Halmahera

Infobox Islands
name = Halmahera



image caption =
locator

native name =
native name link =
location = South East Asia
coordinates= coord|0|36|N|127|52|E|type:isle
archipelago = Maluku Islands
total islands =
major islands =
area = 17780 km²
rank = 51st
highest mount = Mount Gamkonora
elevation =(1635m)
country = Indonesia
country admin divisions title =
country admin divisions =
country largest city =
country largest city population =
population =162728
population as of = 1995
density = 9.15
ethnic groups =

Halmahera (also Jilolo or Gilolo) is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. It is part of the North Maluku province of Indonesia.

Halmahera has a land area of 17,780 km² (6,865 sq mi) and a population in 1995 of 162,728. About half of its inhabitants are Muslim and about half are Christian.

History

Sparsely-populated Halmahera's fortunes have long been closely tied to those of the smaller islands of Ternate and Tidore, both off its west coast. These islands were both the sites of major kingdoms in the era before Dutch East India Company colonized the entire archipelago.

During World War II, Halmahera was the site of a Japanese military base at Kao Bay.

In 1999 and 2000 Halmahera was the site of violence between Christians and Muslims that began as a purely ethnic dispute between residents of (mainly Christian) Kao and (entirely Muslim) Malifut sub-districts and then took on a religious nature as it spread through much of the North Moluccas. Thousands of people on Halmahera were killed in the fighting between religious militias, including groups like Laskar Jihad and FPI (the Islamic Defenders' Front) who arrived from Java in large numbers. In June 2000, about five hundred people were killed when a ferry carrying refugees from the fighting on Halmahera sank off the northeast tip of Sulawesi island. Conspiracy theories about this event abound. A touching memorial to this tragedy can be found in Duma village in North Halmahera district.

Today, much transportation to the rest of Indonesia is through connections on the provincial capital, Ternate island; although Tobelo, the largest town on Halmahera, also has direct ferry and cargo sea links to Surabaya and Manado.

Particularly since the inauguration of the first ever directly elected Bupati (Regent or District Head), Tobelo is undergoing rapid development and is aiming at rivaling Ternate's historical dominance. Tobelo has the advantage of expansion potential, being surrounded by flat land. Ternate is limited by its size, being a small island which can be driven around in 45 minutes. Also, the provincial government has plans to move the provincial capital to Sofifi, a small village on the Halmahera coast opposite Tidore island.

North Maluku province consists of 8 districts, 6 of which include a part of Halmahera island. They are: North Halmahera, West Halmahera, East Halmahera, Central Halmahera, South Hamahera, Ternate Municipality, Tidore City and Islands and Sula Islands. Only Ternate Municipality and Sula Islands do not include any part of Halmahera.

Geology

Dukono is an active volcano at the north end of the island.

Mining on Halmahera

Halmahera is the site of several mining projects. Australian corporation Newcrest Mining is the majority owner of two gold mines on the island. The Gosowong mine was an open-pit cyanide-leach mine that operated from June 1999 to May 2002, and is now closed. The Toguraci mine began operation in February 2004. This latter mine has been the subject of conflict between local residents and the mining company. The mine is located in a forested area that, according to local residents, is protected under Indonesian law. [ [http://www.jatam.org/english/case/nhm/] Dead link|date=March 2008] In January 2004 then-president Megawati issued an amendment to the forestry law that, according to Newcrest, ensures that its operations are within the law. [http://www.newcrest.com.au/s06_operations/map.asp?category=0&id=148 ]

In 2003 and 2004, there were intermittent protests at the Toguraci site by residents seeking to stop the Newcrest mine. Until late 2003, security at the mine was provided by members of the Indonesian military, who were paid by Newcrest Mining's local subsidiary. In October 2003, they were replaced by the police's Brigade Mobil, a paramilitary force. One person was killed and several others injured by these security forces during a protest in January 2004. Further protests and an occupation of the mine site occurred in May and June 2004.

Weda Bay Minerals is engaged in developing a nickel and cobalt mine on the island. The single-purpose corporation, focused only on developing this mine, is a joint venture of two Australian mining companies, and is traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange in Canada. The project is still in an exploratory phase; the corporation expects the mine to last for at least twenty-five years after it opens.

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Halmahera — Lage von Halmahera Gewässer Pazifischer Ozean Inselgruppe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Halmahera — Gilolo / Jilolo Carte topographique d Halmahera et des îles voisines. Géographie Pays …   Wikipédia en Français

  • HALMAHERA — La plus grande (17 780 km2) des îles de l’archipel des Moluques (Indonésie). Halmahera est formée de quatre péninsules qui entourent trois grandes baies: Kau, Buli et Weda, ouvertes vers l’est. La péninsule du Nord est reliée aux autres par un… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Halmahera — (»großes Land«, Dschilolo, Gilolo), größte der Molukkeninseln, zwischen 1°29´ nördl. bis 0°51´ südl. Br. und vom 129.° östl. L. mitten durchschnitten, gegen W. durch die Molukkenstraße von Celebes, gegen O. durch die Halmaherastraße (s. Karte… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Halmahera — Halmahēra, Djilolo, Gilolo, größte der Molukken im Malaiischen Archipel, 17.998 qkm, mit Morotaï etc. etwa 120.000 E., zur niederländ. Residentschaft Ternate gehörig; Hauptorte im SO. Patani und im NO. Galela …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Halmahera — [häl΄mə her′ə] largest of the Molucca Islands, Indonesia, east of Sulawesi: 6,865 sq mi (17,780 sq km) …   English World dictionary

  • Halmahera — Isla de Halmahera (o Gilolo) Vista de un campamento de níquel en la bahía Weda. Localización País …   Wikipedia Español

  • Halmahera — /hal meuh her euh, hahl /, n. an island in NE Indonesia: the largest of the Moluccas. ab. 100,000; 6928 sq. mi. (17,944 sq. km). Also, Halmaheira. Also called Gilolo, Jilolo. * * * Dutch Djailolo Largest island of the Moluccas, Indonesia. It is… …   Universalium

  • Halmahera — Halmahẹra   [indonesisch »Mutterland« oder »großes Land«], früher Jailọlo [dʒ ], Jilọlo [dʒ ], größte Insel der Molukken, Indonesien, 17 800 km2, 94 000 Einwohner. Halmahera ist in vier Halbinseln gegliedert, aus mesozoischen und tertiären,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Halmahera — geographical name island E Indonesia in the Moluccas on the equator; largest in the group area 6928 square miles (18,013 square kilometers), population 54,000 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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