Shotgun lipidomics

In lipidomics, the process of shotgun lipidomics (named by analogy with shotgun sequencing uses analytical chemistry to investigate the biological function, significance, and sequelae of alterations in lipids and protein constituents mediating lipid metabolism, trafficking, or biological function in cells. Lipidomics has been greatly facilitated by recent advances in, and novel applications of, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS).

Lipidomics is a research field that studies the pathways and networks of cellular lipids in biological systems (i.e., lipidomes) on a large scale. It involves the identification and quantitation of the thousands of cellular lipid molecular species and their interactions with other lipids, proteins, and other moieties in vivo. Investigators in lipidomics examine the structures, functions, interactions, and dynamics of cellular lipids and the dynamic changes that occur during pathophysiologic perturbations.Lipidomic studies play an essential role in defining the biochemical mechanisms of lipid-related disease processes through identifying alterations in cellular lipid metabolism, trafficking and homeostasis.The two major platforms currently used for lipidomic analyses are HPLC-MS and shotgun lipidomics.

History

Shotgun lipidomics was developed by [http://outlook.wustl.edu/spring2005/images/feature/fatlab.jpgRichard W. Gross, MD, PhD, and Xianlin Han, PhD.] , by employing ESI intrasource separation techniques. Individual molecular species of most major and many minor lipid classes can be fingerprinted and quantitated directly from biological lipid extracts without the need for chromatographic purification.

Advantages

Shotgun lipidomics is fast, highly sensitive, and it can identify hundreds of lipids missed by other methods — all with a much smaller tissue sample so that specific cells or minute biopsy samples can be examined.

Further reading

[http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/109083637/abstract Shotgun lipidomics: electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis and quantitation of cellular lipidomes directly from crude extracts of biological samples]

[http://www.expert-reviews.com/doi/abs/10.1586/14789450.2.2.253?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dncbi.nlm.nih.gov Shotgun lipidomics: multidimensional MS analysis of cellular lipidomes]

[http://www.jlr.org/cgi/content/full/44/6/1071 Global analyses of cellular lipidomes directly from crude extracts of biological samples by ESI mass spectrometry: a bridge to lipidomics]

References

[http://outlook.wustl.edu/spring2005/lipids.html Gunning for fats]

[http://www.jlr.org/cgi/content/abstract/46/7/1548 Shotgun lipidomics of phosphoethanolamine-containing lipids in biological samples after one-step in situ derivatization ]

[http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/ancham/asap/abs/ac801200w.html Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Cellular Glycerophospholipids Enabled by Multiplexed Solvent Dependent Analyte-Matrix Interactions]

[http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119815478/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 Microfluidics-based electrospray ionization enhances the intrasource separation of lipid classes and extends identification of individual molecular species through multi-dimensional mass spectrometry: development of an automated high-throughput platform for shotgun lipidomics]

[http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=18454555 Shotgun lipidomics reveals the temporally dependent, highly diversified cardiolipin profile in the mammalian brain: temporally coordinated postnatal diversification of cardiolipin molecular species with neuronal remodeling]

[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001368 Shotgun lipidomics identifies a paired rule for the presence of isomeric ether phospholipid molecular species]

[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7CV2-4PYHGKJ-4&_user=4275&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4275&md5=dd725ca61744f93a10a6a6958178c3b8 Lipidomics in diabetes and the metabolic syndrome]

[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9V-4PGGP4K-2&_user=4275&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000938&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4275&md5=948bf1de2795b77a0a7d67e91d196aa8 Alkaline methanolysis of lipid extracts extends shotgun lipidomics analyses to the low-abundance regime of cellular sphingolipids]

[http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/ancham/2007/79/i17/abs/ac070843+.html Shotgun metabolomics approach for the analysis of negatively charged water-soluble cellular metabolites from mouse heart tissue]

[http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=17487985 Alterations in myocardial cardiolipin content and composition occur at the very earliest stages of diabetes: a shotgun lipidomics study]

[http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/282/12/9216 Dramatic accumulation of triglycerides and precipitation of cardiac hemodynamic dysfunction during brief caloric restriction in transgenic myocardium expressing human calcium-independent phospholipase A2gamma]

[http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16449763 Shotgun lipidomics of cardiolipin molecular species in lipid extracts of biological samples]

[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TH2-4J2KXTW-6&_user=4275&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000938&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4275&md5=cd5e91e11709ca22a0c0d93e844aa806 Factors influencing the electrospray intrasource separation and selective ionization of glycerophospholipids]

[http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/bichaw/2005/44/i50/abs/bi051908a.html Shotgun lipidomics identifies cardiolipin depletion in diabetic myocardium linking altered substrate utilization with mitochondrial dysfunction]

[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9V-4CF5BXY-7&_user=4275&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000938&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4275&md5=1402c0e32ecdd3ba9592f44367ab40b8 Toward fingerprinting cellular lipidomes directly from biological samples by two-dimensional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry]


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