Effector (biology)


Effector (biology)

An effector is a molecule (originally referring to small molecules but now encompassing any regulatory molecule, including proteins) that binds to a protein and thereby alters the activity of that protein. A modulator molecule binds to a regulatory site during allosteric modulation and allosterically modulates the shape of the protein.

An effector can also be a protein that is secreted from a pathogen, which alters the host organism to enable infection, e.g. by suppressing the host's immune system capabilities.

Types of effectors