Phalloidin

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CASNo=17466-45-4
PubChem=441542
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Formula=C35H48N8O11S
MolarMass=788.87 g/mol
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Phalloidin is one of a group of toxins from the death cap ("Amanita phalloides") known as phallotoxins. It binds actin, preventing its depolymerization and poisoning the cell. Phalloidin binds specifically at the interface between F-actin subunits, locking adjacent subunits together. Phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide, binds to actin filaments much more tightly than to actin monomers, leading to a decrease in the rate constant for the dissociation of actin subunits from filament ends, which essentially stabilizes actin filaments through the prevention of filament depolymerization.Cooper JA (1987) Effects of Cytochalasin and Phalloidin on Actin. "J. Cell Biol." 105 (4): 1473-1478. [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/reprint/105/4/1473] , accessed 060218] Moreover, phalloidin is found to inhibit the ATP hydrolysis activity of F-actin.Barden JA, Miki M, Hambly BD and Dosremedios CG (1987) Localization of the phalloidin and nucleotide-binding sites on actin. "Eur. J. Biochem". 162 (3): 583-588. [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb10679.x/abs/] , accessed 060218] Thus, phalloidin traps actin monomers in a conformation distinct from G-actin and it stabilizes the structure of F-actin by greatly reducing the rate constant for monomer dissociation, an event associated with the trapping of ADP.Barden JA, Miki M, Hambly BD and Dosremedios CG (1987) Localization of the phalloidin and nucleotide-binding sites on actin. "Eur. J. Biochem". 162 (3): 583-588. [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb10679.x/abs/] , accessed 060218] Overall, phalloidin is found to react stoichiometrically with actin, strongly promote actin polymerization, and stabilize actin polymers.Wehland J, Osborn M, and Weber K (1977) Phalloidin-induced actin polymerization in the cytoplasm of cultured cells interferes with cell locomotion and growth. "Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci." 74(12): 5613–5617. [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=431831&tools=bot] , accessed 060218]

Function

Phalloidin functions differently at various concentrations in cells. When introduced into the cytoplasm at low concentrations, phalloidin recruits the less polymerized forms of cytoplasmic actin as well as filamin into stable “islands” of aggregated actin polymers, yet it does not interfere with stress fibers, i.e. thick bundles of microfilaments.Wehland J, Osborn M, and Weber K (1977) Phalloidin-induced actin polymerization in the cytoplasm of cultured cells interferes with cell locomotion and growth. "Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci." 74(12): 5613–5617. [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=431831&tools=bot] , accessed 060218] Wehland "et al." also notes that at higher concentrations, phalloidin induces cellular contraction.

Use as an imaging tool

The property of phalloidin is a useful tool for investigating the distribution of F-actin in cells by labeling phalloidin with fluorescent analogs and using them to stain actin filaments for light microscopy. Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin have turned out to be enormously useful in localizing actin filaments in living or fixed cells as well as for visualizing individual actin filaments "in vitro".Cooper JA (1987) Effects of Cytochalasin and Phalloidin on Actin. "J. Cell Biol." 105 (4): 1473-1478. [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/reprint/105/4/1473] , accessed 060218] A high-resolution technique was developed to detect F-actin at the light and electron microscopic levels by using phalloidin conjugated to the fluorophore eosin which acts as the fluorescent tag.Capani F, Deerinck TJ, Ellisman MH, Bushong E, Bobik M and Martone ME(2001) Phalloidin–Eosin Followed by Photo-oxidation: A Novel Method for Localizing F-Actin at the Light and Electron Microscopic Levels. "J Histochem Cytochem". 49(11): 1351-1362. [http://www.jhc.org/cgi/content/full/49/11/1351] , accessed 060218] In this method known as fluorescence photo-oxidation, fluorescent molecules can be utilized to drive the oxidation of diaminobenzidine (DAB) to create a reaction product that can be rendered electron dense and detectable by light microscopy.Capani F, Deerinck TJ, Ellisman MH, Bushong E, Bobik M and Martone ME(2001) Phalloidin–Eosin Followed by Photo-oxidation: A Novel Method for Localizing F-Actin at the Light and Electron Microscopic Levels. "J Histochem Cytochem". 49(11): 1351-1362. [http://www.jhc.org/cgi/content/full/49/11/1351] , accessed 060218] The amount of fluorescence visualized can be used as a quantitative measure of the amount of filamentous actin there is in cells if saturating quantities of fluorescent phalloidin are used.Cooper JA (1987) Effects of Cytochalasin and Phalloidin on Actin. "J. Cell Biol." 105 (4): 1473-1478. [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/reprint/105/4/1473] , accessed 060218] Consequently, immunofluorescence microscopy along with microinjection of phalloidin can be used to evaluate the direct and indirect functions of cytoplasmic actin in its different stages of polymer formation (Wehland "et al.", 1977). Therefore, fluorescent phalloidin can be used as an important tool in the study of actin networks at high resolution.

Limitations of Phalloidin

Phalloidins do not permeate cell membranes, making them less effective in experiments with living cells. Cells treated with phalloidins exhibit a number of toxic effects and frequently die.Cooper JA (1987) Effects of Cytochalasin and Phalloidin on Actin. "J. Cell Biol." 105 (4): 1473-1478. [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/reprint/105/4/1473] , accessed 060218] Furthermore, it is important to note that phalloidin-treated cells will have greater levels of actin associated with their plasma membranes, and the microinjection of phalloidin into living cells will change actin distribution as well as cell motility.Cooper JA (1987) Effects of Cytochalasin and Phalloidin on Actin. "J. Cell Biol." 105 (4): 1473-1478. [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/reprint/105/4/1473] , accessed 060218]

Background

Pioneering work on this toxin was done by the Nobel laureate Heinrich Wieland in the 1930's. Phalloidin was ultimately purified and crystallized in 1937 by Heinrich's student and son-in-law Feodor Lynen (who won a Nobel Prize in 1964 for his work on cholesterol metabolism), and Heinrich's nephew Ulrich Weiland. [cite journal
title = Über die Giftstoffe des Knollenblätterpilzes
doi = 10.1002/jlac.19385330105
author = Feodor Lynen, Ulrich Wieland
volume = 533
issue = 1
pages = 93–117
year = 1938
journal = Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie
]

ee also

*Cytoskeleton
*actin

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • phalloidin — phalloidin. См. фаллоидин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Phalloidin — Strukturformel des Phallotoxins Phallotoxine sind neben den Amatoxinen (Amanitine) die giftigen Inhaltsstoffe des Grünen und des Weißen Knollenblätterpilzes. Die Phallotoxine sind für die chronische Komponente der Knollenblätterpilz Vergiftung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • phalloidin — Cyclic peptide (789D) from the Death Cap fungus ( Amanita phalloides ) that binds to, and stabilizes, F actin. Fluorescent derivatives are used to stain actin in fixed and permeabilized cells, although there is some uptake by live cells …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • phalloidin — noun A toxic cyclic peptide obtained from the mushroom Amanita phalloides See Also: phallotoxin …   Wiktionary

  • phalloidin — Best known of the toxic cyclic peptides produced by the poisonous mushroom, Amanita phalloides; closely related to amanitin. * * * phal·loi·din fa lȯid ən also phal·loi·dine fa lȯid ən, fal ȯi .dēn n a very toxic crystalline peptide… …   Medical dictionary

  • Phalloidin — Phal|lo|i|din [nlat. Amanita phalloides = Grüner Knollenblätterpilz (Bot.); ↑ in (3)], das; s: ein bicycl. Heptapeptid, das zusammen mit ähnlichen Phallotoxinen u. den Amatoxinen (↑ Amanitin) für die Pilzvergiftungen durch Knollenblätterpilze… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Phalloidin — Phal|lo|i|din das; s <zu nlat. (amanita) phalloides »Knollenblätterpilz« u. ↑...in> Giftstoff des Grünen Knollenblätterpilzes (Biochem.) …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • phalloidin — phal·loi·din …   English syllables

  • phalloidin — noun see phalloidine …   Useful english dictionary

  • фаллоидин — phalloidin фаллоидин. Токсин (циклический гескапептид), вырабатываемый бледной поганкой Amanita phalloides и широко используемый (наряду с др. токсином этого вида альфа аманитином <alpha amanitin>) в различных экспериментах; Ф. образует… …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.


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