Telemetry (synonymous with
telematics) is a technologythat allows the remote measurement and reporting of informationof interest to the system designer or operator. The word is derived from Greek roots "tele" = remote, and "metron" = measure. Systems that need instructions and data sent to them in order to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand.
Telemetry typically refers to
wireless communications(i.e. using a radiosystem to implement the data link), but can also refer to data transferred over other media, such as a telephone or computer network or via an optical link or when making a robot it can be over a wire.
Most activities related to healthy crops and good yields depend on the timely availability of weather and soil data. Therefore wireless weather stations play a major role in disease prevention and precision irrigation. These stations transmit back to a base station the major parameters needed for good decisions: air temperature and relative humidity, precipitation and leaf wetness data (needed for disease prediction models), solar radiation and wind speed (needed to calculate
evapotranspiration), and sometimes also soil moisture, crucial for proper irrigation decisions in order to understand the progress of water into the soil and towards the roots.
Because local micro-climates can vary significantly, such data needs to come from right within the crop. Monitoring stations usually transmit data back by terrestrial
radiothough occasionally satellitesystems are used. Solar power is often employed to make the station independent from local infrastructure.
Telemetry has become indispensable for water management applications, including
water qualityand stream gauging functions. Major applications include AMR ( automatic meter reading), groundwatermonitoring, leak detection in distribution pipelines and equipment surveillance. Having data available in almost real time allows quick reactions to occurrences in the field.
Defense, space and resource exploration systems
Telemetry is an enabling technology for large complex systems such as missiles, RPVs,
spacecraft, oil rigs and chemical plants because it allows automatic monitoring, alerting, and record-keeping necessary for safe, efficient operations. Space agencies such as NASA, ESA, and other agencies use telemetry/telecommand systems to collect data from operating spacecraft and satellites.
Telemetry is vital in the development phase of missiles, satellites and aircraft because the system might be destroyed after/during the test. Engineers need critical system parameters in order to analyze (and improve) the performance of the system. Without telemetry, these data would often be unavailable.
In rocketry, telemetry equipment forms an integral part of the
rocket rangeassets used to monitor the progress of a rocket launch.
Telemetry was a vital source of intelligence for the US and UK when
Sovietmissiles were tested. For this purpose, the US operated a listening post in Iran. Eventually, the Soviets discovered this kind of US intelligence gathering and encrypted their telemetry signals of missile tests. Telemetry was a vital source for the Soviets who would operate listening ships in Cardigan Bayto eavesdrop on the UK missile tests carried out there.
Many resources need to be distributed over wide areas. Telemetry is essential in these cases, since it allows the system to channel resources to where they are needed.
Telemetry has been a key factor in modern motor racing. Engineers are able to interpret the vast amount of data collected during a test or race, and use that to properly tune the car for optimum performance. Systems used in some series, namely
Formula One, have become advanced to the point where the potential lap time of the car can be calculated and this is what the driver is expected to meet. Some examples of useful measurements on a race car include accelerations (G forces) in 3 axes, temperature readings, wheel speed, and the displacement of the suspension. In Formula 1, the driver inputs are also recorded so that the team can assess driver performance and, in the case of an accident, the FIAcan determine or rule out driver error as a possible cause.
In addition, there exist some series where "two way" telemetry is allowed. Two way telemetry suggests that engineers have the ability to update calibrations on the car in real time, possibly while it is out on the track. In Formula 1, two-way telemetry surfaced in the early nineties from TAG electronics, and consisted of a message display on the dashboard which the team could update. Its development continued until May 2001, at which point it was first allowed on the cars. By 2002 the teams were able to change engine mapping and deactivate particular engine sensors from the pits while the car was on track. For the 2003 season, the FIA banned two-way telemetry from Formula 1, however the technology still exists and could eventually find its way into other forms of racing or road cars.
In addition to that telemetry has also been applied to the use of Yacht racing. The technology was applied to the Oracle's USA-76
Telemetry also is used for patients (
biotelemetry) who are at risk of abnormal heartactivity, generally in a coronary care unit. Such patients are outfitted with measuring, recording and transmitting devices. A data log can be useful in diagnosis of the patient's condition by doctors. An alerting function can alert nurses if the patient is suffering from an acute or dangerous condition.
Also a system that is available in medical-surgical nursing in order to monitor a condition where heart condition may be ruled out. Or to monitor a response to arrhythmic medications such as Digoxin.
Fisheries and Wildlife Research and Management
Telemetry is now being used to study wildlife, and has been particularly useful for monitoring threatened species at the individual level. Animals under study may be fitted with instrumentation ranging from simple tags to
cameras, GPSpackages and transceivers to provide position and other basic information to scientists and stewards.
Telemetry is used in [http://www.htisonar.com/what_are_hydroacoustics.htm hydroacoustic assessments] for fish which have traditionally employed mobile surveys from boats to evaluate fish biomass and spatial distributions. Conversely, fixed-location techniques use [http://www.htisonar.com/what_are_hydroacoustics.htm#how_does_it_work stationary transducers] to monitor passing fish. While the first serious attempts to quantify fish biomass were conducted in the 1960's, major advances in equipment and techniques took place at hydropower dams in the 1980’s. Some evaluations monitored fish passage 24 hours a day for over a year, producing estimates of fish entrainment rates, fish sizes, and spatial and temporal distributions.
In the 1970’s, the dual-beam technique was invented, permitting direct estimation of fish size in-situ via its target strength. The first portable split-beam hydroacoustic system was developed by HTI in 1991, and provided more accurate and less variable estimates of fish target strength than the dual-beam method. It also permitted tracking of fish in 3D, giving each fish’s swimming path and absolute direction of movement. This feature proved important for evaluations of entrained fish in water diversions as well as for studies of migratory fish in rivers. In the last 35 years, tens of thousands of mobile and fixed-location hydroacoustic evaluations have been conducted worldwide. To view examples there are [http://www.htisonar.com/hydroacoustic_demo.htm online demos] available.
2005workshop in Las Vegas, a seminar noted the introduction of telemetry equipment that would allow vending machines to communicate sales and inventory data to a route truck or to a headquarters. This data could be used for a variety of purposes, such as eliminating the need for the driver to make a first trip to see what items need to be restocked before bringing the inventory inside.
Retailers are also beginning to make use of
RFIDtags to track inventory and prevent shoplifting. Most of these tags passively respond to RFID readers (e.g. at the cashier), but active RFID tags are available that periodically transmit telemetry to a base station.
Telemetry hardware is useful for tracking persons and property in law enforcement. An ankle collar worn by convicts on probation can warn authorities if a person violates the terms of his or her
parole, such as by straying from authorized boundaries or visiting an unauthorized location. Telemetry equipment has also given rise to the concept of bait cars, where law enforcement can rig a car with cameras and tracking equipment and leave it somewhere they expect it to be stolen. When stolen, the telemetry equipment reports the location of the vehicle, and gives law enforcement the ability to deactivate the engine and lock the doors once it is intercepted.
As in other telecommunications fields, international standards exist for telemetry equipment and software.
CCSDSand IRIGare such standards.
Data Acquisition System
automatic data processing.
Machine to Machine(M2M)
reconnaissance satellites, tapping of communications routing or switching centers (e.g. Echelon)
wireless sensor network
IP environmental monitoring
* [http://www.telemetry.org/ International Foundation for Telemetry]
* [http://www.irig106.org IRIG 106] — Digital telemetry standard]
* [http://www.zarya.info/Frequencies/FrequenciesAll.php Zarya - satellite tracking frequencies]
* [http://www.aktm.org The European Society of Telemetering]
* [http://www.km.kongsberg.com/KS/WEB/NOKBG0240.nsf/AllWeb/F825235C52459775C1256A7E003C759A?OpenDocument Hydroacoustic telemetry*
* [http://www.ulyssix.com Telemetry Ground Station Processing Electronics telemetry link ]
* [http://www.sailormade.com.br/preview/english/sailor2.htm Example of the use of telemetry in marine technology ]
* [http://www.2e1x1.com Unofficial USAF Satellite, Wideband and Telemetry Communications Career Field Page]
* [http://www.ergin.com.tr/tr/urun_liste.php?Urun_Kategori_ID=3&bolum=faaliyet_alanlari Force Telemetri Sistemleri]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Telemetry — Te*lem e*try, n. The science or process of making remote measurements and sending the data by radio; the use of a telemeter. [PJC] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
telemetry — te·lem·e·try (tə lĕmʹĭ trē) n. The science and technology of automatic measurement and transmission of data by wire, radio, or other means from remote sources, as from space vehicles, to receiving stations for recording and analysis. tel… … Universalium
telemetry — noun Date: 1885 1. the science or process of telemetering data 2. data transmitted by telemetry 3. biotelemetry • telemetric adjective • telemetrically adverb … New Collegiate Dictionary
telemetry — The science of measuring a quantity, transmitting the results by radio signals to a distant station, and there interpreting, indicating, and/or recording the results. SEE ALSO: biotelemetry. cardiac t. transmission of cardiac signals (electric or … Medical dictionary
telemetry — [[t]təle̱mɪtri[/t]] N UNCOUNT Telemetry is the science of using automatic equipment to make scientific measurements and transmit them by radio to a receiving station. [TECHNICAL] … English dictionary
telemetry — nuotolinis matavimas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. remote measuring; telemetering; telemetry vok. Fernmessung, f; Telemetrie, f rus. телеметрия, f pranc. télémesure, f; télémétrie, f ryšiai: sinonimas – telemetrija … Automatikos terminų žodynas
telemetry — nuotolinis matavimas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Matavimas per nuotolį nuotolinio ryšio priemonėmis. atitikmenys: angl. distance measurement; remote measurement; remote sensing; telemetry vok. Fernerkundung, f;… … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
telemetry — telemetrija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. telemetry vok. Telemetrie, f rus. телеметрия, f pranc. télémesure, f ryšiai: dar žiūrėk – nuotolinis matavimas … Fizikos terminų žodynas
telemetry — telemetrija statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Matavimai per nuotolį telemechanikos priemonėmis. Telemetrija taikoma sporto tyrimų praktikoje. kilmė gr. tele – tolumoje, toli + metreō – matuoju atitikmenys: angl. telemetry vok.… … Sporto terminų žodynas
telemetry — noun the science, and associated technology, of the automatic recording and transmission of data from a remote source to a receiving station for analysis … Wiktionary