- West Frisian language
Map of the Frisian-speaking areas in the Netherlands
West Frisian ("Frysk") is a
languagespoken mostly in the province of Friesland("Fryslân") in the north of the Netherlands. West Frisian is the name by which this language is usually known outside of the Netherlands, to distinguish it from the closely related Frisian languagesof Saterland Frisian and North Frisian, which are spoken in Germany. Within the Netherlands however, the West Frisian language is the language of the province of Fryslân and is virtually always just called Frisian: "Fries" in Dutch, and "Frysk" in Frisian. The 'official' name used by linguists in the Netherlands to indicate the West Frisian language is "Westerlauwers Fries" (West Lauwers Frisian), the Lauwersbeing a border stream which separates the Dutch provinces of Fryslân and Groningen.
Most speakers of West Frisian live in the province of Fryslân ("Friesland" in Dutch) in the north of the
Netherlands. This province was formerly officially called Friesland, but officially changed its name to Frisian Fryslân in 1997. The province has 643,000 inhabitants (2005); of these 94% can understand spoken Frisian, 74% can speak Frisian, 65% can read Frisian, and 17% can write it.
For over half of the inhabitants of the province of Fryslân, 55% (c. 354,000 people), Frisian is the native tongue. In the central east, Frisian speakers spill over the province border, with some 4-6,000 of them actually living in the province of Groningen, in the triangular area of the villages Marum (Frisian: Mearum), De Wilp (De Wylp), and Opende (De Grinzer Pein).
Also, many Frisians have left their province in the last sixty years for more prosperous parts of the Netherlands. Therefore, possibly as many as 150,000 Frisian speakers live in other Dutch provinces now, particularly in the urban agglomeration in the West, and in neighbouring Groningen and newly reclaimed
In addition, there is a surprisingly large Frisian diaspora abroad, with Fryslân having had in relative terms the highest percentage of emigrants of all Dutch provinces between the
Second World Warand the 1970s. It is estimated that there may be as many as 80-100,000 Frisian speakers scattered around the world, with the largest concentrations located in Canada, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand. Therefore, the total number of Frisian speakers in the world today may be as high as 600,000.
Apart from the use of Frisian as a first language, it is also spoken as a second language by about 120,000 people in the province of Fryslân.
The West Frisian language consists of eight mutually intelligible dialects, of which four are widely spoken and the other four are confined to small communities of less than a hundred to several hundreds of speakers.
The least used dialect of West Frisian is "Skiermûntseagersk", the island dialect of
Schiermonnikoog(Frisian: Skiermûntseach), which is actually on the verge of extinction, spoken as it is by no more than 50-100 people (out of an island population of 900 people).
"Hylpersk" (in Dutch known as "Hindeloopers"), the archaic Frisian dialect of the peninsular harbour town of
Hindeloopen(Hylpen), on the west coast, is still spoken by some 300 people at the most.
"Skylgersk" (also known as "Westersk") and "Aastersk" are the dialects of the western and eastern parts of the island of
Terschelling(Skylge) and have about 800 and 400 speakers respectively. They are separated from each other by the Dutch dialect of Midslands, which is spoken in the central part of Terschelling.
Because of their insular nature these four less-used dialects are also those that have deviated the most from mainstream Frisian. In fact, three of the four widely used mainland dialects are so much alike that a non-Frisian could probably not make out any differences.
The fourth mainland dialect, that of "Súdwesthoeksk" ("South Western"), which is spoken in an area called "de Súdwesthoeke" ("the South West Corner"), deviates from mainstream Frisian in that it does not adhere to the so-called newer breaking system, a prominent grammatical feature in the three other main dialects.
The "Noardhoeksk" ("Northern") dialect is spoken in the north eastern corner of the province. It actually differs from "Wâldfrysk" so little that it is quite often not acknowledged to be a dialect within its own right, but merely the northern variety of "Wâldfrysk".
By far the two most widely spoken West Frisian dialects are "Klaaifrysk" and "Wâldfrysk". Both these names are derived from the Frisian landscape. In the western and north-western parts of the province, the region where "Klaaifrysk" is spoken, the soil is made up of thick marine clay, hence the name "Klaaifrysk", which literally means "Clay Frisian". While in the "Klaaifrysk" speaking area ditches are used to separate the pastures, in the eastern part of the province, where the soil is sandy, and water sinks away much faster, rows of trees are used to that purpose. Therefore, the dialect spoken in the eastern area is called "Wâldfrysk", meaning "Wood Frisian" or "Forest Frisian".
Although "Klaaifrysk" and "Wâldfrysk" are mutually very easily intelligible, there are, at least to native Frisian speakers, a few very conspicuous differences. These include the pronunciation of the words "my" ("me"), "dy" ("you"), "hy" ("he"), "sy" ("she" or "they"), "wy" ("we") and "by" ("by"), and the diphthongs "ei" and "aai".
Of the two, "Wâldfrysk" probably has the most speakers, but because the western clay area was originally the more prosperous part of the mostly agricultural province, "Klaaifrysk" has had the larger influence on the West Frisian standardised language.
In the early
Middle Agesthe Frisian lands stretched from the area around Bruges, in what is now Belgium, to the river Weser, in northern Germany. At that time, the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Seacoast. Today this region is sometimes referred to as " Greater Frisia" or "Frisia Magna", and many of the areas within it still treasure their Frisian heritage, even though in most places the Frisian language has been lost.
Originally, Frisian was much more similar to English than it is today, but after at least five hundred years of being subjected to the influence of Dutch it is obvious to most observers that nowadays it bears greater similarity to Dutch. Also, one has to take into account the centuries long drift of English away from Frisian.
Old Frisian, however, did bear a striking similarity to Old English. This similarity was reinforced in the late Middle Agesby the Ingaevonicsound shift, which affected Frisian and English, but hardly the other West Germanic varieties at all. Historically, both English and Frisian are marked by the suppression of the Germanic nasal in a word like "us" ("ús"), "soft" ("sêft") or "goose" ("goes"): see Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law. Also, when followed by some vowels the Germanic "k" softened to a "ch" sound. For example, the Frisian for "cheese" and "church" is "tsiis" and "tsjerke", whereas in Dutch it is "kaas" and "kerk".
One rhyme demonstrates the palpable similarity between Frisian and English: "Bread, butter and green cheese is good English and good Friese," which is pronounced more or less the same in both languages (Frisian: "Brea, bûter, en griene tsiis is goed Ingelsk en goed Frysk.")
One major difference between Old Frisian and modern Frisian is that in the Old Frisian period (c.1150-c.1550) grammatical cases still occurred. Some of the texts that are preserved from this period are from the twelfth or thirteenth, but most are from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Generally, all these texts are restricted to legalistic writings. Although the earliest definite written examples of Frisian are from approximately the
9th century, there are a few examples of runicinscriptions from the region which are probably older and possibly in the Frisian language. These runic writings however usually do not amount to more than single- or few-word inscriptions, and cannot be said to constitute literatureas such. The transition from the Old Frisian to the Middle Frisianperiod (c.1550-c.1820) in the sixteenth century, is based on the fairly abrupt halt in the use of Frisian as a written language.
Middle Frisian and New Frisian
Up until the fifteenth century Frisian was a language widely spoken and written, but from 1500 onwards it became an almost exclusively oral language, mainly used in rural areas. This was in part due to the occupation of its stronghold, the Dutch province of
Friesland(Fryslân), in 1498, by Duke Albert of Saxony, who replaced Frisian as the language of government with Dutch.
Afterwards this practice was continued under the
Habsburgrulers of the Netherlands (the German Emperor Charles V and his son, the Spanish King Philip II), and even when the Netherlands became independent, in 1585, Frisian did not regain its former status. The reason for this was the rise of Hollandas the dominant part of the Netherlands and its language, Dutch, as the dominant language in judicial, administrative and religious affairs.
In this period the great Frisian poet
Gysbert Japix(1603-66), a schoolteacher and cantor from the city of Bolsward(Boalsert), who largely fathered modern Frisian literature and orthography, was really an exception to the rule.
His example was not followed until the nineteenth century, when entire generations of Frisian authors and poets appeared. This coincided with the introduction of the so-called newer breaking system, a prominent grammatical feature in almost all West Frisian dialects, with the notable exception of "Súdwesthoeksk". Therefore, the New Frisian period is considered to have begun at this point in time, around 1820.
West Frisian uses the Latin alphabet.
1) IPA|/eː/, IPA|/oː/ and IPA|/øː/ are commonly realized as the diphthongs IPA| [eɪ] , IPA| [oʊ] and IPA| [øʏ] .
2) IPA|/ɛː/ and IPA|/ɔː/ are commonly realized as IPA| [ɛ.ə] and IPA| [ɔ.ə] .
3) a is pronounced [ɔ] before d, t, l, n, s
4) er is pronounced [ɛ:] in bern, gers and ferzen
5) eau is pronounced [øə] in past participles and [jo:] in preterites and other words
6) ei is pronounced [i] in Moandei and other compounds with -dei
7) eur is pronounced [øə]
8) the word ôf is pronounced [ɔu] or [ɔ:]
9) oa becomes [a] in moatte and Moandei, and [ã:] in Woansdei
10) oe is pronounced [u] before ch, g, k
11) y is pronounced [ɛi] in my, dy, hy, wy, by, but [i] in dy as demonstrative pronoun
12) any vowel or diphthong before n + s, z, f, v, w, j, l, r, is nasalised
13) any nasalised vowel is lengthened before ns, nz
14) d is silent before l. often pronounced [r] in intervocalic position
15) h is silent before [j] , [w] and in thús
16) j is often silent before [i]
17) in âl, l is silent before d, t
18) when assimilated, n becomes [m] before p, [ŋ] before k, or is dropped while nasalising the preceding vowel
19) r is silent before t, d, n, l, s, z
20) w is pronounced [v] at the beginning of a word, [f] in final, [w] elsewhere. It is silent before [w] . ww is pronounced [v]
Since 1956, West Frisian has an official status along with and equal to Dutch, in the province of
Fryslân. It is used in many domains of Frisian society, among which are education, legislation, and administration.
Although in the courts of law the Dutch language is still mainly used, in the province of Fryslân Frisians have the right to give evidence in their own language. Also, they can take the oath in Frisian in courts anywhere in the
Primary education in Fryslân was made bilingual in 1956, which means Frisian can be used as a teaching medium. In the same year, Frisian became an official school subject, having been introduced to primary education as an optional extra in 1937. It was not until 1980, however, that Frisian got the status of a fully-fledged, i.e., required, subject in primary schools, and not until 1993 that it got the same position in secondary education.
In 1997, the province of Fryslân officially changed its name from the Dutch form "Friesland" to the Frisian "Fryslân". So far 4 out of 31 municipalities (
Tytsjerksteradiel, Boarnsterhim, Littenseradiel, and Ferwerderadiel) have changed their official geographical names from Dutch to Frisian.
ISO 639West Frisian falls under the codes 'fy' and 'fry', which were assigned to the collective Frisian languages.
West Frisian can be confused with an area (or its local language) in the Dutch province Noord-Holland (NL: area=West-Friesland or local language=West-Fries), that is why the term Westlauwersk Frysk or Westernlauwersk Frisian has been introduced, The River Lauwers is the part of the border between the Dutch provinces Frisian and Groningen.
In the Netherlands: West Frisian can refer to the local language spoken in the region Hoorn, Enkhuizen, Medemblik. To avoid this confusion
Languages of the Netherlands
* [http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/Frisian-english/ Frisian - English Dictionary] : from [http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org Webster's Online Dictionary] - the Rosetta Edition.
* [http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=fry ISO 639 code set entry for "fry"] and for [http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=fri "fri"] (active and retired language codes, respectively)
* [http://zipangz.homestead.com/untitled5.html A short English - West Frisian - Japanese pharasebook] incl. sound soft
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