Pope Paul II
English name=Paul II
August 30, 1464
July 26, 1471
dead=dead|death_date=death date and age|1471|7|26|1417|2|23|mf=y
Pope Paul II (
February 23, 1417– July 26, 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was Popefrom 1464 until his death in 1471.
Early life and election
He was born in
Venice, and was a nephew of Pope Eugene IV(1431–1447), through his mother. His adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as Pope. His consequent promotion was rapid; he became a cardinal in 1440 and gained popularity through his tender-hearted generosity.
He was elected Pope by the
accessusin the first ballot, ["The populace assembled in front of the Vatican received the news with joy," Pastor duly notes (IV:ii); acclamationof a new bishop of Romeby the people was a custom of the early churchlong in abeyance.] by a majority of fourteen of the nineteen cardinals in conclaveon August 30, 1464, to succeed Pope Pius II(1458–1464). Beforehand, in order to secure to the cardinals a greater share of power than they had enjoyed under Pius II, a capitulation was subscribed by all except Ludovico Trevisan; it bound the future pope to continue the Turkish war, but he was not to journey outside Rome without the consent of a majority of the cardinals, nor to leave Italy without the consent of all. The maximum number of cardinals was limited to twenty-four, and any new pope was to be limited to only one cardinal-nephew. All creations of new cardinals and advancements to certain important benefices, were to be made only with the consent of the College of Cardinals. [Ref. Burkle-Young] Upon taking office, Paul II was to convene an ecumenical councilwithin three years. But these terms of subscription were modified by Paul II at his own discretion, and this action lost him the confidence of the College of Cardinals. The justification for setting aside the capitulations, seen to be under way by the Duke of Milan's ambassador as early as 21 September, lay in connecting any abridgement of the pope's absolute monarchyin the Papal Stateswith a consequent abridgement of his sole authority in spiritual matters. [Offered by Pastor IV 1894:21.] Almost from his coronation, Paul withdrew and became inaccessible: audiences were only granted at night; even good friends waited a fortnight to see him; his suspiciousness was widely attested.
A sore point was his abuse of the practice of creating cardinals "
in pectore", without publishing their names. Anxious to raise new cardinals to increase the number who were devoted to his interests, but restricted by the terms of the capitulation, which gave the College a voice in the creation of new members, in the winter of 1464-65 Paul created two secret cardinals both of whom died before their names could be published. In his fourth year he created eight new cardinals (18 September, 1467); five were candidates pressed by kings, placating respectively James II of Cyprus, Edward IV of England, Louis XI of France, Matthias Corvinus of Hungaryand Ferdinand I of Naples; one was the able administrator of the Franciscans; the last two elevated his old tutor and a first cardinal-nephew. [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/election-sixtusiv.htm Francis A. Burkle-Young, "The election of Pope Sixtus IV (1471): Background"] ] Two further cardinal-nephews were added on 21 November, 1468. ["The great number of cardinal-nephews created in the reigns of Sixtus IV, Alexander VI, and Julius II were testimony to the effectiveness of Paul II in opening the floodgates," Francis A. Burkle-Young asserts.] In a sign of his increasing secretiveness and paranoia, he added two more cardinals secretly at the same consistory, and four more at the beginning of 1471, expecting to reveal them only in his testament.
Tensions with the College of Cardinals came to the fore when in 1466, attempting to downsize redundant offices, Paul II proceeded to annul the college of
abbreviators, whose function it was to formulate papal documents; a storm of indignation arose, inasmuch as rhetoricians and poets with humanist training, of which Paul deeply disapproved, had long been accustomed to benefiting from employment in such positions. Bartolomeo Platina, who was one of these, wrote a threatening letter to the Pope, and was imprisoned but later discharged. However, in 1467 Platina was again imprisoned on the charge of having participated in a conspiracy against the Pope, and was tortured along with other abbreviators, like Filip Callimachuswho fled to Polandin 1478, all of whom had been accused of pagan views. Not unaccountably, Platina, in his "Vitae pontificum", set forth an unfavorable delineation of the character of Paul II.
Pope Paul rejected King
George of Podebradyof Bohemiaon the grounds that he upheld the conventions of Baselin favor of the Utraquists. In August 1465, Paul II summoned Podebrady before his Roman tribunal, and, when the King failed to come, allied himself with the insurgents in Bohemia, and released the King's subjects from their oath of allegiance. In December, 1466, he pronounced the ban of excommunicationand sentence of deposition against Podebrady.
Just when ultimately the King's good success disposed the Pope in favor of reconciliation, Paul II died, on July 26, 1471 of a stroke after eating some melons
Stefano Infessura's republican and anti-papal temper makes his diary a far from neutral though well-informed witness. But it is certain that though Paul II opposed the humanists, he was second to none in providing for popular amusements: in 1466 he permitted the horse-race that was a feature of Carnivalto be run along the main street, the Via Lata, which now became known from this annual event as the Via del Corso. He displayed an extravagant love of personal splendor that gratified his sense of self-importance. [Pastor IV 1894:16, 20ff.] . After his death Sixtus IV and a selected group of cardinals inspected the treasure laid up against expenditures against the Turks: they found fifty-four silver shells filled with pearls, to a value of 300,000 ducats, jewels and gold intended for refashioning, worth another 300,000 ducats, and a magnificent diamond worth 7000 ducats, which was sent to Cardinal d'Estouteville to cover monies he had advanced to the pontiff. The coin was not immediately found. [A cardinal's report to the Duke of Milan's ambassador, related in Pastor vol. IV 1894:211.] The story of Cardinal Ammanati that he meant to take the name "Formosus II" ("handsome"), [The chronicler N. della Tuccia says that for half a century no handsomer man had been seen in the Senate or the Church (Pastor IV 1894:16.] but was persuaded not to, is more often repeated than the story that he was dissuaded from "Marcus", being Venetian and the Cardinal of San Marco, because it was also the war-cry of Venice. [Pastor IV 1894:13 and note, 15.] .
However, the "
Catholic Encyclopedia" asserts, "justice requires notice of his strict sense of equity, his reforms in the municipal administration, and his fight against official bribery and traffic in posts of dignity." [Citation | last =Weber | first =N.A. "The Catholic Encyclopedia", Volume XI. New York, Robert Appleton Company | title =Pope Paul II | date =1911 | url =http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11578a.htm | accessdate =2007-07-11]
In statecraft, Paul II lacked eminence and achieved nothing of consequence for
Italy. In the Papal States, however, he terminated, in 1465, the regime of the counts of Anguillara, a house that had played a consistent anti-papal role since the plot of Stefano Porcariand the unruly insurrection of Tiburzio di Masoin 1460.
After Paul II's death, one of his successors suggested that he should be called Maria Pietissima, "Our Lady of Pity", because he was inclined to break into tears at times of crisis. Verify source|date=July 2007 However, some commentators have suggested that the nickname was rather due to Paul II's propensity to enjoy dressing up in sumptuous ecclesiastical finery, though there is a possibility that the rumours of homosexuality may have been introduced by critics to undermine his reputation.
*Pastor, Ludwig , "The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages" (19894) vol. IV
* [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/election-paulii.htm Francis A. Burkle-Young, "The election of Pope Paul II (1464)"]
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