region = Western Philosophy
color = #B0C4DE
image_caption = Friedrich Engels
name = Friedrich Engels
birth = 28 November 1820 (Barmen,
death = death date and age|df=yes|1895|08|05|1820|11|28 (
Political philosophy, Politics, Economics, class struggle
influences = Kant, Hegel, Feuerbach, Stirner, Smith, Ricardo, Rousseau,
Goethe, Fourier, Morgan
influenced = Luxemburg, Lenin, Trotsky, Mao, Guevara, Sartre, Debord,
Frankfurt School, Negri, more...
notable_ideas = Co-founder of
Marxism(with Karl Marx), alienation and exploitation of the worker, historical materialism|
Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 ) was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator,
Karl Marx, co-authoring " The Communist Manifesto" (1848). Engels also edited the second and third volumes of " Das Kapital" after Marx's death.
Friedrich Engels was born in
Barmen, Rhine Provinceof the kingdom of Prussia(now a part of Wuppertalin North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) as the elder son of a German textile manufacturer, with whom he had a strained relationship. [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/letters/45_03_17.htm Letters: Letters of Marx and Engels, 1845 ] ] Due to family circumstances, Engels dropped out of High schooland was sent to work as a nonsalaried office clerk at a commercial house in Bremenin 1838. [http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1895/misc/engels-bio.htm Lenin: Frederick Engels ] ] Tucker, Robert C. "The Marx-Engels Reader", p.xv] During this time, Engels began reading the philosophy of Hegel, whose teachings had dominated German philosophyat the time. In September 1838, he published his first work, a poem titled " The Bedouin", in the " Bremisches Conversationsblatt" No. 40. He also engaged in other literary and journalistic work. [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/cw/volume02/preface.htm Preface by Progress Publishers ] ] [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/cw/volume02/footnote.htm#188 Footnotes to Volume 1 of Marx Engels Collected Works ] ] In 1841, Engels joined the Prussian Army as a member of the Household Artillery. This position moved him to Berlin where he attended university lectures, began to associate with groups of Young Hegelians and published several articles in the " Rheinische Zeitung". Throughout his lifetime, Engels would point out that he was indebted to German philosophybecause of its effect on his intellectualdevelopment.
In 1842, the 22-year-old Engels was sent to
Manchester, Englandto work for the textile firm of Ermen and Engels in which his father was a shareholder. [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/bio/engels/en-1893.htm Biography on Engels ] ] [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/work/england/manchester/article_1.shtml BBC - Legacies - Work - England - Manchester - Engels in Manchester - Article Page 1 ] ] Engels' father thought working in at the Manchester firm might make Engels reconsider the radical learnings that he had developed in high school. On way to Manchester, Engels visited the office of the "Rheinische Zeitung" and met Karl Marx for the first time - though they did not impress each other. [ Wheen, Francis "Karl Marx: A Life", p. 75 ] In Manchester, Engels met Mary Burns, a young woman with whom he began a relationship that lasted until her death in 1862. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/work/england/manchester/article_2.shtml BBC - Legacies - Work - England - Manchester - Engels in Manchester - Article Page 2 ] ] Mary acted as a guide through Manchester and helped introduce Engels to the English working class. The two maintained a lifelong relationship; they never married, as Engels was against the institution of marriage which he saw as unnatural and unjust. [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1884/origin-family/index.htm Origins of the Family ] ]
During his time in Manchester, Engels took notes and personally observed the horrible working conditions of English workers. These notes and observations, along with his experience working in his father's commercial firm, formed the basis for his first book "
The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844". While writing it, Engels continued his involvement with radical journalism and politics. He frequented some members of the English labour and Chartistmovements and wrote for several journals, including "The Northern Star", Robert Owen’s " New Moral World" and the " Democratic Review" newspaper [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/05/04.htm Introduction to the French Edition of Engels' by Karl Marx 1880 ] ] .
After a productive stay in England, Engels decided to return to
Germanyin 1844. On his way, he stopped in Paristo meet Karl Marx, with whom he had an earlier correspondence. Marx and Engels met at the Café de la Régence on the Place du Palais, 28 August 1844. The two became close friendsand would remain so for their entire lives. Engels ended up staying in Paris to help Marx write "The Holy Family", which was an attack on the Young Hegeliansand the Bauer brothers. Engels' earliest contribution to Marx's work was writing to the "Deutsch-französische Jahrbücher" journal, which was edited by both Marxand Arnold Rugein Paris in the same year.
From 1845 to 1848, Engels and Marx lived in
Brussels, spending much of their time organizing the city's German workers. Shortly after their arrival, they contacted and joined the underground German Communist League and were commissioned by the League to write a pamphlet explaining the principles of communism. This became the "The Manifesto of the Communist Party", better known as the "Communist Manifesto". It was first published on 21 February 1848.
Return to Prussia
During February 1848, there was a revolution in France that eventually spread to other Western European countries. This event caused Engels & Marx to go back to their home country of
Prussia, specifically the city of Cologne. While living in Cologne, they created and served as editors for a new daily newspaper called the " Neue Rheinische Zeitung". However, during June 1849 Prussian coup d'étatthe newspaper was suppressed. After the coup, Marx lost his Prussian citizenship, was deported, and fled to Parisand then London. Engels stayed in Prussia and took part in an armed uprising in South Germany as an aide-de-campin the volunteer corps of August Willich. [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/bio/engels/en-1892.htm Engels, Frederick (encyclopedia) ] ] When the uprising was crushed, Engels managed to escape by traveling through Switzerlandas a refugeeand returned to England.
Back in Manchester
Once Engels made it to England, he decided to re-enter the commercial firm where his father held shares in order to help support Marx. He hated this work intensely but knew that his friend needed the support. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/work/england/manchester/article_4.shtml BBC - Legacies - Work - England - Manchester - Engels in Manchester - Article Page 4 ] ] [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/work/england/manchester/article_5.shtml BBC - Legacies - Work - England - Manchester - Engels in Manchester - Article Page 5 ] ] He started off as an office clerk, the same position he held in his teens, but eventually worked his way up to become a joint proprietor in 1864. Five years later, Engels retired from the business to focus more on his studies. At this time, Marx was living in London but they were able to exchange ideas through daily correspondence. In 1870, Engels moved to
Londonwhere he and Marx lived until Marx's death in 1883.His London home at this time and until his death was 122 Regent's Park Road, Primrose Hill, NW1. [ [http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.001002006005/chooseLetter/E London Blue Plaques] English Heritage - Accessed February 2007] Marx's first London residence was a cramped apartment at 28 Dean Street, Soho. From 1856, he lived at 9 Grafton Terrace, Kentish Town, and then in a tenement at 41 Maitland Park Road from 1875 until his death. [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/photo/places/index.htm Photos of Marx's Residence(s)]
After Marx's death, Engels devoted much of his remaining years to editing Marx's unfinished volumes of "Capital". However, he also contributed significantly to other areas. Engels made an argument using anthropological evidence of the time to show that family structures have changed over history, and that the concept of
monogamousmarriage came from the necessity within class society for men to control women to ensure their own children would inherit their property. He argued a future communist society would allow people to make decisions about their relationships free from economic constraints. One of the best examples of Engels' thoughts on these issues are in his work " The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State".
Engels died of throat cancer in London in 1895. [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1895/letters/95_05_21.htm Letters: Marx-Engels Correspondence 1895 ] ] Following cremation at
Brookwood Cemeterynear Woking, his ashes were scattered off Beachy Head, near Eastbourneas he had requested. [ [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1895/letters/95_05_21.htm Letters: Marx-Engels Correspondence 1895 ] ] [cite book |last=Kerrigan|first=Michael|title=Who Lies Where - A guide to famous graves|year=1998|publisher=Fourth Estate Limited|location=London|isbn=1-85702-258-0|pages=pp.156]
"The Holy Family" (1844)
"The Holy Family" was a book written by
Marx& Engels in November 1844. The book is a critique on the Young Hegeliansand their trend of thought which was very popular in academiccircles at the time. The title was a suggestion by the publisherand is meant as a sarcastic reference to the Bauer Brothers and their supporters. [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/holy-family/index.htm The Holy Family by Marx and Engels ] ] The book created a controversy with much of the press and caused Bruno Bauerto attempt to refute the book in an article which was published in Wigand's "Vierteljahrsschrift" in 1845. Bauer claimed that Marx and Engels misunderstood what he was trying to say. Marx later replied to his response with his own article that was published in the journal Gesellschaftsspiegelin January 1846. Marx also discussed the argument in chapter 2 of The German Ideology.
"The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844" (1844)
"The Condition of the Working Class" is a detailed description and analysis of the appalling conditions of the working class in Britain and
Irelandduring Engels' stay in England. It was considered a classic in its time and still widely available today. This work also had many seminal thoughts on the state of socialismand its development.
"Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science" (1878)
Popularly known as "Anti-Dühring", "Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science" is a detailed critique of the philosophical positions of
Eugen Dühring, a German philosopher and critic of Marxism. In the course of replying to Dühring, Engels reviews recent advances in science and mathematics and seeks to demonstrate the way in which the concepts of dialectics apply to natural phenomena. Many of these ideas were later developed in the unfinished work, " Dialectics of Nature". The last section of "Anti-Dühring" was later edited and published under the separate title, "Socialism: Utopian and Scientific".
"Socialism: Utopian and Scientific" (1880)
In this essay, Engels critiques the utopian socialists, such as Fourier and Owen, and provides an explanation of the socialist framework for understanding capitalism.
"The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State" (1884)
"The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State" is an important and detailed seminal work connecting
capitalismwith what Engels argues is an ever changing institution - the family. It was written when Engels was 64 years of age and at the height of his intellectualpower and contains a comprehensive historical view of the family in relation to the issues of class, female subjugation and private property.
* Carlton, Grace (1965), "Friedrich Engels: The Shadow Prophet". London: Pall Mall Press
* Carver, Terrell. (1989). "Friedrich Engels: His Life and Thought". London: Macmillan
* Green, John (2008), "Engels: A Revolutionary Life", London: Artery Publications. ISBN 0-9558228-0-3
* Henderson, W. O. (1976), "The life of Friedrich Engels", London : Cass, 1976. ISBN 0-7146-4002-6
* Mayer, Gustav (1936), "Friedrich Engels: A Biography" (1934; trans. 1936)
Works by Engels
* [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/index.htm The Marx & Engels Internet Archive] at
* [http://www.mlwerke.de/me/ Marx and Engels in their native German language]
*gutenberg author|id=Friedrich_Engels|name=Friedrich Engels
* [http://libcom.org/library/taxonomy/term/93 Libcom.org/library Frederick Engels archive]
* [http://www.zeno.org/Philosophie/M/Engels,%20Friedrich Works by Friedrich Engels] (in German) at
* [http://www.pathfinderpress.com/s.nl/sc.8/category.100/.f Pathfinder Press]
* [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/bio/index.htm Marx/Engels Biographical Archive]
* [http://marxmyths.org/maximilien-rubel/article.htm The Legend of Marx, or “Engels the founder”] by
* [http://www.marxist.com/rircontents-5.htm Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science]
Notes & References
SHORT DESCRIPTION=German political philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH=28 November 1820
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=5 August 1895
PLACE OF DEATH=
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