List of ethnic groups in China


List of ethnic groups in China
Ethnolinguistic map of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan)

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, aka "Taiwan").

The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group, where some 91.59% [1] of the population was classified as Han Chinese (~1.2 billion). Besides the majority Han Chinese, 55 other ethnic groups are recognised in mainland China by the PRC government, numbering approximately 105 million people, mostly concentrated in the northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups are Zhuang (16.1 million), Manchu (10.6 million), Hui (9.8 million), Miao (8.9 million), Uyghur (8.3 million), Tujia (8 million), Yi (7.7 million), Mongol (5.8 million), Tibetan (5.4 million), Buyei (2.9 million), Dong (2.9 million), Yao (2.6 million), Korean (1.9 million), Bai (1.8 million), Hani (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.2 million), Li (1.2 million), and Dai (1.1 million).

Contents


Officially recognized ethnic groups in mainland China

In order of population,[2] this is the list of the 56 ethnic groups in China that are officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China. Members of several ethnic groups reside in Hong Kong and Macau, but due to the long separation from China, many of these ethnic groups are generally unknown[citation needed] to the Special Administrative Regions (of People's Republic of China) of Hong Kong and of Macau.[clarification needed]

English name
Standard Romanization
CodeA
Pinyin
S. Chinese
T. Chinese
PopulationB
Han Han HA Hàn Zú 汉族 漢族 1,225,932,641 (2010)
Zhuang Zhuang ZH Zhuàng Zú 壮族 壯族 16,178,811
Manchu Man MA Mǎn Zú 满族 滿族 10,682,263
Hui1 Hui HU Huí Zú 回族 回族 9,816,802
Miao2 Miao MH Miáo Zú 苗族 苗族 8,940,116
Uyghur Uyghur UG Wéiwú'ěr Zú 维吾尔族 維吾爾族 8,399,393
Tujia Tujia TJ Tǔjiā Zú 土家族 土家族 8,028,133
Yi Yi YI Yí Zú 彝族 彝族 7,762,286
Mongol Mongol MG Měnggǔ Zú 蒙古族 蒙古族 5,813,947
Tibetan3 Zang ZA Zàng Zú 藏族 藏族 5,416,021
Buyei Buyei BY Bùyī Zú 布依族 布依族 2,971,460
Dong Dong DO Dòng Zú 侗族 侗族 2,960,293
Yao Yao YA Yáo Zú 瑶族 瑤族 2,637,421
Korean Chosen CS Cháoxiǎn Zú 朝鲜族 朝鮮族 1,923,842
Bai Bai BA Bái Zú 白族 白族 1,858,063
Hani Hani HN Hāní Zú 哈尼族 哈尼族 1,439,673
Kazakh Kazak KZ Hāsàkè Zú 哈萨克族 哈薩克族 1,420,458
Li Li LI Lí Zú 黎族 黎族 1,247,814
Dai4 Dai DA Dǎi Zú 傣族 傣族 1,158,989
She She SH Shē Zú 畲族 畲族 709,592
Lisu Lisu LS Lìsù Zú 傈僳族 傈僳族 634,912
Gelao Gelao GL Gēlǎo Zú 仡佬族 仡佬族 579,357
Dongxiang Dongxiang DX Dōngxiāng Zú 东乡族 東鄉族 513,805
Gaoshan5 Gaoshan GS Gāoshān Zú 高山族 高山族 458,000
Lahu Lahu LH Lāhù Zú 拉祜族 拉祜族 453,705
Sui Sui SU Shuǐ Zú 水族 水族 406,902
Va Va VA Wǎ Zú 佤族 佤族 396,610
Nakhi6 Naxi NX Nàxī Zú 纳西族 納西族 308,839
Qiang Qiang QI Qiāng Zú 羌族 羌族 306,072
Tu Tu TU Tǔ Zú 土族 土族 241,198
Mulao Mulao ML Mùlǎo Zú 仫佬族 仫佬族 207,352
Xibe Xibe XB Xíbó Zú 锡伯族 錫伯族 188,824
Kyrgyz Kirgiz KG Kē'ěrkèzī Zú 柯尔克孜族 柯爾克孜族 160,823
Daur Daur DU Dáwò'ěr Zú 达斡尔族 達斡爾族 132,394
Jingpo7 Jingpo JP Jǐngpō Zú 景颇族 景頗族 132,143
Maonan Maonan MN Màonán Zú 毛南族 毛南族 107,166
Salar Salar SL Sālā Zú 撒拉族 撒拉族 104,503
Blang Blang BL Bùlǎng Zú 布朗族 布朗族 91,882
Tajik Tajik TA Tǎjíkè Zú 塔吉克族 塔吉克族 41,028
Achang Achang AC Āchāng Zú 阿昌族 阿昌族 33,936
Pumi Pumi PM Pǔmǐ Zú 普米族 普米族 33,600
Ewenki Ewenki EW Èwēnkè Zú 鄂温克族 鄂温克族 30,505
Nu Nu NU Nù Zú 怒族 怒族 28,759
Gin8 Gin GI Jīng Zú 京族 京族 22,517
Jino Jino JN Jīnuò Zú 基诺族 基諾族 20,899
De'ang Deang DE Dé'áng Zú 德昂族 德昂族 17,935
Bonan Bonan BO Bǎoān Zú 保安族 保安族 16,505
Russian Russ RS Éluósī Zú 俄罗斯族 俄羅斯族 15,609
Yugur Yugur YG Yùgù Zú 裕固族 裕固族 13,719
Uzbek Uzbek UZ Wūzībiékè Zú 乌孜别克族 烏孜别克族 12,370
Monba Monba MB Ménbā Zú 门巴族 門巴族 8,923
Oroqen Oroqen OR Èlúnchūn Zú 鄂伦春族 鄂倫春族 8,196
Derung Derung DR Dúlóng Zú 独龙族 獨龍族 7,426
Tatars Tatar TT Tǎtǎ'ěr Zú 塔塔尔族 塔塔爾族 4,890
Hezhen9 Hezhen HZ Hèzhé Zú 赫哲族 赫哲族 4,640
Lhoba Lhoba LB Luòbā Zú 珞巴族 珞巴族 2,965
Undistinguished Undistinguished none Wèi Shìbié Mínzú 未识别民族 未識別民族 734,438

AGB 3304-91 "Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes".[3]
Bthe population only includes China and the Republic of China (Taiwan)
1also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees
2a subset of which is also known as Hmong
3including Amdowa and Khampa
4this category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi
5a collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan
6also included are the zh:摩梭; Mósuō
7known as Kachin in Myanmar
8The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh in Sino-Vietnamese and historically referred to as 越 Yuè, cognate to Vietnamese Việt. See Bǎiyuè.
9the same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border

Taiwanese aborigines

The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines as Gaoshan, whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 14 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan. Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial.

"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groups

Poster showing the 56 ethnic groups of China in Beijing

This is a list of ethnic groups in China that are not officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China.

  • Ayi people
  • Äynu people
  • Gejia (亻革家人, Gèjiā Rén)
  • Bajia (八甲人, Bājiǎ Rén)
  • Deng (僜人, Dèng Rén)
  • Khmu (克木人, Kèmù Rén)
  • Kucong (Yellow Lahu/Lahu Shi (苦聪人; Traditional: 苦聰人; Kǔcōng Rén)
  • Mang (芒人, Máng Rén)
  • Sherpas (夏尔巴人; Traditional: 夏爾巴人; Xiàěrbā Rén)
  • Tuvans (图瓦人, Túwǎ Rén)
  • Yi (羿人, Yìrén)
  • Youtai (犹太; Traditional: 猶太; Yóutài) (Jewish people of China and Jewish people in general)
  • Yamato Japanese (大和民族) and Ryukyuans (琉球民族) living as permanent residents in Taiwan[citation needed]
  • Macanese (土生葡人, Descendant of Portuguese in Macau since 16th century)

Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or South East Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indian, Indonesians, Nepalese and Pakistani) in Hong Kong.

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References

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