Indonesian, and particularly Javanese beliefs, Wali Sanga (the nine saints) (also transcribed as Wali Songo) are the founding saints of Islam in Java, Indonesia(see Spread of Islam in Indonesia). The word " wali" is Arabic (meaning "saint"), while the title " sunan" is Javanese. Although its origins are unclear, it could derive from "suhun", in this context meaning "honoured". [cite book | last =Ricklefs | first =M.C. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, 2nd Edition | publisher =MacMillan | date =1991 | location =London | pages =pp. 9-10. | id = ISBN 0-333-57689-6]
Several of the "wali sanga" are said to have been of non-Javanese descent, and others are said to have studied in
Malacca(namely, Sunans Giri, Bonang, and Walilanang. [cite book | last =Ricklefs | first =M.C. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, 2nd Edition | publisher =MacMillan | date =1991 | location =London | pages =p. 10. | id = ISBN 0-333-57689-6] Others might have come from Gujarat, India. One of the wali's was the Persian Malik Ibrahim who came to Javain 1419.
The graves of Wali Sanga are venerated and locations of
ziarahor local pilgrimagein Java. The graves are also known as Ziyarat, as well as in Javanese pundhen.
Claims are made of some of the wali sanga having
Others claim that five of them are Chinese people or Chinese descents, they are:
Sunan Ampel(with Chinese name Bong Swi Ho), Sunan Bonang(Ampel's son, Bong Ang), Sunan Kalijaga(Gan Si Cang), Sunan Gunungjati, and Sunan Giri. [cite book | last =Muljana | first =Prof. Dr. Slamet | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = RUNTUHNYA KERAJAAN HINDU-JAWA DAN TIMBULNYA NEGARA-NEGARA ISLAM DI NUSANTARA | publisher =LKiS | date =2005 | location =Yogyakarta | pages =p. 86-101. | id = ISBN 979-8451-16-3 ]
Some sources claim variants on the specific members of the nine saints, or scholars. This list is an example, and differs in part to the names suggested in the "
Babad Tanah Jawi" manuscripts:-
Maulana Malik Ibrahim
Sunan Giri- grave at Grèsiknear Surabaya
Sunan Kalijaga- grave at Kadilangu
Sunan Kudus- grave at Kudus
Sunan Muria- grave at Gunung Muria
Sunan Gunung Jati- grave at Cirebon
Further "Wali sanga"
Sunan Ngampel-Denta- (found in the " Babad Tanah Jawi")
Sunan Sitijenar- (found in the "Babad Tanah Jawi")
Sunan Walilanang- (found in the "Babad Tanah Jawi")
Sunan Bayat(a tenth "Wali Sanga" mentioned in "Babad Tanah Jawi")
Information about Wali Sanga is usually available in three forms:-:(a)
Cerita rakyat- usually written as school texts for children to understand the lives and teaching of the founding saints of Islam::(b) Palace kraton based manuscripts with 'sacred' connotations - in verse and in limited access :(c) articles and books about the historical characters - by both Indonesian and non-Indonesian writers which attempt to ascertain historical certainty against popular beliefs.
Islam in Indonesia
The spread of Islam in Indonesia (1200 to 1600)
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