Caption = Radha (right) - Krishna (left), surrounded by
gopis, in MayapurChandradoya Mandir, 2005
Name = Radha Krishna
Sanskrit_Transliteration = IAST|"rādhā-kṛṣṇa"
Devanagari = राधा कृष्ण
Affiliation = Krishna is an
Radha Krishna (
IASTIAST|"rādhā-kṛṣṇa", Sanskritराधा कृष्ण) is a Hindu deity. Krishna is often referred as " svayam bhagavan" in Gaudiya Vaishnavismtheology and Radhais a young woman, a gopiwho is Krishna's supreme beloved. [Harvnb|Schweig|2005|p=3] In relation to Krishna, Radha is acknowledged as the Supreme Goddess, for it is said that she controls Krishna with Her love. [Harvnb|Rosen|2002|p=50] It is believed that Krishna enchants the world, but Radha "enchants even Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all." [Harvnb|Rosen|2002|p=52" Chaitanya-charitamrita" [http://vedabase.net/cc/adi/4/95/en Adi-lila 4.95] , ]
While there are much earlier references to the worship of this form of
God, it is since Jayadeva Goswamiwrote a famous poem " Gita Govinda" in the twelfth centuryof the Common Era, that the topic of the spiritual love affair between the divine Krishnaand his devotee Radha, became a theme celebrated throughout India. [Harvnb|Schwartz|2004|p=49] It is believed that Krishna has left the "circle" of the rasa danceto search for Radha. The Caitanya school believes that the name and identity of Radha are both revealed and concealed in the verse describing this incident in Bhagavata Purana. [Harvnb|Schweig|2005|pp=41-42] It is also believed that Radha is not just one cowherd maiden, but is the origin of all the gopis, or divine personalities that participate in the rasa dance. [Harvnb|Schweig|2005|p=43]
RadhaKrishna can be broken into two –
Krishna( Devanagari:कृष्ण), the eighth incarnation ( avatar) of Vishnu. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-357806/Mahabharata Britannica: Mahabharata] ] , and his consort Radha(Devanagari: राधा). [H.Wilson, "Brahmavaivarta Purana with English Translation] , Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, 1990 reprint.] Krishna in Vrindavanais sometimes depicted with Radha standing on his left, on whose bosom resides Laksmi. [cite web | url =http://www.swaminarayan.nu/sampraday/shiksha.shtml | title= Shikshapatri, verse 109 by Bhagwan Swaminarayan]
akti and Saktiman
The common derivation of "
Sakti" and "saktiman", i.e. Female and Male principle in god implies that Sakti and saktiman are the same. [Surendranath Dasgupta, A History of Indian Philosophy (1991) p. 31] Each and every god has its partner, 'betterhalf' or Sakti and without this Sakti, is sometimes viewed being without essential power. [Santilata Dei, Del Santilata, Vaisnavism in Orissa (1988) p. 167] It is a not uncommon feature of Hinduismwhen worship of a pair rather then one personality constitutes worship of God, such is worship of Radha Krishna. Traditions worshiping Krishna, as " svayam bhagavan", who is male, include reference and veneration to his Radha, who is worshiped as supreme. It's an accepted view that union of Radha and Krishna may indicate the union of Sakti with the Saktiman, and this view exists well outside of orthodox Vaishnavismor Krishnaism. [Kakoli Basak, (1991) Rabindranath Tagore, a Humanist - p. 11 ]
From the Vaishnava point of view the divine feminine energy ("
shakti") implies a divine source of energy, God or "shaktiman". "Sita relates to Rama; Lakshmibelongs to Narayana; Radha has Her Krishna." As Krishna is believed to be the source of all manifestations of God, "Shri Radha, His consort, is the original source of all " shaktis" or feminine manifestation of divine energy. [Harvnb|Rosen|2002|p=54]
A number of interpretations according to traditions possess a common root of personalism in the understanding of worship. Specifically Caitanyaite
Gaudiya Vaishnavadoctrine and mission is fiercely "personalistic," proclaiming the supremacy of Krishna, the identification of Caitanyaas Radha-Krishna, the reality and eternality of individual selves, and a method for approaching the absolute reality and the Deity as a person first and foremost. [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=110] Jiva Goswamiin his "Priti Sandarbha" states that each of the Gopis exhibits a different level of intensity of passion, among which Radha's is the greatest. [Harvnb|Schweig|2005|p=125]
In his famous dialogs
Ramananda Rayadescribes Radha to Caitanyaand quotes, among other texts, a verse from Chaitanya Charitamrta2.8.100, before he goes on to describe her role in the pastimes of Vrindavana. [Harvnb|Schweig|2005|p=126]
The central pivot point of the theology is related to the word rasa. The theological use of the word can be found very early, about two thousand years before the
Nimbarkaor Caitanya school, in a phrase that the tradition frequently quotes: "Truly, the Lord is "rasa" ("raso vai sah") of Brahma sutras. This statement expresses the view that God is the one who enjoys the ultimate rasa or spiritual rapture, emotions. [Harvnb|Schweig|2005|p=79]
Radha Krishna are worshiped in the following traditions of
Bisnupriya Manipuri Vaishnavas
King Gareeb Nivaz ruled from 1709 to 1748 and was initiated into Vaishnavism of the Chaitanya tradition, which worships Krishna as the supreme deity, "Svayam bhagavan". He practiced this religion for nearly twenty years. Preachers and pilgrims used to arrive in large numbers and cultural contact with Assam was maintained.cite book |author= |title=Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology |publisher=Sahitya Akademi |location=New Delhi |year=1997 |pages= |isbn=81-260-0365-0 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate= [http://books.google.com/books?id=KYLpvaKJIMEC&pg=RA1-PA327 p.327] ]
The Manipuri Vaishnavas do not worship Krishna alone, but Radha-Krishna. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=g-wbAAAAIAAJ&q=Manipur+Radha&dq=Manipur+Radha&lr=&client=firefox-a Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature - p. 4290] , Amaresh Datta, Mohan Lal,1994] With the spread of Vaishnavism the worship of Krishna and Radha became the dominant form in the Manipur region. Every village there has a Thakur-ghat and a temple.cite book |author=Shanti Swarup |title=5000 Years of Arts and Crafts in India and Pakistan |publisher= [http://books.google.com/books?q=inpublisher:%22D.+B.+Taraporevala%22&lr=&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 D. B. Taraporevala] |location=New Delhi |year=1968 |pages=272 |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |accessdate= [http://books.google.com/books?id=lnVQAAAAMAAJ&q=Manipur+Radha&dq=Manipur+Radha&pgis=1 p.183] ] Rasa and other dances are a feature of the regional folk and religious tradition and often, for example, a female dancer will portray both Krishna and his consort, Radha, in the same piece. [Harvnb|Schwartz|2004|p=35]
In Vedic and
Puranic literature, Radhas and other forms of the root ">rAdh" have meaning of ‘perfection’, ‘success’ and even ‘wealth’.Fact|date=July 2008 Lord of Success, Indra was referred to as "Radhaspati". In references to Mahavishnuas the Lord of Fortune and freely used by Jayadevaas "Jaya Jayadeva Hare" – the victorious Hari, and ‘"Radhaspati"’ all found in many places. The word Radha occurs in the Atharva Veda, Taittiriya BrAhmana and Taittiriya Samhita.Fact|date=July 2008
Charlotte Vaudeville, in the article "Evolution of Love Symbolism in Bhagavatism" draws some parallel to Nappinnai, appearing in Godha’s magnum opus Thiruppavai and also in
Nammalwar’s references to Nappinnani, the daughter-in-law of Nandagopa. Nappinnai is believed to be the source of Radha’s conception in Prakritand Sanskritliterature although their characteristic relations with Krishna are different. In the ritual dance called Kuravai, Krishna dances with his wife Nappinnai.
"It is a complex relationship, for the devotee is the `same as and yet different from' the Lord, and so even in the joy of union there is the pain of separation. Indeed, the highest form of devotion, according to Yamunacarya, comes not in union but after the union, in the `fear of new separation'." [Charlotte Vaudeville, "Evolution of Love Symbolism in Bhagavatism", "Journal of the American Oriental Society" LXXXII (1962), 39]
Yasastilaka Champukavya (AD 959) all make references to Radha and Krishna well before Jayadeva's period. There are elaborate references to Radha in
Brahma vaivartaand Padma Puranas. [ [http://www.sankeertanam.com/saints%20texts/Jayadeva%20&%20Gita%20Govindam_2003_SK.pdf Musical Saints of India] ]
Gaudiya Vaishnava, as the name suggests, usually refers to the region of Bengal. Early Bengali literature gives a vivid description of the depiction and evolution of understanding of Radhaand Krishna.cite journal
author = Chatterji, S.K.
title = Purana Legends and the Prakrit Tradition in New Indo-Aryan
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1356-1898(1936)8%3A2%2F3%3C457%3APLATPT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U
accessdate = 2008-05-15literary study of their lyric literature of Bengal
Vaishnavism, has given a usefulconspectus of the "Historical Development of the Radha-Krishna Legend"] It is believed, however, that the source of Jayadeva Goswamis heroine in his poem Gita Govinda remains a puzzle of the Sanskrit Literature. At the same time there are well documented references to works earlier than Gita Govinda, which some count to be in excess of twenty. The figure of Radhais one of the most elusive in the literature of Sanskrit; she is described only in a few selected passages of Prakrit or Sanskrit poetry, a few inscriptions and a few works on grammar, poetry and drama. Jayadeva has referred to them and created an exquisite lyrical poem of passionate devotion in the twelfth century, and from this poetic beginning a huge movement specific to Bengal began.cite journal
author = Miller, S.B.S.
year = 1975
title = Radha: Consort of Krsna's Vernal Passion
journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society
volume = 95
issue = 4
pages = 655-671
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279(197510%2F12)95%3A4%3C655%3ARCOKVP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
accessdate = 2008-05-15]
Candidasais a poet notable for being a prominent Early Middle Bengalhistorical figure; the date of his poem "Srikrsnakirtana" is still under question however the text remains one of the most important evidences of early portrayal of the popular story of "Lord Krishna's love for the cowherd girl Radha" in Banglaliterature and religion. The 412 songs of "Srikrsnakirtana" are divided into thirteen sections that represent the core of the Radha-Krishna legendary cycle,with many variants providing excellent comparative material. The manuscript clearly suggests that the songs were meant to be song, and implies particular " ragas" for the recitation. There is considerable debate as to the authenticity of the text that has significant religious meaning.cite journal
author = Stewart, T.K.
year = 1986
title = Singing the Glory of Lord Krishna: The" Srikrsnakirtana
journal = Asian Folklore Studies
volume = 45
issue = 1
pages = 152-154
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0385-2342(1986)45%3A1%3C152%3ASTGOLK%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7
accessdate = 2008-05-15] In this Bengali tradition of
Caitanya Vaishnavismmetaphysical status and Radha-worship is considered to be established by Krsnadasa in his Chaitanya Charitamrtawhere he represents the doctrine that prevailed among the VrindavanCaitanyaites following Caitanya's demise in 1533. It is believed that Krishna, desiring to experience fully what it is like to love Krishna as Radha does, has appeared as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. And what Radha (appearing as Caitanya) does in her longing for Krishna is to chant his names. [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|pp=30-31] One of the self manifested Deities established by Gopala Bhatta Goswamiis called Radha Ramana, it is not surprising that Radha Ravana is seen as not only Krishna but also as Radha-Krishna. [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=52] And worship in his temple, located in the centre of Vrindavanais a perpetual daily affair, involving several prescribed events throughout the day, [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=58] with the goal of being theoretical and remote, but with aspiration of the possibility to attend and associate directly with Radha and Krishna. [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=75]
Nimbarka sampradayaworship of the youthful Krishna, alone or with his consort Radha, is one of the earliest dating at least to the 12th century, just as Rudra Sampradayadoes. [The penny cyclopædia [ed. by G. Long] . 1843, p.390 [http://books.google.com/books?id=_8cWRilIuE0C&pg=RA1-PA390&dq=rudra+sampradaya&as_brr=3#PRA1-PA390,M1] ] According to Nimbarka, Radha was the eternal consort of Vishnu-Krishna and there is also a suggestion, though not a clear statement, that she became the wife of her beloved Krishna. [Sharda Arya, Sudesh Narang, "Religion and Philosophy of the Padma-purāṇa: Dharmaśāstra." Miranda House (University of Delhi). Dept. of Sanskrit, India University Grants Commission, 1988. 547, p.30] It should be noted that Nimbarka rescues Radha from the presumed immoral implication of much of the literature, and gives to her a dignity unattained elsewhere. [Melville T. Kennedy, "The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal", 1925. 270, p.7]
Nimbarka Sampradayafounded by Shri NimbarkaBhagavan is one of the four bonafide Vaisnavatraditions. Lack of evidence due to the destruction of Mathura and Vrindavan in the 13th Century and 14th Century has meant that the true dates and origins of this tradition are shrouded in mystery and await investigation.
Nimbarka, who is widely held by scholars such as Satyanand Joseph, Prof. Rasik Bihari Joshi, Prof. M. M. Aggrawal etc to be at least of the same time or prior to the advent of Sri Shankaracharya, was the first Acharya to worship Sri Radha along with Sri Krsna in Sakhi Bhava Upasana method of worship. In his Vedanta Kamadhenu Dashashloki, it is clearly stated that:-
"Ange tu Vaame Vrishabhaanujaam Mudaa Viraajamaanaam anuruupasaubhagaam.sakhiisahasraih parisevitaam sadaa smarema deviim sakaleSTakaamadaam.." verse 6.The Left portion of the body of the Supreme Lord is Shrimati Radha, seated blissfully, as beautiful as the Lord Himself; who is served by thousands of gopis: we meditate on the Supreme Goddess, the fulfiller of all desires.
This theme was taken up by
JayadevaGoswami and other poets of the time who saw the inherent beauty and bliss which constitute this philosophy.
sampradaya, the significance of Radhais not less than the significance of Sri Krsna. Both are conjointly the object to be worshiped in this school of Nimbarka, [ Ramesh M. Dave, K. K. A. Venkatachari, "The Bhakta-bhagawan Relationship: Paramabhakta Parmeshwara Sambandha". Sya. Go Mudgala, Bochasanvasi Shri Aksharpurushottama Sanstha, 1988. p.74] who is also one of the first commentators on Brahma Sutrasunder the name "Vedanta-Parijata-Saurabha". The later Acharyas of the Nimbarka Sampradayain the 13th and 14th centuries in Vrindavana composed much literature on the Divine Couple (or Yugala Kishora) as they are referred to. Swami Shri Shribhatta, the elder god-brother of Shri Jayadeva Goswami composed the Yugala Shataka for the Dhrupadastyle of musical presentation like Jayadeva, however unlike Jayadevawho composed his work in Sanskrit, Swami Shribhatta's compositions are in Vraja Bhasha, a Hindivernacular which was understood by all inhabitants of Vraja. Indeed the rest of the Acharyas of this tradition wrote in Vraja Bhashaand due to the lack of prevalence of this language in modern times, very little research has been done, even though these Acharyas predate the Six Goswamis of Vrindavan by centuries.
In any case, the sole object of worship in the
Nimbarka Sampradayais the unified Divine Couple of Shri Radha Krishna. According to the 15th Century Mahavani written by Jagadguru Swami Shri Harivyasa Devacharya
"Radhaamkrsnasvaroopaam vai, krishnam raadhaasvarupinam; kalaatmaanam nikunjastham gururoopam sadaa bhaje" I ceaselessly praise Shrimati Radha who is none other than Krishna, and Shri Krishna who is none other than Radha, whose unity is represented by the Kaamabeeja and who are forever resident in Nikunja Goloka Vrndavana.
The contribution from the
Nimbarka Sampradayato the philosophy of Radha Krishnais undeniable, as the philosophy and theology originate in it.
Radha-Krishna Dev has a special place in the
Swaminarayan Sampradayas Swaminarayanhimself made a reference to Radha Krishna in the Shikshapatrihe wrote. [cite web | url =http://www.swaminarayan.nu/sampraday/shiksha.shtml | title= Shikshapatri, verse 109 by Bhagwan Swaminarayan] Further, he himself ordered the construction of temples in which Radha Krishna have been installed as deities. Swaminarayan "explained that Krishna appears in many forms. When he is together with Radha, he is regarded as supreme lord under the name of Radha-Krishna; with Rukmini he is known as Lakshmi-Narayana." [Harvnb|Williams|2001|p=74] The first temple constructed in the sect, built in Ahmedabadin AD 1822, houses the images of Nara Narayana, forms of Arjunaand Krishna, in the central shrine. The shrine on the left of the hall has murtis of Radha Krishna. [Harvnb|Williams|2001|p=96] According to the philosophy of the tradition there were many female companions of Krishna, gopis, but out of all of them Radha was considered to be the perfect devotee. Those who wish to come close to Krishna must cultivate the devotional qualities of Radha. [Harvnb|Williams|2001|p=85] According to theory the sect has set aside Golokaas the supreme heaven or abode (in fact, in some of their temples, such as the Mumbai Temple, the murtis installed are those of Shri Gaulokvihari and Radhikaji), because there Krishna is supposed to be enjoying himself with his Gopis, [Harvnb|Williams|2001|p=59] who according to the Swaminarayana sampradaya the milkmaids with whom Krishna danced; his relations with them symbolize the relation of God with the devotee in reciprocation. [Harvnb|Williams|2001|loc=back matter]
Vallabhacharya, founder of
Pustimargaeven before Chaitanya, worshipped Radha, where according to some sects, the devotees identify mainly with the female companion ("sakhis") of Radha who are privileged to arrange intimate pastimes for RadhaKrishna.cite journal
author = White, C.S.J.
year = 1990
title = Vallabhacarya on the Love Games of Krsna
journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society
volume = 110
issue = 2
pages = 373-374
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279(199004%2F06)110%3A2%3C373%3AVOTLGO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R
accessdate = 2008-05-15]
One of the prominent poets of this tradition, which also called Radhavallabhi, named Dhruvadasa was notable for being principally concerned with the private relationships of Radha and Krishna. In his poetry "Caurasi Pad" and in the commentaries of his followers, the concentration is in meditation on the unique benefits of constant reflection on the eternal
Radhavallabhis share with their Vaishnava co-religionists a great regard for
Bhagavata Purana, but some of the pastimes that are outside the scope of relationships with Radha and gopisdo not feature in the concept of this school. Emphasis is placed on the sweetness of the relationship, or rasa.cite journal
author = Snell, R.
isbn = 0521413117
year = 1992
title = Synoptic and sectarian bhakti in the poetry of Dhruvdas
publisher = [http://books.google.com/books?q=inpublisher:%22Cambridge+University+Press%22&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Cambridge UniversityPress]
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=BE40dp6SCFUC&oi=fnd&pg=PA247]
In opinion of some Hindu scholars as well as scholars of
Hinduism, a golden ageexisted when Muslims and Hindus created a common culture mainly because some Muslim rulers patronized Sanskritand translations from Sanskrit into Persian, while there were poets with Muslim names who wrote about Krishna and Radha.cite journal
author = Gaeffke, P.
isbn = 0521413117
year = 1992
title = How a Muslim looks at Hindu bhakti
publisher = [http://books.google.com/books?q=inpublisher:%22Cambridge+University+Press%22&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Cambridge UniversityPress]
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=BE40dp6SCFUC&oi=fnd&pg=PA247&dq=%22Radha+Krsna+%22&ots=IPsdC0j2-j&sig=iO9DUywzzRVHKh4Pjn02vqGH-cY#PPA80,M1p. 80]
; In India
Vrindavanand Mathuraare considered to be the centers of Radha-Krishna cult. The most important temples of Vrindavana are the Madan-mohan, Govindadev, Radha-Raman, Radha-Gokulananda, Radha-Damodar, Banki-behari, Radhavallabha, Jugal Kishor, Radha-Gopinath, Radha Shyamasundar, and Krishna-Balaram temples where Radha and Krishna are worshiped in their murtiforms. [Harvnb|Rosen|2002|p=117]
;Outside IndiaThere are number of traditions that spread the worship of Radha-Krishna in many countries, be it associated with migration or preaching activities of
sadhus.One such prominent adept, Prabhupadaopened a number of centers himself wherein he could train mleccha-turned- brahminstudents to worship Radha-Krishna murtis and become "devoted to the service of Godhead". [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=109]
Popular songs and prayers
Shri Radhika Krishnastaka" (also called the Radhashtak) is a hymn. It is said that the reciter can get to Krishna via Radha by chanting it.
title=Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism
publisher=Cambridge University Press
title=Rasa: performing the divine in India
publisher=Columbia University Press
*cite book |author=Rosen, Steven |title=The hidden glory of India |publisher=
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust|location= Los Angeles|year=2002 |pages= |isbn=0-89213-351-1 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=
author=Valpey, Kenneth Russell
author = Schweig, G.M.
year = 2005
title = Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna from the Bhagavata Purana, India's classic sacred love story.
publisher = Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ; Oxford
isbn = 0691114463
* Kakar, Sudhir. "Erotic fantasy: the secret passion of Radha and Krishna","Contributions to Indian Sociology" (New Series) 19, no.1 (Jan-June 1985):75-94.
* Miller, Barbara Stoller. "The divine duality of Radha and Krishna", in "The Divine Consort": "Radha and the Goddesses of India", eds. J. S. Hawley and D. M. Wulff. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982, pp. 13-26.
* Patnaik, Debi Prasanna. "Concept of Radhakrishna in the Panchasakha Literature." "Proceedings of Indian Oriental Conference" 18 (1955):406-411.
* Goswami, Sri Rupa. "Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhuh". Vrindaban: Institute of Oriental Philosophy, 1965.
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami. "Krsna: The Supreme Personality of Godhead". [A Summary Study of Srila Vyasadeva’s "Srimad-Bhagavatam", Tenth Canto.] Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Trust, 1970. 2 vols.
* Wilson, Frances, ed. "The Love of Krishna": "The Krsnakarnamarta of Lilasuka Bilvamangala". Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1975
* Vaudeville, Ch. "Evolution of Love-Symbolism in Bhagavatism." "Journal of the American Oriental Society" 82 (1962):31-40.
* Wulff, D. M. "The Divine Consort: Radha and the Goddesses of India", Berkeley: University of California Press. 1982
title=Radha in the Erotic Play of the Universe
last=David C. Scott
title=RadhaKrishna Sahasranam (from the Narada Purana)
title=Radharani—The Feminine Side of God
title=Who Is that Girl with Krishna? | Jayadvaita Swami
title=Radha Krishna Spirituality Portal
last= Sunil jain
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