name = Julia Lennon
image_size = 200px
birth_date = birth date|1914|3|12|df=y
birth_place = 8 Head Street (now demolished)
Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
death_date = death date and age|1958|7|15|1914|3|12|df=y
death_place = Sefton General Hospital, Liverpool
spouse = Alfred 'Freddie' Lennon (1938-1958)
parents = George & Annie (née Millward) Stanley
children = John, Victoria, Julia and Jacqui
Julia Stanley Lennon (née Stanley) (12 March 1914 – 15 July 1958) was the mother of
John Lennon. Julia was known as 'Judy', and was the fourth of five sisters. John was her first child and was the only child of her marriage to Alf Lennon. She later had one daughter (who was given up for adoption after pressure from her family) with 'Taffy' Williams, and then had two daughters; Julia and Jacqui, with John 'Bobby' Dykins.
Julia was known as being high-spirited and impulsive, but was also musical and had a strong sense of humour. She bought Lennon his first guitar and encouraged him musically, even though her sister,
Mimi Smith, strongly disapproved. She kept in almost daily contact with Lennon, and when he was in his teens he often stayed overnight at her and Bobby Dykins' house.
Julia visited Mimi almost daily (even when Lennon was staying at her house) but shortly after leaving Mimi's house one evening Julia was struck down and killed by a car driven by an off-duty policeman who was drunk at the time, on 15 July 1958. She was buried in the
Allerton Cemetery, in Liverpool.
The Stanley family
According to Lennon, the Stanley family once owned the whole of
Wooltonvillage. Miles 1997 p44.] Julia's father, George Stanley, was born in the Everton district of Liverpool in 1874. [ [http://content.ancestry.com/iexec/?htx=view&r=an&dbid=7572&iid=LANRG11_3667_3671-0138&fn=William&ln=Stanley&st=r&ssrc=&pid=9050449 1881 Census of England, Lancashire, Everton, District 71, page 10.] ancestry.com - Retrieved 10 February 2007] Her mother, Annie Jane Millward, was born in Chesteraround 1875, to Welsh parents. [ [http://content.ancestry.com/iexec/?htx=view&r=an&dbid=7572&iid=LANRG11_3615_3619-0353&fn=Annie+I.&ln=Millward&st=r&ssrc=&pid=8758420 1881 Census of England, Lancashire, Liverpool, St. Thomas, District 7, page 40.] ancestry.com - Retrieved 10 February 2007] Annie's mother hated "the devil's English". Spitz 2005. p18.] Annie gave birth to a boy and a girl, who both died shortly after birth, and then had Mary, known as 'Mimi' (1903-1992), Elizabeth 'Mater' (1908-1976), Anne 'Nanny' (1911-1988), Julia 'Judy' (1914-1958), and Harriet 'Harrie' (1916-1972). [http://www.lennon.net/reflections/s_parkes.shtml Stanley Parkes’ recollections of his family] lennon.net - Retrieved 16 January 2007 ] Spitz - p19.]
George retired from sailing and found a job with the Liverpool and Glasgow Tug Salvage Company as an insurance investigator. He moved his family from 8 Head Street to the
Liverpoolsuburb of Woolton, where they lived in a small terraced houseat 9 Newcastle Road in the district of Penny Lane. [http://www.britishbeatlesfanclub.co.uk/features/2007/0821_book_imaginethis.html Julia Baird: Growing Up with My Brother John Lennon] britishbeatlesfanclub.co.uk - Retrieved 19 October 2007 ] Lennon would later comment that the 'Stanley girls' were "five, fantastic, strong, beautiful, and intelligent women". Spitz 2005. p28.] Annie Jane Stanley died in 1945, and Julia had to take care of her father with very little help from Mimi. Spitz 2005. p25.] The Stanley family had relatives in Eketahuna, New Zealand. Julia's maternal aunt, Harriet Millward, married and moved to New Zealand, and Mimi Stanley/Smith exchanged letters with her cousins over the years. [ [http://www.lennon.net/familytree/sub/leila_harvey.shtml Leila – Lennon’s cousin] lennon.net/familytree - Retrieved 15 January 2007 ]
Alf "Freddie" Lennon
Alfred 'Freddie' Lennon—always called 'Alf' by his family—was always quick with a joke or a witty line, but never held a job for very long, as he preferred to visit Liverpool's many
vaudevilletheatres and cinemas, where he knew the usherettes by name. Spitz 2005. p21.] It was at the 'Trocadero' club, a converted cinema on Camden Road, Liverpool, that Alf first saw an auburn-haired girl with a bright smile and high cheekbones, Julia Stanley. Spitz 2005. pp21-22.]
Alf saw Julia again in
Sefton Park, where Alf had gone with a friend to pick up girls. Alf, who was dressed in a bowler hatand holding a cigarette holder, saw "this little waif" sitting on a wrought-ironbench. Julia (who was only 14 years old) said that Freddie's hat looked "silly", to which (the 15-year-old) Alf replied that Julia looked "lovely", and sat down next to her. Julia asked Alf to take off his hat, so Alf promptly took it off and threw it straight into the Sefton Park lake. Spitz 2005. p22.] A nephewlater said that Julia could also "make a joke out of nothing", saying that Aunt 'Judy' (Julia) could have "walked out of a burning house with a smile and a joke". Cynthia Lennon– “John” 2006. p53.]
Julia often caught the gaze of men in the street. She was attractive and full-figured, with large brown eyes, although standing only five feet two
inchestall in high heels. She was always well-dressed and even went to bed with make-upon so as to look beautiful when she woke up. She frequented Liverpool's dance halls and clubs where she was often asked to dance in Jitterbugcompetitions with dockers, soldiers, sailors, waiters, and "late-night sharks". It was remarked that she could be as humorous as any man, and would sing the popular songs of the day at any time of day or night. It was said that her voice sounded like Vera Lynn's, whilst Alf specialised in impersonating Satchmoand Al Jolson. Spitz 2005. p23.] Julia played the ukelele, the piano accordionand the banjo(as did Alf) although neither pursued music professionally. ”The Beatles Anthology” DVD 2003 (Episode 1 - 0:07:06) McCartney talking about Julia Lennon playing the ukelele.] They spent their days together walking around Liverpool and dreaming of what they would do in the future, like opening a shop, a pub, a cafe, or a club. Spitz 2005. p23.]
On 3 December 1938, eleven years after they had first met, Julia married Alf Lennon after she proposed to him, and not the other way around, as is traditional. Spitz 2005. pp20-21.] They were married in the Bolton Street Register Office (none of Julia's family were there) and Julia wrote 'cinema usherette' on the
marriage certificateas her occupation, even though she had never been one. They spent their honeymoon eating at Reece's restaurant in Clayton Square (which is where Lennon would later celebrate after his marriage to Cynthia Powell) and then went to a cinema. Spitz 2005. p349.] Julia walked into 9 Newcastle Road waving the marriage licenceand said, "There!—I've married him." Spitz 2005. p20] This was an act of defiance against her father, who had threatened to disown her if she cohabitated with a lover. On their wedding nightJulia stayed at the Stanley's house and Alf went back to his rooming house. The next day Alf went back to sea for three months, on a ship headed for the West Indies.
The Stanley family completely ignored Alf at first, believing him to be of "no use to anyone—certainly not our Julia." Julia's father demanded that Alf present something concrete to show that he could financially support Julia, but Freddie's only idea was to sign on as a Merchant Navy steward on a ship bound for the
Mediterranean. He arrived back in Liverpool after only a few months at sea and moved into the Stanley home in Newcastle Road. He auditioned for local theatre managers as a 'ship's entertainer', but had no success. Julia found out that she was pregnant (with Lennon) in January of 1940. Spitz 2005. p23.] As the war had started Alf was sent to work as a merchant seamanduring World War II, but sent regular pay cheques to Julia, who was living with Lennon at 9 Newcastle Road. ”The Beatles Anthology” DVD 2003 (Episode 6 - 0:37:32) Lennon talking about living at 9 Newcastle Road in Liverpool.] The cheques stopped when Alf went AWOLin 1943. Spitz 2005. p25.]
Lennon was born on 9 October 1940 in the second-floor ward of the Oxford Street Maternity Hospital in Liverpool, during the course of a German air raid in
World War II. Julia's eldest sister, Mimi, phoned the hospital and was told that Julia had given birth to a boy. Mimi made her way to the hospital during the air raid—dodging in and out of doorways to avoid the shrapnel—and running "as fast as my legs could carry me". Lennon was named after his paternalgrandfather and Winston Churchill. Alf was not present at Lennon's birth, as he was away at sea. [http://www.lennon.net/familytree/sub/julia_stanley.shtml The Liverpool Lennons] lennon.net/familytree - Retrieved 21 January 2007 ] Spitz 2005. p24.]
Lennon started at his first school in November 1945—Mosspits on Woolton Road—so Julia found a part-time job at a café near the school so that she could take him to school, and then pick him up afterwards. After numerous criticisms from the Stanley family about the still-married Julia '
living in sin' with Bobby Dykins, and considerable pressure from Mimi—who twice contacted Liverpool's Social Services to complain about the infant Lennon sleeping in the same bed as Julia and Dykins—Julia reluctantly handed the care of Lennon over to Mimi. Cynthia Lennon - “John” 2006. p55.] Miles 1997 p32]
In July 1946, Alf visited Mimi's house at
251 Menlove Avenueand took Lennon to Blackpoolfor a long holiday—although secretly intending to emigrate to New Zealand with him. Cynthia Lennon - “John” 2006. p56.] Julia and Dykins found out and followed them to Blackpool. Alf asked Julia to go with them both to New Zealand, but Julia refused. After a heated argument Alf said the five-year-old Lennon had to choose between Julia or him. Lennon chose Alf (twice) and then Julia walked away, but in the end Lennon (crying) followed her. Alf lost contact with the family until Beatlemania, when he and Lennon met again. Spitz 2005. p30.]
Julia took Lennon back to her house and enrolled him in a local school, but after few weeks she handed him back to Mimi. Lennon then lived continuously at 'Mendips', in the smallest bedroom above the front door. Miles 1997 p43.] Spitz 2005. p31.] Julia later bought Lennon his first guitar for
£10 19/6d—after he had pestered her incessantly for weeks—but insisted that it had to be delivered to her house and not to Mimi's. Spitz 2005. p45.] As Lennon had difficulty learning chords, she taught him banjo and ukelele chords, which were simpler. ”The Beatles Anthology” DVD 2003 (Episode 1 - 0:14:30) Lennon talking about the banjo and Julia. ] She also later taught Lennon how to play the piano accordion. Cynthia Lennon - “John” 2006. p40.] Spitz 2005. p48.] She also played Elvis Presley's records to Lennon, and would dance around her kitchen with him. Cynthia Lennon - “John” 2006. p41.]
In 1957, when
The Quarrymen(with Paul McCartneyand George Harrison) played at St. Barnabas Hall, Penny Lane, Julia turned up to watch them. After each song Julia would clap and whistle louder than everyone else, and was seen "swaying and dancing" throughout the whole concert. Spitz 2005. p144.] Lennon frequently visited Julia's house during that period, detailing his anxieties and problems, with Julia giving Lennon encouragement to stay with music over Mimi's objections.
During 1942-1943, Julia lived with Lennon at "The Dairy Cottage"; 120a Allerton Road, Woolton.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://wooltonvillageuk.tripod.com/VisitingWoolton.htm |title=Visiting Woolton? |publisher=Woolton Village UK |accessdate=2008-05-24] The cottage was owned by Mimi's husband, George Smith, and Mimi wanted Julia to live there so they would be closer to her house, and would also be out of the Stanley's house.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://homepage.ntlworld.com/carousel/pob40.html |title=John Lennon's homes |publisher=Ntl World |accessdate=2008-05-24] As Alf was often away at sea, Julia started going out to dance halls. In 1942, she met a Welsh soldier named Williams who was stationed in the
barracksat Mossley Hill. Spitz 2005. pp25-26.] Alf blamed himself for this, as he had written letters telling Julia that because there was a war on, she should go out and enjoy herself. After an evening out, Julia would often give the young Lennon a piece of chocolateor shortcrust pastrythe next morning for breakfast. Spitz 2005. pp25-26.] She became pregnantby Williams in late 1944, though first claiming that she had been raped by an unknown soldier. Spitz 2005. pp26-27.] Williams refused to live with Julia—who was still married to Alf—until she gave up Lennon, which Julia refused to do. Spitz 2005. p26.] When Alf eventually came home in 1944 he offered to look after Julia, Lennon, and the expected baby, but Julia rejected the idea. Spitz 2005. p27.]
Alf took Lennon to his brother Sydney's house, in the Liverpool suburb of
Maghull, a few months before Julia came to term. Julia gave birth to a daughter, Victoria Elizabeth, in the Elmswood Nursing Home on 19 June 1945 Cynthia Lennon - “John” 2006. p54.] Victoria was subsequently given up for adoption to a Norwegian Salvation Army Captain (Peder and Margaret Pedersen) after intense pressure from Julia's family. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/157276.stm Peder and Margaret Pedersen - 24 August 1998] news.bbc.co.uk - Retrieved 26 January 2007 ] Lennon was not told about Victoria—who was later re-named Ingrid Marie—and supposedly never knew of her existence.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://darksweetlady.tripod.com/beatleskids/family.html |title=Additional Family Members (Victoria Elizabeth Stanley) |publisher=Dark Sweet Lady (Tripod) |accessdate=2008-07-30] When Victoria/Ingrid was 53-years-old, she was interviewed by a British tabloidnewspaper and revealed that she found out that she was related to Lennon in 1966 (when she was a nurse) as she wanted to get married and had to produce her birth certificate. [ [http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/News/9808/24/showbuzz/ Ingrid Pedersen reveals her identity - 24 August 1998] cnn.com/SHOWBIZ - Retrieved 31 October 2007 ]
John Albert "Bobby" Dykins
Julia started seeing Dykins a year after Victoria's birth (although they had known each other before) when she was working in the café near Lennon's primary school, Mosspits. Spitz 2005. pp27-28.] Dykins was a good-looking, well-dressed man who was several years older than Julia and worked at the Adelphi Hotel in Liverpool as a wine steward. [ [http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.iknow-northwest.co.uk/hotel_pictures/3204d.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.iknow-northwest.co.uk/accommodation/3204-Britannia_Adelphi_Hotel-Liverpool.htm&h=160&w=160&sz=9&hl=en&start=13&tbnid=1_Tbf3d2dGcMmM:&tbnh=98&tbnw=98&prev=/images%3Fq%3DAdelphi%2BHotel%2Bin%2BLiverpool%2B%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN The Adelphi Hotel] images.google.co.uk - Retrieved 21 January 2007 ] Julia later moved into a small flat in
Gateacrewith Dykins. He enjoyed luxuries, and had access to rationed goods like alcohol, chocolate, silks and cigarettes, which was what attracted Julia to him. Spitz 2005. p28.] The Stanley sisters called him " Spiv", because of his pencil-thin moustache, margarine-coated hair, and pork-pie hat, but the young Lennon called him "Twitchy" because of a physical tic/nervous cough that Dykins had. Julia's family and friends remembered that Dykins also had a fiery temperament, which could result in his being violent when drunk. Lennon remembered Julia once visiting Mimi's when her face was bleeding after being hit by Dykins. Paul McCartneylater admitted to being sarcastic to Lennon about Julia living in sinwith Dykins while she was still married. (Although Julia never divorced Alf, she was considered to be the Common-law wife of Dykins). Julia wanted Lennon to live with them both, but he was passed between the Stanley sisters, and often ran away to Mimi's where she would open the door to find Lennon standing there, "his face covered in tears".
Julia was accused by the family of being frivolous and unreliable—she never enjoyed household
chores—and was once seen sweeping the kitchen floor with a pair of knickerson her head. Her cooking methods were also haphazard; she would mix things "like a mad scientist", and even put tea"or anything else that came to hand" in a stew. Spitz 2005. p29.] A favourite joke of Julia's would be to wear a pair of spectacles that had no glass in them, and then to scratch her eye through the empty frame.
Dykins later managed several bars in Liverpool, which allowed Julia to stay at home and look after their two daughters and Lennon, who often visited and stayed overnight, at 1 Blomfield Road, Liverpool. Spitz 2005. p145.] Lennon and
Paul McCartneywould later rehearse in the bathroom of the house where the acoustics "sounded like a recording studio". Cynthia Lennon - “John” 2006. p41.] [http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.beatlecity.com/images/john.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.beatlecity.com/homes.htm&h=102&w=76&sz=1&hl=en&start=121&tbnid=Z86RoWuuJUC7gM:&tbnh=83&tbnw=62&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522Aunt%2BMimi%2522%26start%3D108%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN 1 Blomfield Road] images.google.co.uk - Retrieved 21 January 2007 ] Dykins used to give Lennon weekly pocket money (one shilling) for doing odd jobs, on top of the five shillings that Mimi gave him. Miles 1997 p48.] In December 1965, Dykins was killed in a car crash at the bottom of Penny Lane. Lennon was not told about his death for months afterwards, as it was "not [Stanley] family business".
Julia and Jacqui
Julia later had two daughters with Dykins: Julia (b. 5 March 1947) and Jacqueline (Jacqui) Dykins (b. 26 October 1949) [http://www.lennon.net/familytree/sub/jacqui_dykins.shtml Jacqueline Gertrude Dykins - Liverpool Lennons] lennon.net/familytree - Retrieved 21 January 2007 ] Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p61.] As Jacqui was born prematurely, Julia went to the hospital everyday to see her.When Lennon was 11-years-old, he started to visit the Dykins' house and often stayed there overnight. Julia Dykins would give up her bed to him, and share Jacqui's bed. Cynthia Lennon– “John” 2006. p57.] Julia remembered that after Lennon had visited them, her mother would often play a record called, "My Son John, To Me You Are So Wonderful", "by some old
crooner, and sit and listen to it". [http://www.lennon.net/reflections/index.shtml Family Reflections] lennon.net/reflections - Retrieved 23 January 2007 ] (Julia probably meant "My Son John"—sung by David Whitfield—which was released in 1956).After Julia's death, the two girls (aged eleven and eight) were sent to stay in Edinburghat Aunt Mater's, and were told two months later by Norman Birch (Lennon's uncle) that their mother had died. Cynthia Lennon– “John” 2006. pp60-61.] After the success of The Beatles Lennon bought a 4-bedroomed house in Gateacre Park Drive, Liverpool, for Jacqui and Julia to live in with Lennon's Aunt Harriet and Uncle Norman, who were earlier made the legal guardians of the girls—ignoring Dykins' parentage, as he had never legally married Julia. After Lennon's death and Harriet died, Yoko wanted to sell the house—as it was still in Lennon's name—but later gave it to the Salvation Army on 2 November 1993, even though Lennon had once written a letter, saying: cquote |I always thought of the house he's in [Norman] as my contribution towards looking after Julia and Jacqui. I would prefer the girls to use it.
When she was older, Jacqui moved in with Mimi for a time when Mimi was living in
Poole, but left after she became pregnant. She later reappeared when she became pregnant for the second time, and asked Mimi for money. Julia and Jacqui have both publicly said that they wished Lennon had "never seen a guitar". [http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://members.tripod.com/~holysm0ke/CHOME.jpg&imgrefurl=http://members.tripod.com/~holysm0ke/Smith.html&h=146&w=101&sz=5&hl=en&start=41&um=1&tbnid=rCNmuqbHtVfaCM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=66&prev=/images%3Fq%3DMimi%2BSmith%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Mimi Smith interview] members.tripod.com. Retrieved 22 April 2007 ]
Julia and Jacqui later met Victoria/Ingrid when they were present at the ceremony to place a Blue Heritage plaque on Mimi's house, commemorating the fact that Lennon had lived there. Stan (Julia's cousin) was up the ladder fixing the plaque to the wall and said, "I think I can see Ingrid" (walking towards the house). This was a surprise to Julia and Jacqui, as it meant that Stan had seen Ingrid before, even though Julia and Jacqui had not. When all three finally met for the first time Julia was shocked that Ingrid did not look anything like the Stanley family, as she had pale blues and fair hair.
Julia visited Mimi's house nearly every day, where they would chat over tea and cakes in the morning room or stand in the garden when it was warm. Spitz 2005. p145.] On the evening of 15 July 1958, Nigel Wally went to visit Lennon and found Julia and Mimi talking by the front gate. Lennon was not there, as he was staying at Julia's house in Blomfield Road. Spitz 2005. pp145-146.] Wally accompanied Julia to the bus stop further down Menlove Avenue, with Julia cracking jokes along the way. Julia had planned on going to a party that evening. At about 9:30, Wally left her and she crossed the road to the central reservation between the two traffic lanes, which was lined with hedges that covered disused
tramtracks. Spitz 2005. pp145-146.] Five seconds later, Wally heard "a loud thud", and turned to see Julia's body "flying through the air"—Julia's body landed about 100 feet from where she had been hit. He ran back to get Mimi and they waited for the ambulance, with Mimi crying hysterically. Spitz 2005. p146.]
Julia was struck and killed by a
Standard Vanguardcar (LKF 630) driven by an off-duty constable, PC Eric Clague, who was a learner-driver. Cynthia Lennon - “John” 2006. p59.] Clague later said: "Mrs Lennon just ran straight out in front of me. I just couldn't avoid her. I was not speeding, I swear it. It was just one of those terrible things that happen." [ [http://www.beatles-bootlegs.com/pageID_3860687.html Clague’s testimony] beatles-bootlegs.com - Retrieved 30 October 2007 ] Clague was acquitted of all charges and given a short suspension from duty. Miles 1997 p31.] When Mimi heard the verdict she was so incensed that she shouted "Murderer!" at Clague. [ [http://triumphpc.com/mersey-beat/beatles/nigelwally.shtml Mimi’s comment at trial of Clague] triumphpc.com - Retrieved 20 October 2007 ] Clague later left the Police force and became a postman. Incidentally, in 1964, part of his round was to deliver bags of fan mail to the McCartney's house at 20 Forthlin Road, after The Beatles became successful. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_19980222/ai_n14474027 Eric Clague’s later life – Sunday Mirror, 22 February 1998] findarticles.com - Retrieved 29 October 2007 ]
Lennon could not bring himself to look at Julia's corpse when he was taken to view it at the Sefton General Hospital, and was so distraught that he put his head on Mimi's lap throughout the funeral service. Lennon refused to talk to Wally for months afterwards, and Wally felt that Lennon somehow held him responsible. Spitz 2005. pp147-148.] Julia's death traumatised the teenage Lennon, and contributed to the emotional difficulties that haunted him for much of his life. Julia's memory inspired songs such as "Julia", "Mother", and "My Mummy's Dead". Lennon's first son, Julian, was named after her.
Julia was buried in the
Allerton Cemetery, in Liverpool. Cynthia Lennon– “John” 2006. p60.] Her gravesite is unmarked, and over the years its location was forgotten until it was recently identified by her daughter Jacqui as "CE (Church of England) 38-805". The graveyard's location is approx. 1.19 miles east of 1 Blomfield Road. [ [http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/allertoncemetery/index.html Allerton Cemetery] wanadoo-members.co.uk . Retrieved 13 April 2007 ] [ [http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/allertoncemetery/allertoncemeterymap.jpgGraveyard map] wanadoo-members.co.uk. Retrieved 13 April 2007 ] Baird recently said that the Stanley family hope to finally put a headstone on Julia's grave, which she hopes will be a private affair for the family and not for the public.
*cite book | author=
Cynthia Lennon!Lennon, Cynthia| title=John| publisher= year=2006 | id=ISBN 0340898283
*Miles, Barry | title=
Many Years From Now| publisher=Vintage- Random House| year=1997 | id=ISBN 0-7493-8658-4
* [http://www.lennon.net/lennons/index.html The Liverpool Lennons]
* [http://www.lennon.net/familytree/familytree.html Lennon family tree - Lennon.net]
* [http://www.lennon.net/familytree/sub/leila_harvey.shtml Leila Harvey (nee Hafez) – Lennon’s cousin]
* [http://www.lennon.net/reflections/s_parkes.shtml Stanley Parkes’ recollections of his family]
* [http://homepage.ntlworld.com/carousel/pob40.html Lennon's homes]
* [http://archive.dailyecho.co.uk/2000/10/3/82892.html Ingrid Pederson and Chapman]
* [http://lyricsplayground.com/alpha/songs/m/mysonjohn.shtml ‘My Son John’ lyrics—sung by David Whitfield—1956]
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