Hepatica

Taxobox
name = "Hepatica"


image_width = 240px
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Ranunculales
familia = Ranunculaceae
genus = "Hepatica"
genus_authority = Mill.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "Hepatica nobilis" "Hepatica transsilvanica"

"Hepatica" is a genus of herbaceous perennial plants belonging to the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae. A native of central and northern Europe, Asia and northeastern North America, "Hepatica" is sometimes called liverleaf or "liverwort". It should not be confused with liverworts, which may also be called "Hepaticae". A few botanists include "Hepatica" within a wider interpretation of "Anemone", as "Anemone hepatica".cite web |url=http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/dmna/hepatica.html |title=Drugs and medicines of North America: "Hepatica" |author=John Uri Lloyd & Curtis G. Lloyd |date=1884–1887] [cite journal | title=Phylogenetic Relationships in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) Based on Morphology and Chloroplast DNA | url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0363-6445(199401%2F03)19%3A1%3C169%3APRIA(B%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O | journal=Systematic Botany | volume=19 | issue=1 | date=Jan. - Mar., 1994 | pages=169–200 | doi=10.2307/2419720 | author=Sara B. Hoot, Anton A. Reznicek, Jeffrey D. Palmer]

Between two and ten species of "Hepatica" are recognised, with some of the taxa more often treated as varieties:
*"Hepatica nobilis" - Common Hepatica
**"H. nobilis" var. "pyrenaica" ("H. pyrenaica") - Pyrenees
**"H. nobilis" var. "japonica" ("H. japonica") - Japan
**"H. nobilis" var. "nobilis" - European Hepatica - Alps north to Scandinavia
**"H. nobilis" var. "pubescens" ("H. pubescens") - Japan
**"H. nobilis" var. "acuta" ("H. acutiloba") - Sharp-lobed Hepatica - North America [cite web | title=Hepatica nobilis var. acuta | url=http://www.nps.gov/plants/pubs/chesapeake/plant/289.htm | work=Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed | author=Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker | year=2003 ] [cite web | url=http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=528378| work=Integrated Taxonomic Information System | title=Taxonomic Serial No.: 528378]
**"H. nobilis" var. "obtusa" ("H. americana") - Round-lobed Hepatica - North America [cite web | title=Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa | url=http://www.nps.gov/plants/pubs/chesapeake/plant/6778.htm | work=Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed | author=Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker | year=2003 ] [cite web | url=http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=528379 | work=Integrated Taxonomic Information System | title=Taxonomic Serial No.: 528379]
*"Hepatica transsilvanica" - Carpathian Mountains and Transylvania

"Hepatica" cultivation has been popular in Japan since the 18th Century (mid-Edo period), where flowers with doubled petals and a range of colour patterns have been developed [cite journal |quotes=no |author=Jon Ardle |year=2000 |title=Layers of Complexity |journal=The Garden |publisher=Royal Horticultural Society |url=http://www.rhs.org.uk/Learning/publications/pubs/garden_98-00/pubs_journals_garden_0200_layers.asp] .

Noted for their tolerance of alkaline limestone-derived soils, "Hepatica" may grow in a wide range of conditions; it can be found either in deeply shaded deciduous (especially beech) woodland and scrub or grassland in full sun. "Hepatica" will also grow in both sandy and clay-rich substrates, being associated with limestone. Moist soil and winter snowfall is a requirement; "Hepatica" is tolerant of winter snow cover, but less so of dry frost.

"Hepatica" reaches a height of 10 cm and produces hermaphroditic flowers from February to May. The leaves are basal and dark leathery green, each with three lobes. The flowers may be white, bluish purple or pink; they are supported singly on hairy, largely leafless stems. Butterflies, moths, bees, flies and beetles are known to act as pollinators for "Hepatica".

"Hepatica" is named from its leaves, which, like the human liver (Greek "hepar"), have three lobes. It was once used as a medicinal herb. Owing to the doctrine of signatures, the plant was thought an effective treatment for liver disorders. Although poisonous in large doses, the leaves and flowers may be used as an astringent, demulcent for slow-healing injuries and as a diuretic .

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References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hepatica — Hepatica …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hepatĭca [2] — Hepatĭca (H. De C.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Ranunculaceae Anemoneae, Polyandrie, Polygynie L.; Blüthenhüllblätter dreizählig, sitzend, ungetheilt, kleiner als die Blüthe, derselben sehr genähert u. dadurch kelchartig; Kelchblumen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Hepatĭca — Dec. (Leberblume), Gattung der Ranunkulazeen oder Gruppe der Gattung Anemone, Gewächse mit nackten, grundständigen Blütenstielen und dreiblätteriger, kelchartiger, der Blüte genäherter Außenhülle. H. triloba Dec. (Anemone hepatica L.,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • hepática — planta ranunculácea utilizada para el tratamiento de afecciones hepáticas y biliares dibujo de herbario [véase http://www.iqb.es/diccio/h/he.htm#hepatica] monografía [véase http://www.iqb.es/cbasicas/farma/farma06/plantas/ph03sm.htm] Diccionario… …   Diccionario médico

  • hepatica — [hi pat′i kə] n. [ModL (see HEPATIC): in allusion to its liver shaped, lobed leaves] any of a genus (Hepatica) of small plants of the buttercup family, with three lobed leaves and white, pink, blue, or purple flowers that bloom in early spring …   English World dictionary

  • Hepatica — He*pat i*ca, n.; pl. {Hepatic[ae]}. [NL. See {Hepatic}. So called in allusion to the shape of the lobed leaves or fronds.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Bot.) A genus of pretty spring flowers closely related to Anemone; squirrel cup. [1913 Webster] 2.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hepatĭca [1] — Hepatĭca, bei älteren Ärzten Mittel, denen man eine besondere Wirksamkeit in Leberkrankheiten, od. auch auf die Verrichtung der Leber beilegte …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Hepatica — Hepatĭca, Leberblümchen, Pflanzengattg. der Ranunkulazeen. Die bekannteste Art ist H. trilŏba DC., in schattigen Wäldern Deutschlands im März und April, blau blühend, mit drei einen Kelch bildenden Hüllblättern und dreigelappten Blättern, in… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Hepatica —   [lateinisch], wissenschaftlicher Name der Pflanzengattung Leberblümchen. * * * He|pa|ti|ca, He|pa|ti|ka, die; , ...ken [nlat., zu lat. hepaticus < griech. hēpatikós = die Leber betreffend] (Bot.): Leberblümchen …   Universal-Lexikon

  • hepática — s. f. 1.  [Botânica] Planta medicinal. • hepáticas s. f. pl. 2. Família de plantas criptogâmicas intermediárias aos musgos e líquenes …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Hepatica — Hepatica …   Wikipédia en Français

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