Roxburgh


Roxburgh

infobox UK place
country = Scotland
official_name= Roxburgh
latitude=55.56814
longitude=-2.47727
map_type=Scotland
gaelic_name= Rosbrog
scots_name= Roxburgh, Rosbroch
os_grid_reference= NT700306
population= 70
unitary_scotland= Scottish Borders
lieutenancy_scotland= Roxburgh, Ettrick and Lauderdale
post_town= KELSO|postcode_district = TD5
postcode_area= TD
dial_code= 01573
constituency_westminster= Berwickshire, Roxburgh & Selkirk
constituency_scottish_parliament= Roxburgh & Berwickshire
The destroyed royal burgh of Roxburgh (or Rosbroch) was an important trading burgh in High Medieval to early modern Scotland. In the Middle Ages it had at least as much importance as Edinburgh, Stirling, or Berwick-upon-Tweed, for a time acting as "de facto" capital (as royal residence of David I).

History

Its significance lay in its position in the centre of some of Lowland Scotland's most agriculturally fertile areas, and its position upon the River Tweed, which allowed river transport of goods via the main seaport of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Its position also acted as a barrier to English invasion.

The town stood on a defensible peninsula between the rivers Tweed and Teviot, with Roxburgh Castle guarding the narrow neck of the peninsula. Nothing remains of the town except some ruined segments of castle ramparts. Its site lies to the south of modern Kelso and Floors Castle, which lie on the other side of the Tweed. The Duke of Roxburghe owns the site.

English and Scots forces repeatedly captured and recaptured the town during the Scottish Wars of Independence. Its final recapture in 1460 saw the town and castle destroyed. After this time the town never regained its importance because the final English capture of Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482 left Roxburgh with little reason to exist.

Roxburgh was superseded as the county town of the former county of Roxburghshire by Jedburgh. [ [http://www.channel4.com/history/timeteam/2004_rox_ancient.html channel4.com - Time Team 2004 - Roxburgh - Further reading ] ]

Etymology

Roxburgh probably comes from Old English "*hrōcas burh", "rook's borough". [ [http://www.ancestry.com/facts/roxburgh-family-history.ashx roxburgh Family History Facts 1920 - Ancestry.com ] ] However, numerous other suggestions have been offered, including Middle English "rockes burh", "burgh of rocks", "Rouges burh", after its ancient inhabitantsFact|date=May 2008, or "Rokes burh", "St. Rok's borough", being dedicated to St. Rok.Facts|date=May 2008

Roxburgh District

Roxburgh District 1975–96

In more recent times (1975–1996), "Roxburgh" referred to a local government district in the Borders region of Scotland. Its borders broadly resembled those of the traditional county of Roxburghshire. In 1996 the district of Roxburgh became part of the Scottish Borders unitary area. (See also: Subdivisions of Scotland)

Roxburgh (village)

Nowadays the name Roxburgh belongs to a small village about one and a half miles southwest of the site of the historic Roxburgh.

ee also

*List of places in the Scottish Borders






Notes


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Roxburgh — Koordinaten 55° 34′ N, 2° 29′ W …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Roxburgh —    ROXBURGH, a parish and village, in the county of Roxburgh; containing, with the village of Hieton, 979 inhabitants, of whom 123 are in the village of Roxburgh, 4 miles (S. W.) from Kelso. This place, which in old documents is written… …   A Topographical dictionary of Scotland

  • Roxburgh — Rox burgh (?; Scot. ?), n. [From the third duke of Roxburgh (Scotland), a noted book collector who had his books so bound.] A style of bookbinding in which the back is plain leather, the sides paper or cloth, the top gilt edged, but the front and …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Roxburgh [1] — Roxburgh, 1) (Teviot dale), Grafschaft in Südschottland, an England grenzend, 34,75 QM.; sehr gebirgig; Flüsse: Teviot (welchem der Jed, an dessen Ufern viele Höhlen, zufällt) u. einige Nebenflüsse; rauhes Klima, an den Flüssen ziemlich fruchtbar …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Roxburgh [2] — Roxburgh, John, Herzog von R., britischer Biblioman, welcher 1811 starb. Seine Bibliothek war eine der seltensten, bes. in der Altfranzösischen u. Altenglischen Literatur; sie wurde 1812 zu ungeheuern Preisen versteigert, u. zum Gedächtniß dieses …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Roxburgh [1] — Roxburgh (spr. róxböro), Dorf in Roxburghshire (Schottland), am Tweed, 6 km südwestlich von Kelso, mit (1891) 954 Einw. Zwischen Tweed und Teviot Ruine des Schlosses R., in dem Jakob II. 1460 getötet wurde. Dabei stand früher Alt R …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Roxburgh [2] — Roxburgh (spr. róxböro), schott. Adelstitel, den Sir Robert Ker, ein eifriger Royalist, 1600 als Lord und 1616 als Graf von R. erhielt. John Ker, der fünfte Graf, wurde 1707 zum Herzog von R. erhoben, und mit dem vierten Herzog, William Ker,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Roxburgh — (spr. börrŏ), auch Teviotdale, Grafschaft in Südschottland, 1723 qkm, (1901) 48.793 E.; Hauptstadt Jedburgh …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Roxburgh — (Raksborgh) od. Teviotdale (Tiwwiotdehl), südschott. Grafschaft, ziemlich fruchtbares Hügelland mit 51000 E. auf 333/4 QM. Die Hauptstadt Jedburgh (Dschedbörgh) hat 3700 E.; unweit davon, am Tweed, die Ruinen von R. Castle …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Roxburgh —   [ rɔksbərə], ehemalige County in Südschottland, seit 1996 Teil des Verwaltungsdistrikts Scottish Borders.   …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Roxburgh — [räks′bə reshir΄, räks′bə reshərräks′bər ə] former county & former district of S Scotland: also, for the county, Roxburghshire [räks′bə reshir΄, räks′bə reshər] …   English World dictionary


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