first flight =
22 December 1939
introduction = 1941
retired = 1954 (
SFR Yugoslav Air Force)
primary user =
Soviet Air Force
more users =
SFR Yugoslav Air Force Air Force of the Polish Army Czechoslovakian Air Force
number built =about 11,400
unit cost =
variants with their own articles =
PetlyakovPe-2 (Cyrillic: Петляков Пе-2), nicknamed "Peshka" (Пешка - "Pawn") was a Soviet dive bomber aircraftused during World War II. It was fast and maneuverable yet durable, and was manufactured in large numbers. Several Communist nations flew the type after the war, when it became known by the NATO reporting name"Buck". The Finnish Air Force serial code was PE- and unofficial nickname "Pekka-Eemeli".
Design and development
The Pe-2 was designed in a
sharashkaafter Vladimir Petlyakovhad been arrested and imprisoned in 1937 for allegedly deliberately delaying design work on the Tupolev ANT-42 bomber. In the sharashka, Petlyakov was put in charge of a team to develop a high-altitude fighter escort for the ANT-42 under the designation VI-100. The first of two prototypes flew on December 22 1939and was a very sophisticated aircraft for its time, featuring a pressurised cabin, all-metal construction, superchargers and many electrically-actuated systems. The prototypes proved so pleasing that production was ordered almost immediately. It is said that Petlyakov and his team could see the VI-100 prototype from their prison as it was put through its paces for the crowds watching the annual May Dayparade in 1940.
Just as production was ready to begin, the air force ordered a re-design of the aircraft. The value of tactical bombing had just been displayed by the
Luftwaffein the Blitzkrieg, and the need for such an aircraft suddenly became much more important than the need for a high-altitude escort fighter. Petlyakov's team was given 45 days to redesign their aircraft as a dive bomber. The cabin pressurization and superchargers were deleted, and dive brakes and a position for a bombardier were added, among a number of aerodynamic refinements. A fuselage bomb-bay was added, along with smaller bays in each engine nacelle. Initially designated PB-100, Stalinwas impressed enough with Petlyakov to free him, and his name was permitted to be used in the aircraft's designation. The first aircraft flew on December 15 1940, rushed through production without a prototype under severe threats from Stalin if a Pe-2 did not fly by the end of the year. Deliveries to combat units began the following Spring.
While the Pe-2 generally featured favorable flying characteristics when airborne, it took a good amount of force to pull the elevators up to get the plane rotated off the runway during takeoff. Russian night bombing missions often flew with female pilots and some of the women pilots were not strong enough to get the airplane airborne by themselves. When such a situation occurred, the procedure was to have one of the crew get behind the pilot's seat and wrap her arms around the control wheel and help the pilot force the wheel back. Once the aircraft was airborne, the crew returned to her duties and the pilot continued to fly the plane without assistance.cite web|url=http://www.airforce.ru/history/ww2/popova/page_05.htm|title=Interview with L. L. Popova, Navigator of the 125th Guards Bomb Air Regiment|language=Russian|accessdate=2008-09-12]
The aircraft did not really show its true potential until the end of the year, after the
Soviet Air Forcehad a chance to regroup after the German onslaught during the Winter. The Pe-2 quickly proved itself to be a highly capable aircraft, able to elude the Luftwaffe's interceptors and allowing their crews to develop great accuracy with their bombing. Throughout 1942 the design was steadily refined and improved, in direct consultation with pilots who were actually flying them in combat. Western sources use mark Pe-2FT for production series after 83 (where FT stands for "Frontovoe Trebovanie" (Frontline Request)), although Soviet documents do not use this identification.Final versions Pe-2K (transitional version of Pe-2I) and Pe-2I were produced in small numbers, due to unwillingness of Soviet industry to decelerate production numbers.
Finnish Air Force
In 1941, after the outbreak of
Continuation WarFinland purchased six war booty Pe-2 aircraft from Germany. These arrived at State Aircraft Factory facilities at Härmälä in January 1942, where the airframes were overhauled and given Finnish serial numbers. The seventh Pe-2 was bought from the Germans in January 1944, and it was flown to Finland at the end of the month.
It was initially planned to use these planes as dive bombers in the 1st flight of LeLv 48, which began to receive its aircraft in July 1942, but during the training it was found out that this caused too much strain for the engines. Thus, the role of Pe-2s was changed to fly long-range photographic and visual reconnaissance missions for the Army General Headquarters. These sorties began in late 1942, and were often flown with two 250 kg bombs for harassment bombing and in order to cover the true purpose of missions.
By the time the Soviet
Fourth strategic offensivestarted in June 1944, the secondary bombing role had already ended and the surviving Pe-2s began to be used solely at Karelian Isthmusin escorted (normally by four FiAF Bf-109 Gs) photographic reconnaissance flights in order to find out enemy troop concentrations. These vital missions were flown successfully, allowing artillery and Finnish Air Forceand Luftwaffe's Gefechtsverband Kuhlmey's bombers to make their strikes against the formations preparing for attack, which had an important impact on the outcome of the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, where the Soviet advance was halted.
During the Continuation War, three Pe-2s were lost in accidents or technical failures, one was destroyed in bombing of Lappeenranta airfield, one was shot down by Soviet fighters and one went missing in action. In the
Lapland Warthe only remaining machine flew a single reconnaissance sortie in October 1944. On average, the aircraft flew some 94 hours per plane during the war. The sparse usage was due to difficulties with obtaining spare parts.
The Finnish Air Force also operated one
Petlyakov Pe-3(PE-301) that had been captured in 1943.
PE-301 and PE-215 were destroyed when Soviet aircraft bombed the Lappenranta airfield on 2 July 1944. PE-212 went down in 1943, PE-213 was destroyed in an emergency landing in 1942. PE-214 was destroyed in a failed take-off attempt at Härmälä on 21 May 1942. As the Härmälä airfield was quite short, the pilot had to try to lift off with too too low speed, which caused the aircraft to stall and crash, killing the crew. PE-217 managed to shoot down a Soviet fighter in 1944. PE-216 was destroyed in an forced landing in 1944. PE-211 survived the war and was removed from FAF lists in 1946. It was still standing beside the Kauhava airfield in 1952, but further information on its fate are unknown. [Jukka Raunio: "Lentäjän näkökulma IV". Forssan kirjapaino Oy, 1998. ISBN 951-96866-2-2.]
In total, around 11,400 Pe-2s were built, large number of minor variants were also developed.
;PB-100:Prototype of the Pe-2.;Pe-2:First production variant.;Pe-2B:Standard bomber version from 1944. ;Pe-2D:Three-seat bomber version, powered by two VK-107A piston engines.;Pe-2FT:Main production variant. In Czechoslovakia known as the B-32. Improved defensive armament (7.62mm machine gun in dorsal turret), removal of the dive brakes, and an uprated engine. Nose glazing was also reduced.;Pe-2FZ:Built in small numbers.;Pe-2I:Improved version designed by Vladimir Myasishchev. VK-107 engines; revised wing profile; remote-controlled tail gun. Top speed 656 km/h. Could carry 1000 kg bombs. Five examples built.;Pe-2K:Radial-engined version, small number built.;Pe-2K RD-1:One Pe-2K equipped with additional RD-1 rocket engine. The 661-lb (300-kg) Glushko RD-1 rocket engine was installed in the tail of the aircraft.;Pe-2M:Variant of Pe-2I with heavier armament.;Pe-2MV:This version was armed with 20-mm ShVAK cannons and two 12.7-mm (0.5-inch) in an underfuselage gondola, it also had one 7.63-mm (0.3-inch) machine gun in the dorsal turret.;Pe-2R:Three-seat photo reconnaissance version, with a larger fuel tanks and extended range. small number built.;Pe-2S:Two-seat training version.;Pe-2Sh:The PB-100 prototype was fitted with two 20-mm ShVAK cannons, and a single 12.7-mm (0.5-inch) machine gun was fitted beneath the fuselage.;Pe-2VI:High altitude fighter version.;Pe-2UTI (UPe-2):Dedicated trainer version, small number built. In Czechoslovakia known as the CB-32.;Pe-2 Paravan:Anti-barrage balloon version. ;Pe-3:Fighter version, small number built.;Pe-4:Fighter version, small number built.
;World War II;CZS
Czechoslovakian Air Forceoperated some Pe-2FT aircraft in the 1st Czechoslovakian Mixed Air Division in Soviet Union (1. československá smíšená letecká divize v SSSR). Aircraft were used operationally since 14 April, 1945.;FIN
Finnish Air Forceoperated seven captured aircraft (given the Finnish serial numbers PE-211 to PE-217).;USSR
Soviet Air Force
People's Liberation Army Air Force;CZS
Czechoslovakian Air Forceoperated 32 Pe-2FT and 3 UPe-2 between May 1946 and mid 1951. First aircraft arrived to Prague-Kbely airfield in April 1946 and formed two squadrons ot the 25 Air Regiment in Havlíčkův Brod. Czechoslovakian aircraft were known under designation B-32 (Pe-2FT) and CB-32 (UPe-2).;HUN
Hungarian Air Force;POL
Air Force of the Polish Army(after 1947 Polish Air Force);USSR
Soviet Air Force;YUG
SFR Yugoslav Air Forceoperated 64 Pe-2FT and 89 UPe-2 between 1945 and 1954.
pecifications (Petlyakov Pe-2)
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
crew=Three - pilot, gunner, bombardier
length main=12.66 m
length alt=41 ft 6 in
span main=17.16 m
span alt=56 ft 3 in
height main=3.5 m
height alt=11 ft 6 in
area main=40.5 m²
area alt=436 ft²
empty weight main=5,875 kg
empty weight alt=12,952 lb
loaded weight main=7,563 kg
loaded weight alt=16,639 lb
max takeoff weight main=8,495 kg
max takeoff weight alt=18,728 lb
type of prop=liquid-cooled V-12
number of props=2
power main=903 kW
power alt=1,210 hp
max speed main=580 km/h
max speed alt=360 mph
range main=1,160 km
range alt=721 miles
ceiling main=8,800 m
ceiling alt=28,870 ft
climb rate main=7.2 m/s
climb rate alt=1,410 ft/min
loading main=186 kg/m²
loading alt=38 lb/ft²
power/mass main=250 W/kg
power/mass alt=0.15 hp/lb
*2x 7.62 mm fixed
ShKAS machine guns in the nose, one of them being replaced by Berezin UBon later versions.
*2x rearward firing 7.62 mm ShKAS. From the middle of 1942 defensive armament included 1
Berezin UBmachine gun in the upper bombardier's turret, 1 Berezin UBin gunner's ventral hatch and 1 ShKAS, which may be fired by gunner from port, starboard or upper mountings (switch between mountings was performed in-flight in less than a minute). Some planes were also equipped with DAG-10 launcher, firing AG-2 parachute timed grenades.
*1,600 kg (3,520 lb) of bombs
De Havilland Mosquito
Junkers Ju 88
List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS
List of bomber aircraft
* Gordon, Yefim and Khazanov, Dmitri. "Soviet Combat Aircraft of the Second World War, Volume 2: Twin-Engined Fighters, Attack Aircraft and Bombers". Earl Shilton, UK: Midland Publishing Ltd., 2006. ISBN 1-85780-084-2.
* Keskinen, Kalevi; Stenman, Kari and Niska, Klaus. "Suomen Ilmavoimien Historia 9, Venäläiset Pommittajat (Soviet Bombers)". Espoo, Finland: Tietoteos, 1982. ISBN 952-99432-7-X.
* Karhunen, Joppe. "Taistelulentäjien Jatkosota". Tammi, Finland: Kirjat, 1994. ISBN 951-31-0132-0.
* Passingham, Malcolm and Klepacki, Waclaw. "Petlyakov Pe-2 and Variants (Aircraft in Profile No. 216)". Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1971.
* Stapfer, Hans-Heiri. "Petlyakov Pe-2 in Action (Aircraft number 181)". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 2002. ISBN 0-89747-439-2.
* [http://www.ctrl-c.liu.se/misc/RAM/pe-2.html Pe-2 variants, by V.M.Petlyakov, V.M.Myasichev, A.M.Izakson and A.I.Putilov]
* [http://www.plastikowe.pl/galerie/lotnictwo/petlakow-pe-2ft Photo gallery of Polish Petlyakov Pe-2FT]
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