- Diploma mill
A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is an organization that awards academic degrees and diplomas with substandard or no academic study and without recognition by official educational accrediting bodies. The purchaser can then claim to hold an academic degree, and the organization is motivated by making a profit. These degrees are often awarded based on construed life experience. Some such organizations claim accreditation by non-recognized/unapproved accrediting bodies set up for the purposes of providing a veneer of authenticity.
While the terms "degree mill" and "diploma mill" are commonly used interchangeably, within the academic community a distinction is sometimes drawn:
- A "degree mill" issues "real" diplomas from unaccredited "universities," which may be legal in some states but are generally illegitimate universities.
- A "diploma mill" issues counterfeit diplomas which bear the names of legitimate universities.
Common attributes of diploma mills
Diploma mills are frequently named to sound confusingly similar to those of prestigious accredited academic institutions. Despite the fact that trademark law is intended to prevent this situation, diploma mills continue to employ various methods to avoid legal recourse. Several diploma mills have adopted British-sounding names, similar but not identical to the names of legitimate universities, apparently to take advantage of the United Kingdom's reputation for educational quality in other parts of the world. Some examples of British-sounding names used by diploma mills are "Shaftesbury University", "University of Dunham", "Redding University", and "Suffield University".
In their marketing and advertising campaigns, diploma mills will often misleadingly claim to be "accredited" when, in fact, many are found to have been endorsed by "dummy" accreditation boards set up by company affiliates. In an attempt to appear more legitimate to potential students, accreditation mills based in the United States may model their websites after real accrediting agencies overseen by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). Some may even advertise services for transcript notation and diploma verification in order to seem more legitimate. Another typical ploy is for mills to claim to be internationally recognized by organizations such as UNESCO. UNESCO, however, has no authority to recognize or accredit higher education institutions or agencies, and has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO recognition or affiliation. As diploma mills are typically also licensed to do business, it is common practice within the industry to misrepresent their business license as indicating government approval of the institution.
Compared to legitimately accredited institutions, diploma mills tend to have drastically lowered requirements for academic coursework, with some even allowing their students to purchase credentials without any education. Students may be required to purchase textbooks, take tests, and submit homework, but degrees are nonetheless conferred after little or no study.
Buyers often use the diplomas to claim academic credentials for use in securing employment (e.g., a schoolteacher may buy a degree from a diploma mill in order to advance to superintendent). Some diploma mills claim to be based outside the country they market to. This is common with "offshore" jurisdictions.
Diploma mills share a number of characteristics that differentiate them from respected institutions, although some legitimate institutions can also exhibit one or more such characteristics. Some common characteristics are:
- They lack accreditation by a nationally recognized accrediting agency, although not all unaccredited institutions of higher learning are diploma mills. Some diploma mills claim accreditation by an accreditation mill while referring to themselves as being "fully accredited". Some institutions base their assertions of academic legitimacy on claims of affiliation with respected organizations (such as UNESCO) that are not engaged in school accreditation. Promotional materials may use words denoting a legal status such as "licensed", "state authorized", or "state-approved" to suggest an equivalence to accreditation. Some advertise other indicators of authenticity that are not relevant to academic credentials. For example, the University of Northern Washington advertises that its degrees are "attested and sealed for authenticity by a government appointed notary" although notarization certifies only that the document was signed by the person named.
- No teaching facilities — the address is a postal box or mail forwarding service or suite numbers.
- There is little or no interaction with professors. Even if comments and corrections to coursework are given, they do not affect getting the degree. The professors may serve only to write compliments to the "student" that can be given as references.
- Name of institution is deceptively similar to well known reputable universities.
- Degrees can be obtained within a few days, weeks or months from the time of enrollment, and back-dating is possible.
- Either there are no faculty members or they hold advanced degrees from the institution itself or from other diploma mills. They may also sport legitimate degrees that are, however, unrelated to the subject they teach.
- Academic credit is offered for "life experience," and this is featured heavily in the selling points of the institution.
- Tuition and fees are charged on a per-degree basis rather than on a per-term or per-course basis.
- Prospective students are encouraged to "enroll now" before tuition or fees are increased, or they qualify for a "fellowship", "scholarship" or "grant" or they're offered deals to sign up for multiple degrees at the same time.
- The institution has no library, personnel, publication or research. In short, very little that is tangible can be found about the "institution".
- Doctoral theses and dissertations are not available from University Microfilms International or a national repository or even the institution's own library, if it has one.
- Promotional literature contains grammatical and spelling errors, words in Latin, extravagant or pretentious language, and sample diplomas. The school's website looks amateurish or unprofessionally made.
- The school is situated in the United States but the website does not have an .edu top-level domain. However, an .edu domain cannot be taken as verification of school quality or reputation, as enforcement has sometimes been lax, resulting in some unaccredited schools retaining an .edu domain prior to any enforcement policy. Similarly, some non-US mills use a .ac top-level domain name (for Ascension Island) to give the impression of a genuine second-level academic domain name (e.g. .ac.uk). However, some legitimate academic institutions have registered .ac domains to prevent misuse of their names.
- The school is advertised using e-mail spam (unsolicited electronic mail) or other questionable methods.
- Jurisdiction shopping: the school is situated in another country or legal jurisdiction, where running diploma mills is legal, standards are lax or prosecution is unlikely. Splitting the business across jurisdictions is a way to sometimes avoid authorities, e.g., operating in one jurisdiction but using the mailing address in a different jurisdiction. Compare forum shopping and tax haven.
- Despite being situated in such a diploma mill-friendly country, the school has no students from that country, and is run entirely by non-native staff.
- In most of the European Union but not the UK, tertiary education is free of charge to students who pass highly competitive entrance examinations. In this environment, schools that have a tuition fee, lack entrance requirements, and are possibly based in another country, may be diploma mills; particularly when they match other criteria in this list. UK universities and other providers of recognised UK degrees charge tuition fees that may be similar to, or higher than, non-accredited diploma mills.
- Unusual academic subjects. Instead of "hard sciences", where competence is easier to verify, the subjects are esoteric and may be based on a pseudoscience, e.g. astrology, natural healing, and religious literature. This makes external verification impossible, because when they define their science, they can also define the educational standards without external oversight.
Degrees and diplomas issued by diploma mills have been used to obtain employment, raises, or clients. Even if issuing or receiving a diploma mill qualification is legal, passing it off as an accredited one for personal gain is a crime in many jurisdictions. In some cases the diploma mill may itself be guilty of an offense, if it knew or ought to have known that the qualifications it issues are used for fraudulent purposes. Diploma mills could also be guilty of fraud if they mislead customers into believing that the qualifications they issue are accredited or recognized, or make false claims that they will lead to career advancement, and accept money on the basis of these claims.
Some unaccredited institutions include disclaimers in respect of accreditation in the small print of their contracts.
- "It is like putting a time bomb in your résumé. It could go off at any time, with dire consequences. The people who sell fake degrees will probably never suffer at all, but the people who buy them often suffer mightily. And — particularly if their "degree" is health-related — their clients may be seriously harmed."
In Australia, it is a criminal offense to call an institution a university, or issue university degrees, without authorization through an act of federal or state parliaments.
The corporate regulator Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) places strict controls on corporations wishing to use the term "university" and the name must not imply a connection with an existing university (e.g. University Avenue Newsagent Pty Ltd) if the applicant does not intend to provide education services.
The Corporations Regulations 2001 lists the 39 academic organisations permitted to use the title "university".
The use of higher education terms (such as "degree") is protected in state legislation, e.g. Higher Education (Qld) Act 2003.
Specific penalties are given within the individual acts and more generally are also covered by the "Misleading and Deceptive Conduct" provisions of the Trade Practices Act 1974, permitting fines in excess of AUD $10M.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
According to The Law on Higher Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina the names "University", "Faculty", "Academy" and "University of Applied Sciencies" can be used only by accredited educational institutions. Accreditation is the formal confirmation by Ministry of Education and Science of particular Canton, Entity or District, but prescribed by the Agency for Development of Higher Education and Quality Assurance of BiH which conducted the independent external quality assessment of educational institution. Only these institutions are allowed to award academic degrees and diplomas.
Illegal use of academic titles or academic degrees and "non-accredited diplomas" may lead to prosecution, conviction, fines or even imprisonment.
In Canada all universities and colleges are under the direct supervision of the provincial and territorial governments, and there are no accreditation authorities, so the problem of degree mills is relatively rare. (see: higher education in Canada) For example, in Ontario the Post-secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000, regulates degree-granting authority. Any institution that wishes to a) offer a degree and/or b) use the term "university" must be authorized to do so under an Act of the Legislature or by the Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities under the Post-secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000.
In 2006, the Canada Border Services Agency reported concerns about "visa mills", fraudulent universities operated for the sole purpose of helping foreign nationals obtain student visas to allow them to enter Canada.
Most, but not all, universities and colleges in the People's Republic of China are public institutions. The Ministry of Education, which has legal authority to regulate college enrollment and degree awarding, publishes a yearly list of qualified higher-education institutions. Institutions not on the list cannot admit students or award degrees.
Also, no institution may call itself a "university" or "college" without approval by a provincial-level education department. Any institution, public or private, which wishes to name itself after a geographic region larger than a province (e.g. "South China ... University") must go through the Ministry of Education. A new regulation forbids any new university or college from being named "national", "of China" or similar names.
Most universities and colleges are public institutions; universities are self-governing, but financed by the state. However, some schools like Tvind's teacher college provide education, which are only accredited outside Denmark.
All universities and colleges are public institutions; universities are state institutions, and vocational universities are municipal organs. There are no private higher educational institutions and no legal mechanism to found or accredit any. Universities are explicitly defined in the University Act. The only state universities that operate as foundations rather than civil service departments are Aalto University and Tampere University of Technology, since 2010, but both are still explicitly mentioned in the University Act.
For purposes of professional qualification, the use of foreign degree qualifications is regulated: if the name of a degree can be confused with a Finnish degree that requires more academic credit, the officials in charge of professional qualification must require it to be formatted in a manner to eliminate the confusion. For example, if a degree is called "Doctor" but is in fact a lower degree (common in some cases), then this confusion has to be eliminated.
In Germany, it is a criminal offense to call an institution a university, a university of applied sciences, or issue academic degrees, without authorization through an act of the respective state's Ministry of Education. It is also a criminal offense to falsely claim a degree in Germany if it does not meet accredited approval.
Some corporate training programs in Germany use the English term "corporate university". Although such use of the term might be argued to be illegal, in practice it is tolerated since everyone understands that such programs are not actual universities.
It is illegal under Hong Kong law's Chap. 320 Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance Sec. 8 to call an organisation a 'university' without approval from the Chief Executive in Council.
Under HK Laws. Chap 200 Crimes Ordinance, Section 73, anyone who knowingly used false documents with the intention of inducing somebody to accept it as genuine, "is liable for a 14 years imprisonment term". Section 76 outlines that anyone who make or possess machines that creates false documents are also liable for 14 years jail time.
The University Grants Commission states, in section 22 of the University Grants Commission Act of 1956:"The right of conferring or granting degrees shall be exercised only by a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act or an institution deemed to be a University under section 3 or an institution specially empowered by an Act of Parliament to confer or grant degrees."
Legitimate higher education qualifications in Ireland are placed on, or formally aligned, with the National Framework of Qualifications. This framework was established by the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland in accordance with the Qualifications (Education and Training) Act (1999). It is illegal under the Universities Act (1997) for any body offering higher education services to use the term "university" without the permission of the Minister for Education and Science. It is likewise illegal under the Institutes of Technologies Acts (1992–2006) to use the term "institute of technology" or "regional technology college" without permission.
Malaysia"establish, operate, manage or maintain a higher educational institution by the use of the word “university”, except in accordance with any written law on higher education"
and Section 72 prescribes a fine not exceeding fifty thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years or to both.
Apart from the penalties prescribed by the Act above, other laws that regulate the establishment of universities prescribe various other penalties:
- Universities and University Colleges Act 1971
- Section 23 makes it an offense to:
- "establish, form or promote or do anything or carry on any activities for the purpose of establishing or forming or promoting the establishment or formation of a University or University College otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of this Act or any other written law regulating its establishment"
- prescribing a fine of ten thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term of five years or to both upon conviction.
- Section 24 makes it an offence to:
- "establish, manage or maintain a higher educational institution with the status of University or University College"
- and/or to
- "issue to or confer on any person any degree or diploma purporting to be degree or diploma issued or conferred by a University or University College" unless it "is in accordance with the provisions of this Act or any other written law regulating its establishment"
- prescribing a fine of five thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term of three years or to both upon conviction.
- Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996
- Section 76 of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act makes it an offence to:
- "establish, form, promote, operate, manage or maintain a private higher educational institution by the use of the word University, University College or branch campus"
- prescribing a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both upon conviction.
- Section 44 of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act provides that:
- "only a private higher educational institution with the status of a University or a University College or a branch campus may award degrees"
- and Section 77 makes it an offence:
- "private higher educational institution which conducts any course of study or training programme for which a certificate, diploma or degree is awarded contrary to the provisions of Section 44"
- prescribing a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both upon conviction.
Furthermore, all legitimate higher education qualifications are placed on, or formally affiliated with the Malaysian Qualifications Framework under the provisions of the Malaysian Qualifications Agency Act 2007. Limited exemptions are however granted to organizations and institutions "where the teaching is confined exclusively to the teaching of any religion" or "any place declared by the Minister by notification in the Gazette not to be an educational institution" under the Education Act 1996.
In July 2007, the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) of Mexico issued an alert listing eleven institutions that are unaccredited in Mexico: Atlantic International University, Pacific Western University (PWU has operated as California Miramar University since 2007 and CMU is accredited by the DETC as of 2009), Endicott College (Endicott College in Massachusetts is fully accredited), Alliant International University (AIU is accredited by the WASC; it formerly operated as USIU (see next)), United States International University (now AIU), Newport University (not to be confused with University of Wales, Newport), Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (a distance learning program operated by the Spanish government), Westbridge University, West Coast University (WCU is accredited by the ACICS), Bircham International University, and Vision International University.
In the Neterlands it is illegal for non accredited, non recognised institutes to bestow any legally protected academic titles (Titles equivalent to MA: meester (abbrev mr.); to MSc: ingenieur (abbrev ir.), doctorandus (abbrev drs.); Title equivalant to PhD: doctor (abbrev dr.)). The NVAO is the only agency allowed to accredite courses. Since the implementation of the Bologna process, the Dutch universities have started to bestow the English titles MSc and PhD instead of their Dutch equivalents. These English versions of the title are not protected under Dutch law. Ironically, however, a diploma mill may bestow someone with a PhD title without violating Dutch law, but the recipient will not be allowed the protected title "doctor" or "dr.".
Partnerships with foreign educational institutions are possible. This is called the "U-bocht construction". In this case, the curricula are neither accredited by NVAO nor recognized by the Dutch Department of Education, since they count as foreign curricula (they are not seen as Dutch curricula). In this case, the graduates do not receive a Dutch diploma, but they receive a foreign diploma, issued by the educational institution which has a partnership with a Dutch educational institution. Whether they are diploma mills or not depends upon the laws and accreditation system of the country wherein the diploma is granted.
The New Zealand Education Act prohibits use of the terms "degree" and "university" by institutions other than the country's eight accredited universities. In 2004 authorities announced their intention to take action against unaccredited schools using the words "degree" and "university," including the University of Newlands, an unaccredited distance-learning provider based in the Wellington suburb of Newlands. Other unaccredited New Zealand institutions reported to be using the word "university" included the New Zealand University of Golf in Auckland, the online Tawa-Linden and Tauranga Universities of the Third Age, and the Southern University of New Zealand. Newlands owner Rochelle M. Forrester said she would consider removing the word "university" from the name of her institution in order to comply with the law.
The National University Commission (NUC) was formed in 1999 to clamp down on diploma mill activity in the country. A concentrated effort by the NUC has resulted in a significant drop in diploma mill activity in Nigeria. An International Higher Education article states, "Attainment of the Nigerian vision of being one of the top 20 economies by 2020 will be compromised by the injection of such poor-quality graduates into the economy. Herein lies the distaste for and the raison d'etre for government's clampdown on degree mills."
"In Nigeria, online degrees from unaccredited institutions are banned and employers are not supposed to accept fraudulent degrees."
In Pakistan, Higher Education Commission is looking after all the activities related to the accreditation of universities in Pakistan. Known as the 'Recognized by HEC', universities are granted this status by the government established commission which is working under the Ministry of Education. All the recognized universities in Pakistan are listed on the HEC website.
Title IV (Crimes Against Public Interest), Section V, Art. 174 and Art. 175 of the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines criminalizes the act of "Falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or service and the like." Art. 174 penalizes the maker or the manufacturer of such certificate, specifically a physician or surgeon in connection with the practice of his profession and a public official. Art. 175, on the other hand, penalizes the one who procures and knowingly uses such false certificate. Despite this, news and magazine articles appear from time to time reporting businesses operating along Claro M. Recto Avenue in Manila which offer fake documents for sale.
There was a long-lasting reputation of lower teaching standards and easier entrance requirements in some less reputed institutions of higher education, especially in private institutions and the smallest regional state-run polytechnics, which seemed rather relaxed. A number of scandals, suspicions and affairs involving private higher education institutions (for example, major private universities like Universidade Moderna (1998), Universidade Independente (2007) and Universidade Internacional (2007), among others), and a general perception of many of those institutions as having a tendentially relaxed teaching style with less rigorous criteria, have contributed to their poor reputation which originated a state-run inspection of private higher education institutions in 2007. In some fields, a number of private, and state-run polytechnic or university institutions, did not provide degree programs of academic integrity comparable to those provided at the most reputed departments of the major Portuguese state-run classic universities. In the late 2000s, there was a growing effort to define nonaccredited universities or accredited institutions which awarded nonaccredited degrees, as diploma mills, in order to raise awareness about the problem. In 1999 alone, over 15,000 students enrolled in Portuguese higher learning institutions (universities, public and private, polytechnical institutions, etc.) and newly graduates in the fields of engineering and architecture, were enrolled or were awarded a degree in a non-accredited course. Those students and graduates with no official recognition were not accredited professionals in their presumed field of expertise. At the same time, only one accredited engineering course was offered by a private university, and over 90% of the accredited courses with recognition in the fields of engineering, architecture, and law were provided by state-run universities. Since 2007, the State plans to enforce in the near future more stringent rules for all kind of public and private degree-conferring institutions.
The Spiru Haret University has been considered in Romania and outside it as a diploma mill. Although it received accreditation from Romania's National Council of Academic Evaluation in 2002, step by step its accreditations were cancelled for a large number of specializations. Also, there are many voices which dispute the level of the education offered. The scandal peaked in the summer of 2009, when the Minister of Education suggested that the way license diplomas are obtained could become the object of an inquiry of the Romanian public prosecutors.
Petre Andrei University from Iaşi has been demanded to comply with the Law no. 408/2002, otherwise it will be liquidated. The same holds for Apolonia University from Iaşi (speaking of Law no. 481/2002 instead of Law no. 408/2002).
University Al. Ghica and University Europa Ecor, both from the town of Alexandria, Romania, made the object of an operation of the Romanian National Anti-corruption Prosecution Office, for selling 15,000 false diplomas in exchange for Euro 3,000 per diploma. Their profits have been estimated to about Euro 45 million per year.
The Romanian newspaper Gândul has reported that the Christian University "Dimitrie Cantemir" from Bucharest started 34 Master's degree curricula which have no legal ground. According to the rector of the University, Mrs. Corina Dumitrescu, the law has a loophole, since it uses a continuous present for institutional evaluation, which is uncharacteristic of the Romanian language. She says that in her opinion institutional evaluation (required by law) may also happen after the curricula have been taught. The actual wording in Romanian is "universitate acreditată supusă periodic evaluării instituţionale", and Dumitrescu argues that "care se supun" means that an accredited institution can be evaluated "today, tomorrow or the day after tomorrow" (and presumably, any time), not that it needs to have been evaluated in the past. For the study year 2010-2011, 16 Master's curricula from nine of its faculties are listed as accredited in Order no. 4630/2010 of the Department of Education.
The Minister Daniel Petru Funeriu has declared that the Spiru Haret University will become illegal. "The new law provides very clearly what happens in such situations: the institution of higher education which has unaccredited curricula automatically becomes illegal and enters into liquidation" said Funeriu for Bună Ziua Iași, showing that this is of application for any university with unaccredited curricula, not just for the Spiru Haret University. On February 10, 2011 have to have been stopped any specializations and curricula which are neither accredited nor temporarily authorized, according to Art. 361 paragraph 4 of the Law of National Education. The continuation of such curricula causes the liquidation of the university and the criminal responsibility for those guilty of breaking the law.
According to the newspaper Gândul, the situation of those who graduated unaccredited and unauthorized studies will be decided in September, following a project drawn up by ARACIS and consulting the National Rectors' Council. Funeriu recognized that it applies to several universities and that his department does not have the right to cancel diplomas.
It is illegal to falsely claim a degree in South Korea if it does not meet accredited approval. For example, in March 2006 prosecutors in Seoul were reported to have "broken up a crime ring selling bogus music diplomas from Russia, which helped many land university jobs and seats in orchestras." People who falsely used these degrees were criminally charged.
In early 2007, Shin Jeong-ah (신정아) was criminally charged for forging and misusing a degree from Yale University. This led to domino reactions due to her career status as a Professor in Dongguk University along with a curator position at an art gallery known to have many ties with both economical and political figures.
In Sri Lanka until 1999 only state universities could grant degrees, however amendments to the Universities Act that year gave certain institutions other than state universities power to grant degrees. This ability to grant degrees is established by an Act of Parliament (rare) or given by the University Grants Commission. Universities can be established only by an act of parliament, to date no private university has been established in Sri Lanka.
In June 2007, the Swedish Minister for Employment, Sven-Otto Littorin, was discovered to have an MBA degree from Fairfax University. Aware that claiming an MBA from this diploma mill would be illegal in many states in the USA, Littorin tried to convince the Swedish media and people that the MBA was granted to him in good order. Probably due to the fact that he did not let anyone peer review his thesis, he was eventually forced to remove the reference from his official CV, but he remained in office.
In federal law, qualifications from federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Zurich, EPF Lausanne) and those from Fachhochschule-institutions are protected and it is a criminal offense, under unfair competition legislation, to use any unfounded academic or occupational qualifications. The mere keeping of such a title, however, is legal. Thus, one can call oneself an LL.M., but must not use when competing for clients.
In the UK, it is illegal to offer something that may be mistaken for a UK degree unless the awarding body is on a list maintained by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Degrees must be awarded by 'recognised bodies', which include universities and other higher education institutions with 'degree awarding powers'. However degree programmes may be advertised and run by a much wider range of 'listed bodies' whose academic standards and quality are assured by a 'recognised body' which formally awards the degree.
UK Trading Standards officers have had notable success in countering a large diploma mill group based abroad that was using British place-names for its "universities".
The United States does not have a federal law that would unambiguously prohibit diploma mills, and the term "university" is not legally protected on a national level. The United States Department of Education lacks direct plenary authority to regulate schools and, consequently, the quality of an institution's degree. However, the Federal Trade Commission works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive and unfair business practices including those in the field of education and alerts United States' consumers about diploma mills by delineating some tell-tale signs in its official web page. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, the U.S. Secretary of Education is required by law to publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies that the Secretary determines to be reliable authorities on the quality of education or training provided by the institutions of higher education that they accredit. Some degree mills have taken advantage of the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment by representing themselves as seminaries, since in many jurisdictions religious institutions can legally offer degrees in religious subjects without government regulation.
Although the DipScam operation in the 1980s led to a decline in diploma mill activity across the United States, the lack of further action by law enforcement, uneven state laws, and the rise of the Internet have combined to reverse many of the gains made in previous years. In 2005, the US Department of Education launched its Database of Accredited Postsecondary Institutions and Programs website to combat the spread of fraudulent degrees. A number of states have passed bills restricting the ability of organizations to award degrees without accreditation. Jurisdictions that have restricted or made illegal the use of credentials from unaccredited schools include Oregon, Michigan, Maine, North Dakota, New Jersey, Washington, Nevada, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas. Many other states are also considering restrictions on the use of degrees from unaccredited institutions.
- ^ a b Luca Lantero, Degree Mills: non-accredited and irregular higher education institutions, Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy.
- ^ "The Real and the Fake: Degree and Diploma Mills", Alan Contreras and George Gollin, Change, March–April 2009
- ^ Connor, Leartus, M.D.; Cleland, Henry Alexander, ed (June 1883). "Another Diploma Mill Placed Upon the Black List of the Illinois State Board of Health". Detroit Lancet (George S. Davis; Google Books) 6: 321. http://books.google.com/?id=uvcTAAAAYAAJ&dq=pet%20%22diploma%20mill%22&pg=PA321#v=snippet&q=another%20diploma%20mill. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ Simmons, George M.D., ed (February 16, 1901). "Editorial, Minor Comments". Journal of the American Medical Association (AMA, Highwire Press, Google Books) 36 (1): 448, 578. http://books.google.com/?id=ElLlAAAAMAAJ&dq=pet%20%22diploma%20mill%22&pg=PA448#v=onepage&q=%22diploma%20mill%22. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ "Why the Quack Flourishes — Difficulties of Suppressing Him" (PDF). New York Times: p. SM2. November 20, 1904. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C03E7DF1F3BE631A25753C2A9679D946597D6CF. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ a b Melanie Newman, Degree mills bank on allure of UK names, Times Higher Education, 20 April 2007
- ^ BBB (July 12, 2000). "Is the U.S. becoming a haven for diploma mills?". bbb.org. Council of Better Business Bureaus. Archived from the original on 2003-10-31. http://web.archive.org/web/20031031032931/http://www.bbb.org/alerts/article.asp?ID=185. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ "University of Northern Washington Accreditation". University of Northern Washington. Archived from the original on 2008-05-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20080523172454/http://www.unw.edu/Accred.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ a b c d e AP (January 28, 2009). "5 signs your school might be a diploma mill". foxnews.com; News Corp. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ Lagorio, Christine (July 6, 2006). "Diploma Mill Calling: Continuing Ed Without the Ed". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/30/education/edlife/diplomamill.html?ex=1189569600&en=898a63a18cf2b4c1&ei=5070.
- ^ Navarrete, Erika and Wilson, Jaryd (May 26, 2009). "Online Degree Scamming". KOMU TV. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ Bear, John; Bear, Marian P (2003). "Chapter 27: Degree Mills". Bears' Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance Learning. Ten Speed Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 1580084311. http://books.google.com/?id=k67XC_7y5xEC&pg=PA257&lpg=PA257&dq=%22degree+mills+have+been+around+for+hundreds+of+years%22#PPA257,M1. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- ^ "Guidelines for the use of the word 'university' in company names". www.asic.gov.au; Australia Securities and Investments Commission. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ "Zakon o Visokom Obrazovanju u Bosni i Hercegovini" (PDF). Unze.ba. Vijece Ministara BiH. June 2006. http://www.unze.ba/download/Zakon_o_visokom_obrazovanju_bos.pdf.
- ^ "Skupstina Kantona Zakonodavno-pravna komisija". August 2010. ISSN 1512-7052. http://unsa.ba/s/images/stories/pdf/zakoni/IZMJENE.pdf.
- ^ "Post-secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000 : S.O. 2000, CHAPTER 36 : Schedule". Service Ontario e-Laws.
- ^ "Student visas used as ticket into Canada". CanWest News Service. Vancouver Sun. July 31, 2007. http://www.canada.com/topics/news/politics/story.html?id=fe065b61-bb57-4518-adcd-601ad904ff3a&k=46073.
- ^ "Yliopistolaki 24.7.2009/558". Finlex. Retrieved 2010-09-30.(in Finnish)
- ^ "Laki ammattipätevyyden tunnustamisesta 30.11.2007/1093". Finlex. Retrieved 2010-09-30. (in Finnish)
- ^ 200 "Crimes Ordinance Chapter 200". Hong Kong Laws Chap 200.
- ^ "University Grants Commission Act, 1956, as modified up to 20 December 1985". University Grants Commission (India). p. 17. http://www.ugc.ac.in/policy/ugcact1956.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- ^ "§ 71 Education Act 1996" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%2011/Act%20550.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "§ 72 Education Act 1996" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%2011/Act%20550.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "§ 23 Universities and University Colleges Act 1971" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%201/Act%2030.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "§ 24 Universities and University Colleges Act 1971" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%201/Act%2030.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "§ 76 Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20555.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "§ 44 Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20555.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "§ 77 Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20555.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "MQF At A Glance". Malaysian Qualifications Authority.
- ^ "§ 2 Education Act 1996" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers (Malaysia). http://www.agc.gov.my/agc/oth/Akta/Vol.%2011/Act%20550.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- ^ "Aviso "Programas sin RVOE"" (in Spanish). Mexico: Dirección General de Educación Superior Universitaria. July 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-04-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20080418090454/http://ses4.sep.gob.mx/dg/dges/rvoe/.
- ^ Secretaria de Educación (May 23, 2006). "AVISO "Programas sin RVOE"" (in Spanish) (PDF). SETAB.gob.mx. Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Tabasco. http://www.setab.gob.mx/avisos/pdf/av2.pdf.
- ^ a b http://napnieuws.nl/2009/01/30/%E2%80%98je-koopt-als-het-ware-je-bachelor%E2%80%99/
- ^ Cohen, David (August 26, 2004). "New Zealand Vows a Crackdown on Diploma Mills in Wake of Unusual Defamation Lawsuit", The Chronicle of Higher Education
- ^ a b "Clipping the Wings of Degree Mills in Nigeria" (PDF). Peter Okebukola, The Boston College Center for International Higher Education, Boston College, Fall 2008
- ^ "Degree Mills: The Impact on Students and Society" (PDF). Judith S. Eaton and Stamenka Uvalic-Trumbic, The Boston College Center for International Higher Education, Boston College, Fall 2008
- ^ Pakistan Higher Education Commission.
- ^ "The Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, Book Two". Chanrobles Law Library. November 11, 1980. http://www.chanrobles.com/revisedpenalcodeofthephilippinesbook2.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
- ^ "Manila cops nab fake passport makers". ABS-CBN News. November 13, 2007. http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=98390. Retrieved 2007-11-13. [dead link]
- ^ "Korean military officers fired over Recto degrees". Manila Standard. November 3, 2007. http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=news3_nov3_2007. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
- ^ Gurfinkle, Michael J. (March 2002). "Is your case suspicious?". Philippine Post magazine. Archived from the original on 2002-06-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20020607201717/http://philpost.com/030202pages/immigration0302.html. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- ^ "Encerramento: Ministério vai averiguar a base de dados das instituições Privadas inspeccionadas" (in Portuguese). Correio da Manhã. March 30, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930020658/http://www.correiomanha.pt/noticia.asp?idCanal=0&id=236552. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- ^ "Governo desencadeia saneamento das privadas". Pedro Sousa Tavares. May 26, 2007, Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese)
- ^ "15 mil alunos frequentam cursos não reconhecidos". Expresso (Nº1382), 24th April 1999. accessed December 2006 (in Portuguese)
- ^ a b "Parlamentarii ţin în braţe fabrica de diplome „Spiru Haret“" Adevarul, February 24, 2010. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b "Fabrica de diplome nule „Spiru Haret“ iese şi la export" Cotidianul, July 15, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b "Spiru Haret, fabrica de profesori, nu doar de diplome" Ziarul Financiar, July 21, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b "Fabrica de diplome Spiru Haret" Ziarul de Iasi, July 20, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b "Universitatea „Spiru Haret” Arad a ajuns fabrică de diplome universitare" Ziua de Vest, August 9, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b " “Fabrica” de diplome “Spiru Haret” lasă studenţii cu ochii-n soare" Financiarul, July 10, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b " 'Diplomfabrik' droht Schließung" Der Standard, July 22, 2009. (in German)
- ^ a b "Gelehrte ab Fliessband" Neue Zürcher Zeitung, October 1, 2009. (in German)
- ^ a b c d "Le système de l'enseignement supérieur roumain mis en cause par un scandale" (PDF) Le Monde, August 16, 2009. (in French)
- ^ a b "Ministry of Education should take action against private university" Eurotopics, July 27, 2009.
- ^ a b "100,000 Diplomas Annulled" World Education Services, September 2009.
- ^ a b "ROMANIA: Diplomas of private university illegal" University World News, July 19, 2009.
- ^ a b Diplomas of private university grads stamped as illegal Evenimentul Zilei, July 15, 2009.
- ^ a b "A step back in the SPIRU HARET case" Radio Romania International, July 22, 2009.
- ^ a b "Presseauswertung 13. - 19. Juli 2009" Konsulat der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Temeswar. (in German)
- ^ a b "Presseauswertung 10. - 16. August 2009" Konsulat der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Temeswar. (in German)
- ^ "Cum a ajuns “Spiru Haret” cea mai mare universitate din lume" Financiarul, July 13, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ "Lista profesorilor de la "Spiru Haret" care au obtinut ilegal gradul universitar" Ziare.com, July 23, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ "Sesizarea la Parchet poate declansa desfiintarea Universitatii 'Spiru Haret' " România Liberă, July 23, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b "Monitorul Oficial" (PDF). no. 465, year 177 (XXI). July 6, 2009, p. 86 (in Romanian). Monitorul Oficial is the state newspaper wherein laws and government decisions have to be officially published in order to become effective.
- ^ a b c "Universitatea Crestina "Dimitrie Cantemir" adopta modelul "Spiru Haret" " Gândul, July 20, 2009. (in Romanian)
- ^ a b c Florea, Raul (July 19, 2009). "Cantemir după Spiru: masterate înfiinţate doar în baza legilor gramaticale" Gândul. (in Romanian)
- ^ Ordinul MECTS nr. 4630/2010
- ^ a b Huțanu, Valentin (January 8, 2011). "Prezent la Iasi, Ministrul Educatiei spune ca Universitatea Spiru Haret va fi scoasa in afara legii". Bună Ziua Iași.
- ^ Asociația EDU CER "Prevederile Legii Educatiei Nationale vor fi aplicabile din 10 februarie". Campusnews.ro.
- ^ a b "Monitorul Oficial, anul 179 (XXIII) nr. 18/luni 10 ianuarie 2011".
- ^ a b Aurelia, Alexa (July 7, 2011). "Situația celor care au absolvit programe neautorizate la 'Spiru Haret', decisă în septembrie". Gândul.
- ^ "World News Quick Take - Bogus diploma ring busted". Taipei Times. March 20, 2006. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2006/03/21/2003298471. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- ^ See article in Swedish Wikipedia, "entry in Swedish blog Friktion", and article "Minister's MBA 'came from degree mill' ", by James Savage, The Local, June 19, 2007.
- ^ "Recognised UK degrees". dcsf.gov.uk. http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/recognisedukdegrees/index.cfm?fuseaction=content.view&CategoryID=1. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- ^ "Bogus degree sites shut down". BBC News. March 7, 2003.
- ^ "Diploma Mills: Degrees of Deception". FTC.gov. April 24, 2009. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/pubs/consumer/alerts/alt149.shtm. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- ^ Associated Press, "Texas Supreme Court to review seminary case", December 3, 2004
- ^ Database of Accredited Postsecondary Institutions and Programs:. ope.ed.gov; U.S. Department of Education.
- ^ Singel, Ryan. "Database Fights Diploma Mills". Wired magazine. http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,66476,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
- ^ a b c d "State mulls online learning" Associated Press, Billings Gazette, January 30, 2005
- ^ a b c d e f "Oregon Office of Degree Authorization". Osac.state.or.us. http://www.osac.state.or.us/oda/unaccredited.aspx. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- ^ "Is Oregon the only state that disallows use of unaccredited degrees?" Oregon Office of Degree Authorization
- ^ "Colleges and Universities not accredited by CHEA", Michigan Education and Children's Services.
- ^ "Accredited and Non-Accredited Colleges and Universities", List of Non-Accredited Post-Secondary Schools. Maine.gov.
- ^ "Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board", Washington State Consumer Information.
- ^ "Use of False or Misleading Degrees" Nevada statute NRS 394.700/
- ^ "Institutions Whose Degrees are Illegal to Use in Texas", Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Texas state government.
- ^ Palkot, Stephen (September 28, 2007). "Two less doctors in the house - Hebert, Wilson back away from Ph.D.'s issued by ‘diploma mills'". Fort Bend Herald.
- ^ "Is Oregon the only state that disallows use of unaccredited degrees?". Oregon Office of Degree Authorization.
- Levicoff, Steve: Name It and Frame It?: New Opportunities in Adult Education and How to Avoid Being Ripped Off by 'Christian' Degree Mills. Self published. (4th ed., 1995)
- Bear, John: Bear's Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance Learning, Ten Speed Press, 2001
- Noble, David: Digital Diploma Mills: The Automation of Higher Education, Monthly Review Press, 2002, ISBN 1-58367-061-0
- Checcacci, Claudia; Finocchietti, Carlo; Lantero, Luca: Cimea - against the mills: How to spot and counter diploma mills, CIMEA - Italian Naric centre, 2010
General information and news
- Diploma Mills at the Open Directory Project
- "Distance Learning and Online Degrees: Are They Worth It?" (Flash Video). Massachusetts School of Law Educational Forum. 2007. Kurt Olson, Prof. Law, with 3 guests.
- Diploma Mills: general information, identifying, avoiding. eLearners.com.
- Fake degree scandal roils Pakistani politics. Zarar Khan, Nahal Toosi (Associated Press). ABC News. June 29, 2010.
- The World Higher Education Database (IAU/UNESCO) List of accredited schools throughout the world
- Database for Accreditation in the United States (CHEA)
- Database for Accreditation in the United States (USDE)
- Database for Accreditation in the United Kingdom
- Database for Accreditation in Australia
- Database for Accreditation in India
- Database for Accreditation in Malaysia
- Database for Accreditation in the Netherlands
- Database for Accreditation in Pakistan
- Database for Accreditation in the Philippines
- Database for Accreditation in Russia
- Database for Accreditation in Sweden
- National Recognition Information Centres
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
diploma mill — ☆ diploma mill n. Informal an unaccredited school or college that grants relatively worthless diplomas, as for a fee … English World dictionary
diploma mill — noun : an institution of higher education operating without supervision of a state or professional agency and granting diplomas which are either fraudulent or because of the lack of proper standards worthless * * * 1. an organization claiming to… … Useful english dictionary
diploma mill — 1. an organization claiming to be an institution of higher learning but existing for profit only and granting degrees without demanding proper qualifications of the recipients. 2. a college or university having such a large number of students… … Universalium
diploma mill — diplo′ma mill n. edu an unaccredited institution of higher learning that grants degrees without requiring proper qualifications • Etymology: 1925–30 … From formal English to slang
diploma mill — noun Date: 1914 a usually unregulated institution of higher education granting degrees with few or no academic requirements … New Collegiate Dictionary
diploma mill — noun a disreputable university, churning out diplomas to unqualified students … Wiktionary
Mill — may refer to: Mill (grinding), an equipment for the grinding or pulverizing of grain and other raw materials using millstones Milling machine, metalworking machine that operates by rotating a cutting bit while the workpiece is moved against the… … Wikipedia
mill — mill1 [mil] n. [ME melle < OE mylen, akin to OHG mulin, ON mylna, all < 4th c. Gmc borrowing < LL molinae, pl. of molina, mill < LL(Ec) molina, of a mill < L mola, millstone < IE base * mel , to grind, crush > MEAL2, MILD,… … English World dictionary
Diploma mills in the United States — A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is an organization that awards academic degrees and diplomas with substandard or no academic study and without recognition by official educational accrediting bodies. The purchaser can then claim to… … Wikipedia
Diploma — This article is about the basic degree normally below a Bachelor s degree. For the advanced academic degree, see Diplom. A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα. díplōma, meaning folded paper ) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution … Wikipedia