List of non-periodic comets
Non-periodic comets (or long-period comets) are comets that do not have confirmed observations at more than one perihelion passage, and thus generally have orbital periods of 200 years or more. They include single-apparition comets that pass through the Inner Solar System only once. They are on unstable near-parabolic orbits that will not return to the vicinity of the Sun for hundreds, thousands, or even millions of years – if ever. (Some use the term non-periodic comet to refer exclusively to comets that will never return to the vicinity of the Sun.) Comets not expected to return to the inner Solar System include C/1980 E1, C/2000 U5, C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), C/2009 R1, C/1956 R1, and C/2007 F1 (LONEOS).
The official names of non-periodic comets begin with a "C"; comets that have been lost or disappeared have names that begin with a "D".
The following is a partial list of non-periodic comets that have appeared in the Solar System:
Comet Discoverer(s) or Namesake, Date of discovery Comet Arend–Roland (C/1956 R1, 1957 III, 1956h) Arend and Roland, November 8, 1956 C/1989 X1 (Austin) (1990 V, 1989c1) Austin, December 6, 1989 Comet Beljawsky (C/1911 S3, 1911 IV, 1911g) Beljawsky, September 29, 1911 Comet Bennett (C/1969 Y1, 1970 II, 1969i) Bennett, December 28, 1969 C/2007 W1 (Boattini) Andrea Boattini, November 20, 2007 C/1980 E1 (Bowell) Edward L. G. Bowell, February 11, 1980. Most hyperbolic comet known. Comet Bradfield (C/2004 F4) Bradfield, April 12, 2004 Comet Brooks (C/1911 O1, 1911 V, 1911c) Brooks, July 21, 1911 C/1999 F1 (Catalina) Catalina Sky Survey, March 23, 1999 Comet de Kock–Paraskevopoulos (C/1941 B2, 1941 IV, 1941c) de Kock, January 15, 1941 and Paraskevopoulos, January 23, 1941 Independently discovered by 7 observers from South America. Eclipse Comet (C/1948 V1, 1948 XI, 1948l) First spotted during the Nairobi total solar eclipse of November 1, 1948 (magnitude about −2) Comet Elenin (C/2010 X1) Leonid Elenin, December 10, 2010 Comet Hale–Bopp (C/1995 O1) Hale and Bopp, July 23, 1995 one of only five comets known to have had a negative absolute magnitude (−2.7) Comet Humason (C/1961 R1, 1962 VIII, 1961e) Humason, September 1, 1961 Comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) Hyakutake, January 30, 1996 Comet Ikeya–Seki (C/1965 S1, 1965 VIII, 1965f) Ikeya, Seki, September 18, 1965 Comet Kohoutek (C/1973 E1, 1973 XII, 1973f) Kohoutek, March 7, 1973 C/2000 U5 (LINEAR) LINEAR, October 29, 2000 Comet LONEOS (C/2007 F1) LONEOS, March 19, 2007 Comet Lulin (C/2007 N3) Ye Quanzhi and Lin Chi-Sheng, Lulin Observatory, July 11, 2007 Comet Machholz (C/2004 Q2) Machholz, August 27, 2004 C/2008 Q1 (Matičič) Črni Vrh Observatory (the first comet discovered in Slovenia, by Stanislav Matičič) C/2006 P1 (McNaught) Robert McNaught, August 7, 2006 (max. brightness −5m) C/2009 R1 (McNaught) Robert McNaught, September 9, 2009 Comet McNaught–Russell (C/1993 Y1, 1994 XI, 1993v) Robert H. McNaught, Kenneth S. Russell December 17, 1993 Comet Mrkos (C/1957 P1, 1957 V, 1957d) Mrkos, July 29, 1957 Comet NEAT (C/2001 Q4) NEAT, August 24, 2001 Comet Pojmański (C/2006 A1) Pojmański, January 2, 2006 Comet Seki–Lines (C/1962 C1, 1962 III, 1962c, Reitberg–Blakesen, Khokhlov ) Seki and Lines, February 4, 1962 C/2007 Q3 (Siding Spring) Donna Burton at Siding Spring Observatory, August 25, 2007 Comet Skjellerup–Maristany (C/1927 X1, 1927 IX, 1927k) Skjellerup, November 28, 1927, and Maristany, December 6, 1927 Comet Skorichenko–George (C/1989 Y1, 1990 VI, 1989e1) Skorichenko and George, December 17, 1989 Great Southern Comet (C/1947 X1, 1947 XII, 1947n) December 7, 1947 C/2006 M4 (SWAN) Matson and Mattiazzo, June 20, 2006 C/2000 W1 (Utsunomiya–Jones) Syogo Utsunomiya and Albert F. Jones, November 18, 2000 Comet West (C/1975 V1, 1976 VI, 1975n) West, August 10, 1975 Comet White–Ortiz–Bolelli (C/1970 K1, 1970 VI, 1970f) White, May 18, 1970, Ortiz, May 21, 1970, and Bolelli, May 22, 1970 Comet Wilson–Hubbard (C/1961 O1, 1961 V, 1961d, Drakesen, Portlock–Weinberg) Wilson and Hubbard, July 23, 1961 Comet Yi–SWAN (C/2009 F6) Yi Dae am and SOHO of Robert D. Matson, March 26, 2009 (maximum apparent magnitude +8.5m) Comet Zhu–Balam (C/1997 L1) Zhu (June 3, 1997) and Balam (June 8, 1997 )
1910 and earlier (chronological)
Comet Discoverer(s) or Namesake, Date of discovery C/−43 K1 (Comet Caesar) May 18, 44 BC (China); alternative names in Roman antiquity: sidus Iulium or Caesaris astrum; absolute magnitude: −4.0, one of only five comets known to have had a negative absolute magnitude and possibly the brightest daylight comet in recorded history X/1106 C1 (Great Comet of 1106) February 2, 1106. One of the Kreutz Sungrazers, split in two. C/1577 V1 (Great Comet of 1577) (1577 I) November 1, 1577 absolute magnitude −1.8, one of only five comets known to have had a negative absolute magnitude C/1652 Y1 van Riebeeck, 17 December 1652 (Cape Town, South Africa) Kirch's Comet (C/1680 V1) Kirch, November 14, 1680 (first telescopic discovery of a comet) C/1686 R1 van der Stel, August 12, 1686 (Cape Town, South Africa) C/1689 X1 van der Stel, November 24, 1689 (Cape Town, South Africa) C/1702 H1 Francesco Bianchini & Giacomo Filippo Maraldi Comet of 1729 (C/1729 P1, 1729, Comet Sarabat) Sarabat, August 1, 1729 absolute magnitude −3.0, one of only five comets known to have had a negative absolute magnitude C/1743 X1 (1744, Comet Klinkenberg–de Chéseaux) Klinkenberg, December 9, 1743, and de Chéseaux, December 13, 1743 (orbit computer) became brighter than Jupiter and in March 1744 exhibited no less than six tails C/1746 P1 (1747, Comet de Chéseaux) de Chéseaux, August 13, 1746 absolute magnitude −0.5, one of only five comets known to have had a negative absolute magnitude Great Comet of 1760 (C/1760 A1, 1759 III, Parisian Comet) January 7, 1760, approached Jupiter to within 0.054 AU in 1758  Great Comet of 1771 (C/1771 A1, 1770 II) January 9, 1771 Great Comet of 1783 (C/1783 X1, 1784) de la Nux, December 15, 1783 Great Comet of 1807 (C/1807 R1, 1807) Giovanni, September 9, 1807 Great Comet of 1811 (C/1811 F1) Flaugergues, March 25, 1811 Great Comet of 1819 (C/1819 N1, 1819 II, Comet Tralles) Tralles, July 1, 1819 Great Comet of 1823 (C/1823 Y1, 1823) December 24, 1823 Comet Pons (C/1825 N1, 1825 IV) Pons, July 18, 1825 Great Comet of 1830 (C/1830 F1, 1830 I) Faraguet, March 16, 1830 (Mauritius) and Fallows, March 20, 1830 (Cape Town, South Africa). H. C. Dwerhagen, March 18, 1830 (Buenos Aires) Great Comet of 1831 (C/1831 A1, 1830 II) Herapath, January 7, 1831 (1) Great March Comet of 1843 (C/1843 D1, 1843 I) February 5, 1843 Great Comet of 1844 (C/1844 Y1, 1844 III) December 17, 1844 Great June Comet of 1845 (C/1845 L1, 1845 III) June 2, 1845 Comet Hind (C/1847 C1, 1847 I) Hind, February 6, 1847 Miss Mitchell's Comet (C/1847 T1, 1847 VI) Mitchell, October 1, 1847 Comet Klinkerfues (C/1853 L1, 1853 III) Klinkerfues, June 11, 1853 Great Comet of 1854 (C/1854 F1, 1854 II) March 23, 1854 Comet Donati (C/1858 L1, 1858 VI) Donati, June 2, 1858 Great Comet of 1860 (C/1860 M1, 1860 III) June 18, 1860 Comet Thatcher (C/1861 G1) A. E. Thatcher of New York, April 5, 1861 Great Comet of 1861 (C/1861 J1, 1861 II) Tebbutt, May 13, 1861 Great Southern Comet of 1865 (C/1865 B1, 1865 I) January 17, 1865 Comet Coggia (C/1874 H1, 1874 III) Coggia, April 17, 1874 Great Southern Comet of 1880 (C/1880 C1, 1880 I) February 1, 1880 Great Comet of 1881 (C/1881 K1, 1881 III, 1881b) Tebbutt, May 22, 1881. Independent discovery for W. G. Davis, May 25, 1881. Comet Wells (C/1882 F1, 1882 I, 1882a) Wells, March 18, 1882 Great September Comet of 1882 (C/1882 R1, 1882 II, 1882b) September 1, 1882; the first astronomer to see it was Finlay. It reached an estimated magnitude −17 (C/1882 R1, C/1945 X1 (du Toit) and C/1965 S1 may be the fragments of X/1106 C1). Possible first discoverer B. A. Gould Great Southern Comet of 1887 (C/1887 B1, 1887 I, 1887a) Thome, January 18, 1887, "The Headless Wonder" Great Comet of 1901 (C/1901 G1, 1901 I, 1901a) April 23, 1901 Great January Comet of 1910 (C/1910 A1)
(not to be confused with the 1910 apparition of 1P/Halley)
Observed by many on the morning of January 12, 1910, the first astronomer to see it was Innes
- ^ a b "Cometary Designation System". Minor Planet Center. http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/lists/CometResolution.html. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
- ^ a b "Small Bodies: Profile". NASA/JPL Planetary Data System. http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/special/smbod.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
- ^ ¿Quién descubrió el cometa 1941 B2?
- ^ Flare-up on July 23–25, 44 BC (Rome): −4.0 (Richter model) and −9.0 (41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák model); absolute magnitude on May 26, 44 BC (China): −3.3 (Richter) and −4.4 (41P/TGK); calculated in Ramsey, John T.; Licht, A. Lewis (1997) The Comet of 44 B.C. and Caesar's Funeral Games. American classical studies, no. 39. Contributor: Brian G. Marsden (Illustrated ed.) Atlanta: Scholars Press. pp. 236. ISBN 0-788-50273-5 OCLC 34640748
- ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser C/1686 R1
- ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser C/1729 P1
- ^ El observatorio astronómico del convento de Santo Domingo
- ^ Auszug aus einem Schreiben des Herrn Dwerhagen an Herrn Dr. und Ritter Olbers in Bremen
- ^ Hace 128 años se descubría el cometa 1881 III
- ^ Córdoba Estelar, Cap 21,pp.348–349 and Uranometría Argentina 2001
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