de Bringas", "Misericordia")
*** Leopoldo Alas, Clarín ("
La Regenta", "Su Único Hijo")
Juan Valera("Pepita Jiménez", "Juanita la Larga")
Emilia Pardo Bazán("Los pazos de Ulloa")
José María de Pereda("Peñas arriba")
* The 20th century
Generation of '98
Miguel de Unamuno("La tía Tula", "San Manuel Bueno mártir", "Niebla")
Ramón del Valle-Inclán("Luces de Bohemia")
Pío Baroja("Zalacaín el Aventurero", "Las aventuras de Shanti Andia", "El árbol de la vida")
Ramón Pérez de Ayala
Generation of '27
Federico García Lorca(" Mariana Pineda", " Bodas de sangre", " La casa de Bernarda Alba")
Agustín Díaz Pacheco
*cite book|author=Bleznick, Donald W. and Walter T. Pattison|title=Representative Spanish Authors, vol I|year=1971|publisher=Oxford University Press, Inc|edition=3|id=ISBN 0-19-501326-3
*cite book|author=Bleznick, Donald W. and Walter T. Pattison|title=Representative Spanish Authors, vol II|year=1971|publisher=Oxford University Press, Inc|edition=3|id=ISBN 0-19-501433-2
Latin American literature
List of Spanish language authors
List of Spanish language poets
List of Asturian language authors
Premio Cervantesprize is awarded to honour the career of a writer in the Spanish language, regardless of nationality.
* [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com La biblioteca virtual "Miguel de Cervantes"] Online Spanish literature texts.
* [http://www.palabravirtual.com Palabra virtual] Latin American Poetry.
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