Rhinolophus

Taxobox
name = Horseshoe bats



image_width = 300px
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Chiroptera
familia = Rhinolophidae
subfamilia = Rhinolophinae
subfamilia_authority = Gray, 1825
genus = "Rhinolophus"
genus_authority = Lacépède, 1799
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision =

The genus "Rhinolophus", commonly called horseshoe bats, comprises approximately 69 distinct species and the only genus of subfamily Rhinolophinae. This is the largest group within the Rhinolophidae family of bats, though they show very little in the way of ecological diversity and are very much a variation on the same theme.

Their common name comes from the large horseshoe-shaped nose leaf used for directing their ultrasound.

They have very broad, rounded wings and very fluttery flight patterns, the "archetypal flying bat". They occur over a wide range of temperate to tropical woodland and open habitat where they catch insects in mid flight and also glean insects and spiders from foliage while hovering in front of their prey.

They are thought to represent very closely the ancestral form of the "microbat" group and so are considered among the more primitive of the whole Microchiroptera.

The females have a pair of mammary glands and two "false nipples" above and to the side of the genital opening, which newborn bats cling to for a few days after birth.

In September 2005, four Rhinolophus species ("R. sinicus, R. ferrumequinum, R. macrotis, R. pearsoni") were identified as natural reservoirs of SARS coronavirus-like viruses, the causative agent of SARS outbreaks in 2002-2004 (Li et al, 2005; Lau et al, 2005).

List of species

*Acuminate Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus acuminatus")
*Adam's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus adami")
*Intermediat Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus affinis")
*Halcyon Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus alcyone")
*Andersen's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus anderseni")
*Arcuate Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus arcuatus")
*Blasius's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus blasii")
*Bornean Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus borneensis")
*Canut's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus canuti"))
*Cape Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus capensis")
*Sulawesi Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus celebensis")
*Chiewkwee's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus chiewkweeae")
*Geoffroy's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus clivosus")
*Croslet Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus coelophyllus")
*Andaman Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus cognatus")
*Little Japanese Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus cornutus")
*Creagh's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus creaghi")
*Darling's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus darlingi")
*Decken's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus deckenii")
*Dent's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus denti")
*Eloquent Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus eloquens")
*Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus euryale")
*Broad-eared Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus euryotis")
*Rhinolophus feae
*Greater Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus ferrumequinum")
*Rüppell's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus fumigatus")
*Guinean Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus guineensis")
*Hildebrandt's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus hildebrandti")
*Lesser horseshoe bat ("Rhinolophus hipposideros")
*Imaizumi's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus imaizumii")
*Philippine Forest Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus inops")
*Insular Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus keyensis")
*Lander's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus landeri")
*Blyth's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus lepidus")
*Woolly Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus luctus")
*Maclaud's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus maclaudi")
*Big-eared Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus macrotis")
*Malayan Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus malayanus")
*Marshall's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus marshalli")
*Smaller Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus megaphyllus")
*Mehely's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus mehelyi")
*Mitred Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus mitratus")
*Formosan Lesser Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus monoceros")
*Neriad Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus nereis")
*Osgood's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus osgoodi")
*Bourret's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus paradoxolophus")
*Pearson's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus pearsonii")
*Large-eared Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus philippinensis")
*Least Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus pusillus")
*King Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus rex")
*Peninsular Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus robinsoni")
*Rufous Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus rouxii")
*Large Rufous Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus rufus")
*Sakeji Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus sakejiensis")
*Lesser Woolly Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus sedulus")
*Shamel's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus shameli")
*Forest Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus silvestris")
*Lombok Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus simplex")
*Bushveld Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus simulator")
*Lesser Brown Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus stheno")
*Little Nepalese Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus subbadius")
*Small Rufous Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus subrufus")
*Swinny's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus swinnyi")
*Thomas's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus thomasi")
*Trefoil Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus trifoliatus")
*Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus virgo")
*Dobson's Horseshoe Bat ("Rhinolophus yunanensis")

References

*Li, W, Zhengli, S, Meng, Y "et al ". (2005). Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. "Science" 310 (5748):676–679.
*Lau, S, Woo, P, Li, K "et al ". (2005). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. "PNAS" 102 (39):14040–14045.
*Abdullah MT. 2003. Biogeography and variation of Cynopterus brachyotis in Southeast Asia. PhD thesis. The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
*Corbet, GB, Hill JE. 1992. The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
*Hall LS, Gordon G. Grigg, Craig Moritz, Besar Ketol, Isa Sait, Wahab Marni and M.T. Abdullah. 2004. Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Sarawak Museum Journal LX(81):191-284.
*Karim, C., A.A. Tuen and M.T. Abdullah. 2004. Mammals. Sarawak Museum Journal Special Issue No. 6. 80: 221—234.
*Mohd. Azlan J., Ibnu Maryanto , Agus P. Kartono and M.T. Abdullah. 2003 Diversity, Relative Abundance and Conservation of Chiropterans in Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Sarawak Museum Journal 79: 251-265.
*Hall LS, Richards GC, Abdullah MT. 2002. The bats of Niah National Park, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal. 78: 255-282.
*Wilson DE, Reeder DM. 2005. Mammal species of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
*cite book|last=Schober|first=Wilfried|coauthors=Eckard Grimmberger|title=A Guide to Bats of Britain and Europe|editor=Dr. Robert E. Stebbings|publisher=Hamlyn Publishing Group|location=UK|date=1989|edition=1st|isbn=0-600-56424-x


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