IUPACName = Lithium hydroxide
OtherNames = Lithine
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 1310-65-2
RTECS = OJ6307070
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = LiOH
MolarMass = 23.95 g/mol
Appearance = Hygroscopic white solid
Density = 1.46 g/cm3, solid
MeltingPt = 450-470 °C
BoilingPt = 924 °C
Boiling_notes = decomposes
Section3 = Chembox Hazards
MainHazards = Corrosive
FlashPt = Not flammable
Section8 = Chembox Related
Sodium hydroxide; potassium hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a corrosive
alkali hydroxide. It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. It is soluble in water, and slightly soluble in ethanol. It is available commercially in anhydrous form, or as the monohydrate.
Lithium hydroxide is used in
carbon dioxide scrubbers for purification of gases and air. It is used as a heat transfer medium, as a storage-battery electrolyte, and as a catalystfor polymerization. It is also used in ceramics, manufacturing other lithium compounds, and esterificationspecially for lithium stearate(which is used as a general purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and is useful at both high and low temperatures).
Lithium hydroxide can be produced by dissolving
lithiumor lithium oxidein water. The reaction is as follows:
:2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2: Li2O + H2O → 2 LiOHLiOH(aq) is a strong base.
Because lithium reacts rapidly (but not violently) with water, lithium batteries should be kept away from water.
Industrially, lithium hydroxide is produced in a metathesis reaction between
lithium carbonateand calcium hydroxide:
:Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2LiOH + CaCO3
Lithium hydroxide is used in
breathing gaspurification systems for spacecraft(Lithium hydroxide canisters in the LM and CM (after modification) were lifelines for the Apollo 13astronauts), submarines, and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxidefrom exhaled gas by producing lithium carbonateand water: [cite journal |last=Jaunsen |first=JR |title=The Behavior and Capabilities of Lithium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide Scrubbers in a Deep Sea Environment |journal=US Naval Academy Technical Report |volume=USNA-TSPR-157 |date=1989 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4998 |accessdate=2008-06-17 ]
:2 LiOH·H2O + CO2 → Li2CO3 + 3 H2O
Or, :2LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O
The later, anhydrous hydroxide is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. 1 gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. The monohydrate loses its water at 100-110 °C.
LiOH(aq) + HF → LiF + H2O.
LiF shows basic nature, so it changes the red litmuspaper into blue.
* [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc09/icsc0913.htm International Chemical Safety Card 0913] (anhydrous)
* [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc09/icsc0914.htm International Chemical Safety Card 0914] (monohydrate)
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