name = Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation
size = 75px
abbreviation = AMSAT
formation = 1969
purpose = Designing, building, and operating experimental satellites; promoting space education
headquarters = Silver Spring,
leader_title = President
leader_name = Richard Hambly W2GPS
main_organ = Board of Directors
website = http://www.amsat.org/
AMSAT is a name for
amateur radio satelliteorganizations world-wide, but in particular the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation (AMSAT-NA) with headquarters at Silver Spring, Maryland, near Washington DC. AMSAT organizations design, build, arrange launches for, and then operate (command) satellites carrying amateur radio payloads, including the OSCARseries of satellites. Other informally affiliated national organizations exist, such as AMSAT Germany (AMSAT-DL) and AMSAT Japan (JAMSAT).
AMSAT-NA was founded in 1969 in Washington DC to continue the efforts begun by Project OSCAR. Its first project was to coordinate the launch of
OSCAR 5, constructed by students at the University of Melbourne.cite web | url=http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/AboutAmsat/amsat_history.php | title=Space Satellites from the World's Garage -- The Story of AMSAT | publisher=AMSAT-NA | accessmonthday=December 19 | accessyear=2006] Some design modifications were needed and were made by AMSAT members, and the satellite was successfully launched on January 30, 1970on a NASAThor Delta launch vehicle. [cite book | title=The Radio Amateur's Satellite Handbook | publisher=The Amateur Radio Relay League | pages=p. 1-13 | Author=Martin Davidoff, K2UBC | date=2000 | id=ISBN 0-87259-658-3]
AMSAT's next launch was AMSAT-OSCAR 6 (AO-6) on
October 15, 1972. AO-6 was AMSAT's first long-life satellite, and was built with participants from Australiaand West Germany. Command stations in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Hungary, Morocco, New Zealand, the United States and West Germany controlled the satellite, contributing greatly to its 4½ years of service. [cite book | title=The Radio Amateur's Satellite Handbook | publisher=The Amateur Radio Relay League | pages=p. 1-15 - 1-16 | Author=Martin Davidoff, K2UBC | date=2000 | id=ISBN 0-87259-658-3] Further launches continued to emphasize international cooperation, with AMSAT-OSCAR 7(AO-7) launching with a new transponder developed and built by Karl Meinzer and AMSAT Germany (AMSAT-DL). AMSAT Japan (JAMSAT) contributed a transponder to AMSAT-OSCAR 8(AO-8). [cite book | title=The Radio Amateur's Satellite Handbook | publisher=The Amateur Radio Relay League | pages=p. 1-16 - 1-18 | Author=Martin Davidoff, K2UBC | date=2000 | id=ISBN 0-87259-658-3]
In order to launch its satellites, AMSAT has worked with space agencies and commercial launch contractors to develop new ways to take advantage of unused areas of launch vehicles. In return, AMSAT sometimes can negotiate a reduction or waiver of launch costs. One of the most significant is the Ariane Structure for Auxiliary Payloads (ASAP), developed and manufactured in partnership with the
European Space Agencyin 1990 for use on its Ariane IVlaunch vehicle. AMSAT was again able to take advantage of unused space with the launch of AMSAT-OSCAR 40 (AO-40), occupying unused space on an Ariane V.
AMSAT organizations worldwide
From its first launch, AMSAT projects have had international scope. As of 2006, 21 countries have launched an amateur satellite. [See
OSCAR] Many of these countries have their own AMSAT affiliate, some of which are noted below:
* AMSAT Germany (AMSAT-DL, AMSAT Deutschland) has built and managed projects of several amateur radio satellites, notably
* AMSAT Japan (JAMSAT) has contributed to many satellites, in addition to launching its own satellites in cooperation with JAXA: the Fuji-OSCAR series.
* AMSAT India (AMSAT-IN) launched its first amateur satellite,
VUSat-OSCAR 52in 2005 aboard an ISRO PSLVrocket from Sriharikota, India. [cite web | url=http://www.amsatindia.org/hamsat.htm | title=About HAMsat | publisher=AMSAT-IN | accessmonthday = December 19 | accessyear=2006]
The AMSAT Phase system describes an amateur satellite based upon its capabilities or mode of operation and roughly parallel the development of amateur satellites.
* Phase 1: No
solar cells(battery-powered only), short-lived, technology test-bed. Must be able to orbitto be classified as a satellite.
* Phase 2: Long life using solar cells, communications capabilities,
Low Earth Orbit.
* Phase 3: Long life, more powerful communications, telemetry and command systems. Highly elliptical orbit, usually a
Molniya orbit; usually the initial orbit is a Geostationary transfer orbit, onboard propulsion systems boosting it to its final orbit. Because of the highly elliptical orbit, the satellite remains over an area for long periods of time, allowing amateurs longer contacts through the satellite..
* Phase 4: Amateur satellite in
Geostationary orbit. Phase 4 amateur satellites have been designed, but not built, though they have received favorable attention.cite book | title=The Radio Amateur's Satellite Handbook | publisher=The Amateur Radio Relay League | pages=p. 2-1 | Author=Martin Davidoff, K2UBC | date=2000 | id=ISBN 0-87259-658-3]
* Phase 5: Spacecraft capable of lunar or planetary missions.
Most amateur satellites do not receive their sequential OSCAR designation until after they are successfully in orbit, and then only at the request of the launching organization.. Regardless, amateur satellites will have been named by the organization that constructed it, and that name is frequently prepended to its OSCAR designation, resulting a name such as CubeSat-OSCAR 57. In conversation, names are usually abbreviated as CO-57 or similar.
A unique amateur satellite was
SuitSat, an obsolete Russian space suit with a transmitter in it, which was launched in 2006 from the International Space Station. In a twist of fate, "Oscar" was the name given to an obsolete space suit by its young owner in the book "Have Space Suit, Will Travel," by Robert A Heinlein. This book was originally published a year after the launch of the first artificial satellite (Sputnik).
In 2006, AMSAT is currently building the [http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/express/ P3-E] and [http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/eagle/ Eagle] satellites (Both Phase 3, see above), and has cooperated in developing the AMSAT Widget, a system used to communicate from one device to another using as few wires as possible. It works over the CAN interface, using an AMSAT-developed protocol called CAN-DO. AMSAT-DL is planning the [http://www.amsat-dl.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=16&Itemid=44 GO-Mars/P5A] spacecraft (Phase 5), to be launched to
Currently operating missions
June 29, 2004, AMSAT-NA launched a new microsat-class satellite, designated AO-51. AMSAT-NA also operates the AO-7 and AO-16 satellites, which are open for general amateur use.
* [http://www.amsat.org AMSAT-NA] - North America [http://www.amsat.org/amsat/amsat-na/press/amfact1.html history]
AMSAT organizations in other countries:
* [http://www.amsat.cl AMSAT-CE] - Chile
* [http://www.amsat-dl.org AMSAT-DL] - Germany
* [http://www.ea.amsat.org AMSAT-EA] - Spain
* [http://www.amsat-france.org AMSAT-F] - France
* [http://www.amsatindia.org/ AMSAT-IN] - India
* [http://www.amsat.it/ AMSAT-Italy] - Italy
* [http://www.jamsat.or.jp JAMSAT] - Japan
* [http://www.amsat-lk.org AMSAT-LK] - Sri Lanka
* [http://www.amsat.org.ar AMSAT-LU] - Argentina
* [http://www.rats.fi/suomi/amsat-oh/amsat-oh.html AMSAT-OH] - Finland
* [http://www.amsat-on.be AMSAT-ON] - Belgium
* [http://www.radioamadores.net AMSAT-PO] - Portugal
* [http://www.amsatsa.org.za SA AMSAT] - South Africa
* [http://www.amsat.se AMSAT-SM] - Sweden
* [http://www.uk.amsat.org AMSAT-UK] - United Kingdom
* [http://www.amsat-yv.org AMSAT-YV] - Venezuela
* [http://www.amsat-zl.org.nz AMSAT-ZL] - New Zealand
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Look at other dictionaries:
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AMSAT — Der Name AMSAT ist eine Abkürzung von Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation (auf deutsch etwa „Amateurfunksatelliten Vereinigung“). Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Struktur und Ziele 2 Bezeichnungen der Phasen 3 AMSAT Deutschland … Deutsch Wikipedia
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AMSAT — radio AMateur SATellite corp., Gesellschaft zur Entwicklung von Amateursatelliten, Entwicklungsgesellschaft von OSCAR, erste Gründung 1969 in Washington mit Ablegern in Deutschland, Grossbritannien, Kanada u.a … Acronyms
AMSAT — radio AMateur SATellite corp., Gesellschaft zur Entwicklung von Amateursatelliten, Entwicklungsgesellschaft von OSCAR, erste Gründung 1969 in Washington mit Ablegern in Deutschland, Grossbritannien, Kanada u.a … Acronyms von A bis Z
AMSAT — 1. Amateur Radio Satellite Contributor: CASI 2. Amateur Satellite Corp. (Radio) Contributor: GSFC … NASA Acronyms
AMSAT — acronym radio AMateur SATellite corp … United dictionary of abbreviations and acronyms
AMSAT-OSCAR 7 — Launch date 15 November 1974 Launch vehicle Delta 2310 Launch site Vandenberg AFB, Lompoc, CA USA COSPAR ID 1974 0 … Wikipedia