Chhattisgarh


Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
छत्तीसगढ़
—  State  —

Seal
Location of Chhattisgarh in India
Political Map of Chhattisgarh
Coordinates (Raipur): 21°16′N 81°36′E / 21.27°N 81.60°E / 21.27; 81.60Coordinates: 21°16′N 81°36′E / 21.27°N 81.60°E / 21.27; 81.60
Country  India
Established 2000-11-01
Capital Raipur
Largest city Raipur
Districts 27 (9 dist. new)
Government
 – Governor Shekhar Dutt
 – Chief Minister Raman Singh (BJP)
 – Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 – Parliamentary constituency 11 (year 2010)
 – High Court Chhattisgarh High Court
Area
 – Total 135,194 km2 (52,198.7 sq mi)
Area rank 10th
Population (2011)
 – Total 25,540,196
 – Rank 17th
 – Density 188.9/km2 (489.3/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-CT
HDI increase 0.516 (medium)
HDI rank 23rd (2005)
Literacy 64.7% (23rd)
Official languages Hindi, Chhattisgarhi
Website chhattisgarh.nic.in

Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, pronounced [tʃʰət̪ˈt̪iːsɡəɽʱ] ( listen)) is a state in Central India, formed when the 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking South-Eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained separate statehood on 1 November 2000.

Raipur is the biggest city and the capital of the state. Chhattisgarh is the 10th-largest state in India with an area of 52,199 sq mi (135,190 km2). By population it ranks as the seventeenth largest state of the nation. It is an important electrical power and steel producing state of India.[1] Chhattisgarh produces 15 per cent of the steel made in the country.[2]

Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh on the northwest, Maharashtra on the west, Andhra Pradesh on the south, Orissa on the east, Jharkhand on the northeast and Uttar Pradesh on the north.

Contents

Etymology

There is a wide array of opinions on the origin of the word Chhattisgarh. The name Chhattisgarh is not an a very old one and has come into popular usage in the last few centuries. In ancient times the region was called Dakshin Kosala (South Kosala). The name Chhattisgarh was popularized during the Maratha period and was first used in an official document in 1795.[3]

  • In a popular and widely-believed opinion, Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 pillars of Chhatishgarhin Devi temple (chhattis means "36", and garh means "pillar"). The state has 36 districts, which are : 1- Ratanpur, 2- Vijaypur, 3- Kharound, 4- Maro, 5- Kautgarh, 6- Nawagarh, 7- Sondhi, 8- Aukhar, 9- Padarbhatta, 10- Semriya, 11- Champa, 12- Lafa, 13- Chhuri, 14- Kenda, 15- Matin, 16- Aparora, 17- Pendra, 18- Kurkuti-kandri, 19- Raipur, 20- Patan, 21- Simaga, 22- Singarpur, 23- Lavan, 24- Omera, 25- Durg, 26- Saradha, 27- Sirasa, 28- Menhadi, 29- Khallari, 30- Sirpur, 31- Figeswar, 32- Rajim, 33- Singhangarh, 34- Suvarmar, 35- Tenganagarh and 36- Akaltara.[4] However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as thirty-six forts cannot be archaeologically identified in the region.[3]
  • The British Chronicler, J.B. Beglar provides a different explanation of the origins of the name Chhattisgarh. According to Beglar, "the real name is Chhattisghar(Chhattis=Thirty six, Ghar=houses) and not Chhattisgarh. According to him,"There is a traditional saying that ages ago, about the time of Jarasandha(Age of Mahabharata), thirty six dalit families (leather workers) emigrated southwards from Jarasandha's kingdom and established themselves in this region, which is called after them Chhattisgarh".[5]
  • Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh which means Raj or Empire of the Chedis (Kalchuri Dynasty).[3]
  • According to DR. Shrikant Khilari- the word Chhattisgarh comes from the time of Gurughasidas [www.satnami.com] a saint who gave this name and then it was officially applied by the Marathas in 1795.
  • One more view is that the State acquired the name 'Chhattisghar' because it is home for thirty six tribal clans. Chhattis( Hindi for thirty six) ghar (Hindi for home)

Geography

The Northern and Southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is fertile plain. Moist deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state.

State Animal - Van Bhainsa (Wild Buffalo) State Bird - Pahari Myna (Hill Myna) State Tree - Sal or Sarai

The north of the state lies on the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain: The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain.

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi and its tributaries, with extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills, (part of the Satpuras), and from the plains of Orissa to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary the Indravati River.

The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk and Arpa. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh.

Climate

The climate of Chhattisgarh is mainly tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer. It is completely dependent on the monsoons for rains.

Summer in Chhattisgarh is from April to June and can be uncomfortably hot, with the mercury hitting the high 40's. The Monsoon season is from middle and late June to October and is a welcome respite from the scorching heat. Chhattisgarh receives a pretty decent amount of rainfall with an average of 1292mm. The Winter season is from November to January and this is a good time to visit Chhattisgarh. The Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and lesser humidity.[6]

Temperature

The Temperature varies between 30 - 47 degree Celsius in summer and between 5 - 25 degree Celsius during winter.

History

Ancient and Medival History

In ancient times this region was known as Dakshin-Kausal. This finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata also. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalchuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1741 AD.

Modern history

Chhattisgarh was under Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947. With the advent of the British in 1845, Raipur gained prominence instead of capital Ratanpur. In 1905 Sambalpur district was transferred to Orissa and estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.

Separation of Chhattisgarh

The demand for a separate Chhattisgarh state was first raised in the 1920. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organised movement was never launched. There were several all-party platforms formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and bandhs.[7]

A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit, and later on also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organisation for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward to it, through this was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat.[7]

The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as formation of a state wide political forum, specially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. The Late Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide Bandhs and rallies were organised under the banner of the forum all of which were supported by major political parties including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[7]

The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to The Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on the 25 August 2000. The Government of India subsequently set the First day of November 2000 as the day on which the state of Madhya Pradesh would be bifurcated into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.[7]

Government and Administration

The State Legislative assembly is composed of 90 MLAs (Members of the Legislative Assembly). There are 11 members to the Lok Sabha from Chhattisgarh. The Rajya Sabha has five members from the state.

Districts

Chattisgarh state consists 27 districts:[8][9][10][11]

Bastar Division:

Durg Division:

Raipur Division:

Bilaspur Division:

Surguja Division:

Municipal Corporations

Bhatapara

Demographics

Chhattisgarh is primarily a rural state with only 20% of population residing in urban areas. According to the report from Government of India,[12] at least 34% are Scheduled Tribes, 12% are Scheduled Castes and over 50% belong to official list of Other Backward Castes. Plain area is numerically dominated by castes such as Teli, Satnami and Kurmi; while forest area is mainly occupied by tribes such as Gond, Halba and Kamar/ Bujia and Oraon.

Language

Official language of the state is Hindi and used by non-rural population of the state. Chhattisgarhi a dialect of Hindi language (or a language in its own right) is spoken and understood by the majority of people in Chhattisgarh Telugu is also spoken in the state. Chhattisgarhi was also known as "Khaltahi" to surrounding Hill-people and as "Laria" to Sambalpuri and Oriya speakers.

Status of Women

Adivasi woman and child, Chhattisgarh.

Chhattisgarh has a high female-male sex ratio (991)[13] ranking at 5th position among other states of India. Although this ratio is small compared to other states, it is unique in India because of large size of Chhattisharh (the 10th-largest state in India).

The gender ratio (number females per 1000 males) has been steadily declining over 20th century in Chhattisgarh: But it is conspicuous that Chhattisgarh always had better female to male ratio compared with national average.

Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
India 972 964 955 950 945 946 941 930 934 927 933 940
Chhattisgarh 1046 1039 1041 1043 1032 1024 1008 998 998 985 989 991

Probably, such social composition also results in some customs and cultural practices that seem unique to Chhattisgarh: the regional variants are common in India's diverse cultural pattern.

Rural women although poor, are independent, better organized, socially outspoken.[14] According to another local custom, women can choose to terminate a marriage relationship and through a custom called Chudi pahanana, if she so desires. Most of the old temples and shrines here are related to 'women power' (e.g., Shabari, Mahamaya, Danteshwari) and existence of these temples gives insight into historical and current social fabric of this state. However, a mention of these progressive local customs, in no way suggests that the ideology of female subservience does not exist in Chhattisgarh. On the contrary, the male authority and dominance is seen quite clearly in the social and cultural life of Chhattisgarh.

Detailed information on various aspects of women status in Chhattisgarh can be found in the linked 103 page report titled 'A situational analysis of women and girls in Chhattisgarh' prepared in 2004 by 'National Commission of Women', a statutory body belonging to government of India.

Malus Usuo of Tonhi (Witchcraft)

There is widespread belief in witchcraft in Chhattisgarh.[15] Women are believed to have access to supernatural forces, and accused of being witches (tonhi) often to settle personal scores. They are barbarically persecuted, particularly older women, widows, women with deformities or with abnormal facial features.

As of 2010, they are still hounded out of villages on the basis of flimsy accusations by male village sorcerers paid to do so by villagers with personal agendas, such as property and goods acquisition.[15] According to National Geographic Channel’s investigations, those accused are fortunate if they are only verbally bullied and shunned or exiled from their village. Humiliations are commonplace, such as being forced to eat human excreta and in recent years, 2,500 women accused of witchcraft were murdered by stoning, hanging and beheading by neighbours. Though, in India, only Chhattisgarh has an act (known as, Chhattisgarh Tonhi atyachar [Niwaran] Act, 2005) against witchery,[16] a lot has be done on the hand of law enforcement and judicial authorities to protect women in this regard, bringing such persecution to an end.[15]

Culture

A carving in 10th or 11th century Hindu temple of Malhar village. This area, 40 km from Bilaspur, was supposedly a major Buddhist center in ancient times.

The state hosts religious sects including "Satnami Panth", Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj, and others. Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a small town with religious significance as the birth place of the Saint Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the Gujarati community.

The Oriya culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh bordering Orissa.

Incredible people from Chhattisgarh

1.Dhriti pati sarkar a theater actor from Nehru culture house to a Hindi movie actor of film Sabyasachee & Aakhri ladai. 2.Tijan Bai a world famous pandwani singer specially sing in Chhattisgarhi . 3.Anurag basu movie director of Murder born and brought up in Bhilai. 4.Krishna sahu famous India champion weight lifter and bodybuilder . 5.Anuj sharma Chhattisgarhi film actor . 6.Raman sing two time C.M of Chhattisgarh and famous for well governance. 7.Vir narayan singh famous Independence activitist

Crafts

Chattisgarh is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles, shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis.in Lost wax metal, International Sculptor Sushil Sakhuja's Dhokra Nandi is famous and available at Govt's SHABARI handicrafts emporium, Raipur.

Dance

Panthi, Rawat Nacha, Karma, Pandwani and Soowa are indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh.

Panthi

Panthi, the folk dance of the Satnami community has religious overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, the anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogizing their spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of Nirvana, conveying the spirit of their guru's renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance, carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens, they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids.[17]

Pandwani

Pandavani is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in Chhattisgarh. It depicts the story of the Pandavas, the leading characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artists in the Pandavani narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers and musicians. There are two styles of narration in Pandavani, Vedamati and Kapalik. In the Vedamati style the lead artist narrates in a simple manner by sitting on the floor throughout the performance. The Kaplik style is livelier, where the narrator actually enacts the scenes and characters.vaibhav soni[18]

Rawat Nacha

Raut Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional folk dance of Yaduvanshis(Clan of Yadu) as symbol of worship to Krishna at the time of 'Dev Uthani Ekadashi' (day of awakening of the gods after a brief rest) which is the 11th day after Diwali according to the Hindu calendar. The dance closely resembles Krishna's dance with the gopis (milkmaids).[19][20]

Soowa Nacha

Soowa or Suwa Tribal Dance in Chhattisgarh, India is also known as Parrot Dance. It is a symbolic form of dancing related to worship. Dancers keep a parrot in a bamboo- pot and form a circle around it. Then performers sing and dance, moving around it with clapping. This is one of the main dance form of tribal women of Chhattisgarh.[21]

In Bilaspur city, Rawat Nach Mahotsav folk dance festival is organized annually since 1978. Tens of hundreds of Rawat dancers from remote areas participate in the festival every year.[22]

Karma

Tribal groups like Gonds, the Baigas and the Oraons in Chattisgarh have Karma dance as part of their culture. Both men and women arrange themselves in two rows and follow the rhythmic steps, directed by the singer group. The Karma tribal dance marks the end of the rainy season and the advent of spring season.[23][24]

Music

Theatre

Theater is known as Gammat in Chhattisgarh. Pandavani is one of the lyrical forms of this theater. Several acclaimed plays of Habib Tanvir, such as Charandas Chor, are variations of Chhattisgarhi theater, and heavily use Chhatttisgarhi folk songs and music.

Traditional Food

The State of Chhattisgarh is known as the rice bowl of Central India and has a rich tradition of food culture. Most of the traditional and tribe foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd (number of veg kadis) and a variety of green leaves like lal bhaji, chech bhaji, kohda, and bohar bhaji. Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; also Gulgula, pidiya, dhoodh fara, balooshahi, khurmi falls in sweet categories. The tribal and village population enjoys delicacy brew made of small, creamy white fruit of a local tree called Mahuwa.

Religion

Religion in Chhattisgarh
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
96%
Others
  
4%

Over 96% of the population of the state are Hindus. Several saints have their origin in Chattisgarh, including "Parsurama Ramnami" and Vallabha Acharya. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, a noted Hindu leader and founder of the Transcendental Meditation was from Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh). There is a significant minority of Christians among several tribal groups in Chattisgarh, though there are few reliable statistics on their exact numbers.

Economy

Chhattisgarh's gross state domestic product for 2010 is estimated at Rs 60,079 Crore in current prices. The economy of Chhattisgarh has grown rapidly in recent years with a growth rate of 11.49 per cent in GDP for 2009-2010.[25] Chhattisgarh’s success factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial production.

Agriculture

Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state of Chhattisgarh. According to a government estimate, Net sown area of the Chhattisgarh state is 4.828 Million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.788 Million hectares.[26] Horticulture and animal husbandry also engages a major share of the total population of the state.[27] 80% population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture based small industry.

Agricultural Produces

The main crops are paddy, cereals like maize, kodo-kutki and other small millets, pulses like tuar and kulthi and oil seeds like groundnut, soya-bean and sunflower are also grown. In the mid nineties, most of Chhattisgarh was still a mono-crop belt. Only one fourth to one fifth of the sown area was double cropped. When a very substantial portion of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation where nearly 80 percent of a states area is covered only by mono cropping needs immediate attention to turn them into double crop areas. Also there are very few cash crops grown in Chhattisgarh, and there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce towards oilseeds and other cash crops. Chhattisgarh is also called the "rice bowl of Central India".[26] vc

Irrigation

Chhattisgarh have very good irrigation systems, with dams and canals on various rivers. Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and the entire state falls under Rice-agro-climatic zone. Large variation in the yearly rainfall directly affects the main crop i.e. Paddy. Obviously, irrigation is the prime need of the state for its overall development and therefore the state government has given top priority to development of irrigation potential.[26]

Irrigation potential was 1.328 Million hectares at the time of formation of the state (i.e. on 1 November 2000) which was 13% of the gross sown area. The irrigation potential has now been raised to 1.66 Million hectares at the end of March 2006 which is 28.7% of gross sown area.A total of 4 Major, 33 Medium and 2199 Minor irrigation projects have been completed and 5 Major, 9 Medium and 312 Minor projects are under construction, as on 31 March 2006.

Industrial Sector

Power Sector

Chhattisgarh is one of the few states of India where Power sector is effectively developed. Based on the current production of surplus electric power, position of the State is comfortable and profitable. The Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new State and is in good financial health. Chhattisgarh provides electricity to several other states because of surplus production, and it's power hubs are Korba and Bilaspur.

In Chhattisgarh, NTPC has an installed thermal capacity of 2100 MW at Sipat, Bilaspur while CSEB's units have a thermal capacity of 1240 MW and hydel capacity of 130 MW. Apart from NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private generation units of large and small capacity. The state Govt. has pursued a liberal policy with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a number of private players coming up.[28]

As per a study made by the Power Finance Corporation Ltd. New Delhi, the state has potential of 61000 MW of additional thermal power in terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more than 2500 MW hydral capacity. To tap this vast potential, substantial addition to the existing generation capacity is already under way.[28]

Steel Sector

Steel industry is one of the biggest heavy industry of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai Steel Plant, Bhilai operated by SAIL with a capacity of 5.4 million tonnes per year, is regarded as a significant growth indicator of the state. There are more than 100 steel rolling mills, sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy units in Chhattisgarh. Along with Bhilai,today Raipur, Bilashpur, Korba and Raigarh has become the steel hub of chhattisgarh and with it steel association is been placed for the benefits of the investor, who are investing their capital in chhattisgarh steel sector. Today Raipur become the center of the steel sector.[29]

Aluminium Sector

The aluminium industry of Chhattisgarh consists of Bharat Aluminum Company limited which has a capacity of around one million tonnes each year.[29]

Natural Resources

Forest

Forests occupy 41.33% of the area (as per the latest report by the Indian Forest Service) and there are rich forest resources including wood, tandu leaves, honey and lac.

Mineral Deposits

Chhattisgarh is also rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's steel and cement. Iron-ore, limestone, dolomite, coal, bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin-ore producing state in the country. Other minerals include korandum, garnet, quartz, marble and diamonds.

Information and Technologies

In recent year chhattisgarh is also getting exposure in IT projects and consultancy. Government of Chhattisgarh is also promoting IT and for it government has set up a body who takes care of the IT solution in chhattisgarh the body known to be CHIPS, the body is coming with hudge IT projects like Choice, Swan, etc. In private sector many private companies been also coming with IT solutions and consultancy in one of the company WES Consultancy & Services Pvt. Ltd. been a providing a remarkable services in the field.

Issues with Development and Insurgency

Chhattisgarh State is rich in unused timber and mineral resources. There are disagreements between local indigenous peoples and the national government over the use of these resources.

Also, an ongoing insurgency between Maoists and the central Government of India has produced much bloodshed. The controversy surrounding the arrest of Dr Binayak Sen is related to the insurgency. Maoist insurgency has been main source of instability.

Transport

The rail network in Chhattisgarh is centered around Bilaspur, which is zonal headquarters of South East Central Railway of Indian Railways. The other main railway junction is Raipur, followed by Durg Junction which is also a starting point of many long distance trains. These three junctions are well-connected to the major cities of India.

The roadways infrastructure is also slowly picking up in the state. The National Highway 6 (Mumbai to Kolkata) passes through the state. The state also hosts National Highway 43 which starts from Raipur and goes up to Vishakhapatnam. National Highway 16 from Hyderabad ends at Bhopalpatnam in Dantewada district. National Highway 78 From Katni (MP) ends at Gumla (Jharkhand) pass through Koria, Surajpur, Sarguja, Jashpur District. The state has 11 National Highways (2,225 kilometres).

The air infrastructure is minor. The sole commercially operating airport is in Raipur, the capital city. Of late, Raipur has shown upsurge in passenger traffic. Raipur has links to top cities of the country i.e. Delhi (5 flights per day), Bombay (3 flight), Kolkata (3), Bhopal (1), Indore (1). It is also connected to Jaipur (1 flight a day), Nagpur (1 flights), Bhubaneshwar (1), Ahmedabad (1), Gwalior, Chandigarh (1), Hyderabad (2) and Bangalore(1).

Airports

Other Airstrips

  • Nandini Airport, Bhilai
  • Chakarbhata Airstrip, Bilaspur
  • Baikunth Airstrip, Baikunth
  • Kondatarai Airstrip, Raigarh
  • JSPL’s Airstrip, Raigarh
  • Darima Airstrip, Ambikapur
  • Korba Airstrip, Korba
  • Agdih Airstrip, Jashpur
  • Dondi Airstrip, Dondi, Durg

Some New airstrips have been proposed for more connectivity:

  • Kanker
  • Kabirdham
  • Surajpur
  • Dantewada
  • Bijapur
  • Korba
  • Balrampur
  • Rajnandgaon
  • Raigarh

Tourism

Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The State is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, water falls, caves, rock paintings and hill plateaus. Most of these sites are untouched and unexplored, and offer a unique and alternate experience to tourists, compared to traditional destinations which have become overcrowded. For tourists who are tired of the crowds at major destinations will like the Bastar district, with its unique cultural and ecological identity. The Green State of Chhattisgarh has 41.33% of its area under forests, and is one of the richest bio-diversity areas in the country.

Panoramic view of Chitrakot Falls, Jagdalpur, Kudargarh Temple, Surajpur, Chhattisgarh
  • Waterfalls

Beautiful waterfalls in Chhattisgarh are Akuri Nala, Amrit Dhara waterfall, Gavar Ghat waterfall, Ramdaha waterfall in Koriya district, Tiger point waterfall at Mainpat in Sarguja district and Chitrakot waterfall, Tirathgarh waterfall in Bastar district.

  • Hot spring Known as Taat Pani(taat=तात=hot, pani= पानी=water)

A hot spring (Taat pani) flows in Sarguja district. This hot spring flows continuously through the year. It is reputed to have medicinal properties.

  • Caves

Gadiya mountain in Kanker district, Kutumsar cave and Kailash Gufa in Bastar district, Ramgarh and Sita Bengra in Sarguja district and Singhanpur cave in Raigarh district with pre-historic paintings are very famous.

  • National parks and Wildlife sanctuary

[[Achanakmar wildlife sanctuary ]] in Bilaspur district, Gamarda Reserve forest at Sarangarh in Raigarh district, Indravati National Park and Kanger valley national park in Bastar district and Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary in Mahasamund district are good places for eco-tourism.

  • Archaeological sites

Archaeological sites worth seeing are Barsoor in Dantewada district, Malhar and Ratanpur in Bilaspur district, Sirpur in Mahasamund district and Surguja in Surguja district. A small picnic spot with waterfall on the extremity of Satpura ranga along with a stone inscription of circa 1st century CE is also found at Damau dhara in Janjgir-Champa district.

  • Temples

Famous and ancient temples in Chhattisgarh are Bhoramdeo temple near kawardha in Kabirdham district, Rajivlochan temple at Rajim and Champaran in Raipur district, Chandrahasini Devi temple at Chandrapur, Vishnu temple at Janjgir, Damudhara (Rishab Tirth) and Sivarinarayana Laxminarayana temple in Janjgir-Champa district, Bambleshwari Temple at Dongrigarh in Rajnandgaon district, Danteshwari Temple in Dantewada district, Deorani-Jethani temple at Tala gram and Mahamaya temple at Ratanpur in Bilaspur district, Laxman temple at Sirpur in Mahasamund district, Uwasaggaharam Parshwa Teerth at Nagpura in Durg district, Pali with Lord Shiva temple and Kharod with Lakshmaneswar temple.

Giraudhpuri, a religious place for the Satnamis. They are the follower of Satnam Panth.

Sirpur is proposed world heritage site and Malhar, are of historical significance, as they were visited by 'Xuanzang', the Chinese historian.

Dams – Khudiya dam, Lormi & Khutaghat dam, Ratanpur.

Education

According to the census of 2011, Chhattisgarh's literacy, the most basic indicator of education was at 71.04 percent. Female literacy is at 60.59 percent.

Absolute Literates and Literacy Rate

Data from Census of India,2011.[30]

Description 2001 Census 2011 Census
Total 1,11,73,149 1,55,98,314
Male 67,11,395 67,11,395
Female 44,61,754 66,36,193
 % Total 64.66 71.04
 % Male 77.38 81.45
 % Female 51.85 60.59

Universities

Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University

Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University(RSU) is Chhattisgarh's largest and one of the oldest institution of higher education, founded in 1964. There are 5000 students enrolled for variety of courses offered by the departments who are steered under the guidance of more than 100 faculty members. Jurisdiction of RSU covers entire central and southern part of Chhattisgarh. There are 180 educational institutions affiliated to the University. The University plays a major role in the educational, cultural and economic life of the region.[31]

Sarguja University

Sarguja Vishwavidyalaya is established by and incorporated by Chhattisgarh Vishwavidyalaya Adhiniyam No. 18 of 2008. The territorial jurisdiction of the University is the entire Sarguja division comprising revenue districts of Korea, Sarguja and Jaspur. It started functioning from September 2, 2008. Formerly a university campus was started with the permission of State Higher Education Department by the Guru Ghasidas University Bilaspur with 02 diploma courses i.e. Diploma in Pharmacy (30 Students) and Post Graduate Diploma in Computer Application (30 Students) in the year 2005 with a hope that it may be upgraded as university by the Government as soon as necessary infrastructures are developed, this resulted true in 2008 the state government allotted 220 acres of land nearby Ambikapur Ramanujganj Road just 10 kilometers away from Ambikapur town. Sarguja is a fast growing industrial area already having a large number of small industrial units coming up in the region. The jurisdiction is the nerve centre of the Trade specially in coal mines sector forestry, natural recourse including medicinal trees and so on. The region in its vicinity has a very rich historical and cultural heritage. The first effort of Open Theatre was made in near-by place i.e. Ramgarh. Relics and old temples with statues and building built-up by various dynasties are found in surrounding areas. The whole division is full of natural beauty, flora and fauna, tribal and folk culture. Situated in tribally enriched, socially, economically challenged area of Chhattisgarh State. At present the university is partially residential and fully one, having its jurisdiction spread over within Sarguja revenue division. At present the university is having 42 affiliated colleges offering various courses in the areas of arts, science, commerce, education, law, management, social life science and so on. Ambikapur town is a Municipal Corporation and is well connected with all parts of the country by road and rail also. Recently town is connected with Durg, Raipur, Bilaspur and Anuppur of SECR. /Rly Station is 4 kilometers away from town. Frequent local transport is available for reaching the university. The nearest railway zone and main railway is Bilaspur in SECR. 235 kilometers away. Raipur the capital city of Chhattishgarh 350 kilometers away is the nearest Airport well connected with Delhi, Nagpur, Kolkata etc.[32]

Guru Ghasidas Central University

Formally known as Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, is a Central University located in Bilaspur, established under Central Universities Act 2009, No. 25 of 2009. Formerly called Guru Ghasidas University(GGU), established by an Act of the State Legislative Assembly, was formally inaugurated on June 16, 1983. It covers almost the entire spectrum of the higher education requirements of the local people. It has several University Teaching Department (UTDs) on its campuses and about 125 colleges affiliated to it.[33]

Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University

Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University (CSVTU) is a public university located in the city of Bhilai, the STEEL CITY. The university was established on 21 January 2005. The University incorporates the purpose of ensuring systematic, efficient and qualitative education in engineering and technological subjects including Architecture and Pharmacy at Research, Postgraduate, Degree and Diploma level.

Premier Professional Colleges in Chattisgarh

There are four premier Professional Institutes in the state of Chattisgarh

Hidayatullah National Law University

Main article: Hidayatullah National Law University

It is one of the esteemed national law schools established in India.[1] It was established as a centre for legal excellence by the Government of Chhattisgarh under the Hidayatullah National University of Law, Chattisgarh, Act (Act No.10 of 2003. HNLU being one of the most prestigious centres for legal education in India offers innumerable opportunities for the students to interact with academicians, lawyers, Judges, firms, banking and other related institutions. The University offers B.A. L.L.B. (Hons.). L.L.M., and Ph.D. degrees. It is a residential University and is sixth in the series of National Law Schools in India.

National Institue of Technology

National Institute of Technology, Raipur is an important technical university located in Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Originally founded in 1956 as Govt. College of Mining & Metallurgy, institute is one of the oldest of its kind in India. Currently it is one of the 20 National Institutes of Technology, which have been accorded Institute of National Importance status by the NIT Act of the Indian Government.

The institute offers 2 undergraduate (B.Tech. and B.Arch.) and 2 post graduate programmes M.Tech. and M.C.A. in 11 engineering disciplines and architecture.

Indian Institute Of Management

The Indian Institute of Management Raipur,(Hindi: भारतीय प्रबंध संस्थान, रायपुर ) is a Premium Business School in the state of Chhattisgarh. It is the tenth Indian Institute of Management in the country.[34] The first batch of Post Graduate Programme of the institute was inaugurated by Dr Raman Singh, Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh on October 11, 2010.

All India Institute of Medical Science

Capital Raipur is all set to get a new All India Institute of Medical Sciences in next two years. It will be a huge leap in availability of top notch Medical education and remarkable milestone in the availability of health services in Chhattisgarh.[35]

Notes

  1. ^ "Chhatisgarh State - Power Hub". http://cg.gov.in/power/power1.htm. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "Chhattisgarh -Steel". http://india.gov.in/knowindia/st_chhattisgarh.php. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c "Origin of Name of Chhattisgarh". http://cg.gov.in/profile/corigin.htm. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  4. ^ Dr. Bhagvan Singh Verma, " Chhattisgarh ka Itihas " (A History of Chattisgarh - in Hindi), Madhya Pradesh Hindi Granth Academy, Bhopal(M.P.), 4th edition(2003), P.7
  5. ^ "J.B.Beglar's Views". http://dspace.vidyanidhi.org.in:8080/dspace/bitstream/2009/3642/2/MUM-1982-048-1.pdf. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  6. ^ Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd.. "Chhattisgarh Climate, Climate of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh Temperature, Temperature of Chhattisgarh". Chhattisgarhonline.in. http://chhattisgarhonline.in/Profile/Geography/Climate.asp. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Prithak Chhattisgarh". http://cg.gov.in/profile/corigin.htm#prathak. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  8. ^ "Electoral rolls". Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Chhatisgarh. http://cg.nic.in/voterlist/index.htm. 
  9. ^ http://www.chhattisgarh.nic.in/statistics/details.pdf
  10. ^ List of Chhattisgarh District Centres at NIC, Chhatisgarh official Portal
  11. ^ Mathew, K.M. (ed.). Manorama Yearbook 2008, Kottayam: Malayala Manorama, ISSN 0542-5778, p.518
  12. ^ "NCW Report, page 4". National Commission of Women, Government of India. http://ncw.nic.in/pdfreports/Gender%20Profile-Chhattisgarh.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  13. ^ "Chhattisgarh, At a glance". Census 2011, Ministry of Home Affair, India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/Chhattishgarh/2.%20Chhattishgarh%20Figures%20at%20a%20glance.pdf. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  14. ^ "Social Structure in Chhattisgarh". http://www.korbacity.com/index.php/know-more-about-chhattisgarh/chhattisgarh-social-structure.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c "India: Protective Laws Fall Short for Women Charged with Witchcraft". http://womennewsnetwork.net/2010/03/21/witchcraft-india-89/. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  16. ^ "Dark Spell". http://newsblaze.com/story/20091108150914shan.nb/topstory.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  17. ^ "Panthi Dance". http://www.sangeetnatak.org/deshparva/desaj/panthi.htm. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  18. ^ "Pandawani". http://durg.gov.in/DistrictProfile_ArtsAndCulture.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  19. ^ "Rawat Nacha Traditions". http://news.oneindia.in/2008/11/09/chhattisgarh-reverberates-with-rawat-nach-1226225007.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  20. ^ "Raut nacha". http://durg.gov.in/DistrictProfile_ArtsAndCulture.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  21. ^ "Suwa Dance". http://www.cgculture.in/CulturalProgrammePurkhautMuktangan.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  22. ^ "Rawat nacha mahotsva". http://news.oneindia.in/2008/11/09/chhattisgarh-reverberates-with-rawat-nach-1226225007.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  23. ^ "Arts and Culture of Chhatisgarh". http://www.cgculture.in/CulturalProgrammePurkhautMuktangan.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  24. ^ "Karma Tribal Dance in India". http://tribes-of-india.blogspot.com/2009/04/karma-tribal-dance-in-india.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  25. ^ "Chhattisgarh's GDP growth highest in 2009-10". http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/chhattisgarh%5Cs-gdp-growth-highest-in-2009-10/406295/. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  26. ^ a b c "Agriculture in Chhattisgarh". http://cg.gov.in/development/cdevelopment.htm#irrigation. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  27. ^ "Economy of Chhatisgarh". http://www.mapsofindia.com/chhattisgarh/economy/. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  28. ^ a b "Power Sector in Chhatisgarh". http://cserc.nic.in/power_sector.htm. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  29. ^ a b "Industries in Chhattisgarh". http://www.mapsofindia.com/chhattisgarh/economy/chhattisgarh-industries.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  30. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/Chhattishgarh/2.%20Chhattishgarh%20Figures%20at%20a%20glance.pdf
  31. ^ "About The University - Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur". Prsu.ac.in. http://www.prsu.ac.in/about.htm. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  32. ^ "Welcome to Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University". Prsu.ac.in. http://www.prsu.ac.in. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  33. ^ "Guru Ghasidash Vishwavidyalaya Bilaspur (Cg)". Ggu.ac.in. 1983-06-16. http://www.ggu.ac.in/. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  34. ^ "10th IIM Inaugurated". http://www.hindustantimes.com/10th-IIM-inaugurated/Article1-611581.aspx/. 
  35. ^ "Raipur to get its own AIIMS in two years". www.daily.bhaskar.com. http://daily.bhaskar.com/article/MP-RAI-raipur-to-get-its-own-aiims-in-two-years-2012412.html. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 

References

  • Books on Chhattisgarh
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की जनजातियाँ Tribes और जातियाँ Castes (मानसी पब्लीकेशन,दिल्ली 6,ISBN 978-81-89559-32-8)
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की पूर्व रियासतें और जमीन्दारियाँ (वैभव प्रकाशन,रायपुर 1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5) http://www.scribd.com/doc/72030961/Dr-Sanjay-Alung-CG-Ki-Riyaste-Jamindariya-Hindi
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "सन्दर्भ छत्तीसगढ़"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "छत्तीसगढ़ के तीर्थ और पर्यटन स्थल"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "Chhattisgarh: Beautiful & Bountiful (Study in Biodiversity of Chhattisgarh)"
    • Ramesh Dewangan & Sunil Tuteja, "Chhattisgarh Samagra"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh" ....
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
    • Lawrence Babb, "The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India"
    • Saurabh Dube, "Untouchable Pasts: Religion, Identity and Power among a Central Indian Community, 1780–1950" (on the Satnamis)
    • Ramdas Lamb, "Rapt in the Name: Ramnamis, Ramnam and Untouchable Religion in Central India"
    • Chad Bauman, "Identifying the Satnam: Hindu Satnamis, Indian Christians, and Dalit Religion in Colonial Chhattisgarh, India (1868–1947) (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton Theological Seminary, 2005)
  • Books by Indologist Prof H. L. Shukla :
  • Folktales of Chhattisgarh
  • "Tribal History of Central India" by R.K. Sharma and S.K. Tiwari, Other link

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chhattisgarh — छत्तीसगढ़ Status: Bundesstaat Hauptstadt: Raipur Fläche …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chhattisgarh — Estado de la India Capital …   Wikipedia Español

  • Chhattīsgarh — Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarh Vue de cet État sur la carte de l Inde Administration Pays …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chhattisgarh — (छत्तीसगढ़) es un estado en la zona central de la India, formado cuando dieciséis de los distritos de Madhya Pradesh consiguieron el estatus de estado el 1 de noviembre de 2000. El estado ocupa un área de 135.194 Km² y tiene una población… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Chhattisgarh — 21° 16′ N 81° 36′ E / 21.27, 81.6 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chhattisgarh — State (pop., 2001 prelim.: 20,795,956), central India. Bordered by Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra states, it occupies 52,199 sq mi (135,194 sq km); its capital is Raipur. The Chhattisgarh Plain… …   Universalium

  • Chhattisgarh — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Chhattisgarh Country and Admin Code IN.37 IN …   World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II

  • Chhattisgarh — noun State in central India which has Raipur as its capital …   Wiktionary

  • Chhattisgarh — /ˈtʃatɪsga/ (say chahtisgah) noun a state in central India, formed in 2000 from part of Madhya Pradesh. 135 194 km2. Capital: Raipur …   Australian English dictionary

  • Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly — Chhattisgarh Vidhan Sabha छत्तीसगढ़ विधान सभा 3rd Assembly Type Type Lower house …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.