: "This article is about the country. For a topic outline on this subject, see
List of basic France topics. For other uses, see France (disambiguation)."Infobox Country
native_name = "La République Française"
conventional_long_name = The French Republic
common_name = France
national_motto = "
symbol_type = National Emblem
map_width = 250px
map_caption = map_caption|location_color=dark green|country=
Metropolitan France|region= Europe|region_color=dark grey|subregion=the European Union|subregion_color=light green|
Territory of the French Republic in the world
(excl. Antarctica where sovereignty is suspended)
latd=48 |latm=52 |latNS=N |longd=2 |longm=19.59 |longEW=E
largest_city = capital
official_languages = French
Tamazight, Arabic, French Sign Language
demonym = French
government_type = Unitary semi-presidential
leader_title1 = President
leader_title2 = Prime Minister
sovereignty_type = Formation
established_event1 = French State
established_event2 = Current constitution
established_date1 = 843 (
Treaty of Verdun)
established_date2 = 1958 (5th Republic)
accessionEUdate = 25 March 1957
EUseats = 78
FR_metropole = Metropolitan France
FR_IGN_area_km2 = 551695
FR_IGN_area_rank = 47th
FR_IGN_area_magnitude = 1 E11
FR_cadastre_area_magnitude = 1 E11
FR_IGN_area_sq_mi = 213010
FR_cadastre_area_km2 = 543965
FR_cadastre_area_rank = 47th
FR_cadastre_area_sq_mi = 210026
area_km2 = 674843
area_sq_mi = 260558
area_rank = 40th
area_magnitude = 1 E11
FR_foot =Whole territory of the French Republic, including all the overseas departments and
territories, but excluding the French territory of Terre Adélie in Antarctica where sovereignty is suspended since the signing of the Antarctic Treatyin 1959.]
FR_foot2 =French National Geographic Institute data.]
Land Registerdata, which exclude lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers.]
FR_total_population_estimate = 64,473,140 [cite web|url=http://www.insee.fr/fr/ffc/pop_age4.htm|title=Bilan démographique 2007 : des naissances toujours très nombreuses|first=
Government of France|last= INSEE|accessdate=2008-01-15 fr icon]
FR_total_population_estimate_year = January 1, 2008 estimate
FR_total_population_estimate_rank = 20th
FR_metropole_population = 61,875,822 [cite web|url=http://www.insee.fr/fr/ffc/pop_age2.htm|title=Population totale par sexe et âge au 1er janvier 2008, France métropolitaine|first=
Government of France|last= INSEE|accessdate=2008-01-15 fr icon]
FR_metropole_population_estimate_rank = 20th
population_density_km2 = 114
population_density_sq_mi = 295
population_density_rank = 89th
GDP_nominal = $2,593 trillion
GDP_nominal_rank = 6th
GDP_nominal_year = 2007
GDP_nominal_per_capita = $42,033 (IMF)
GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 16th
GDP_PPP_year = 2007
GDP_PPP = $2,067 trillioncite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2008/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2004&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=132&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=40&pr.y=9=|title=Report for Selected Countries and Subjects ]
GDP_PPP_rank = 7th
GDP_PPP_per_capita = $33,508 (IMF)
GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 18th
Gini = 26.7
Gini_year = 2002
HDI_year = 2005
HDI = increase 0.952
HDI_rank = 10th
HDI_category = high
Euro, [Whole of the French Republic except the overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean.] CFP Franc[French overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean only.]
currency_code = EUR,spaces|4XPF
time_zone = CET
utc_offset = +1
time_zone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
.fr[In addition to .fr, several other Internet TLDs are used in French overseas "départements" and territories: .re, .mq, .gp, .tf, .nc, .pf, .wf, .pm, .gfand .yt. France also uses .eu, shared with other members of the European Union. Also, the .catdomain is used in Catalan-speaking territories.]
calling_code = 33
calling_code_note =|calling_code_note = smallsup|1
ISO_3166-1_alpha3 = FRA
sport_code = FRA
vehicle_code = F
footnote1 = The overseas regions and collectivities form part of the
French telephone numbering plan, but have their own country calling codes: Guadeloupe+590; Martinique+596; French Guiana+594, Réunionand Mayotte+262; Saint Pierre et Miquelon+508. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: New Caledonia+687, French Polynesia+689; Wallis and Futuna+681
France (Audio-IPA|en-us-France.ogg| [fɹæns] or IPA|/fɹɑns/, IPA-fr|fʁɑ̃s), officially the French Republic ( _fr. République française, IPA-fr|ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz), is a
countrywhose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europeand that also comprises various overseas islands and territories located in other continents.For more information, see .] Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Seato the English Channeland the North Sea, and from the Rhineto the Atlantic Ocean. French people often refer to Metropolitan France as "L’Hexagone" (The “ Hexagon”) because of the geometric shape of its territory. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic. Its main ideals are expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
France is bordered by
Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra, and Spain. Due to its overseas departments, France also shares land borders with Braziland Suriname(bordering French Guiana), and the Netherlands Antilles(bordering Saint-Martin). France is also linked to the United Kingdomby the Channel Tunnel, which passes underneath the English Channel.
France has been one of the world's foremost powers since the latter half of the 17th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries, France built one of the largest colonial empires of the time, stretching across
West Africaand Southeast Asia, prominently influencing the cultures and politics of the regions. France is a developed country, with the sixth (nominal GDP) or eighth (PPP) largest economy in the world. It is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 millionforeign tourists annually.cite web |first=Directorate of Tourism |last= Government of France|publisher= |url=http://www.tourisme.gouv.fr/fr/z2/stat/tis/att00018288/TIS_EVE2007_2008-5.pdf|title=Le tourisme international en France en 2007|accessdate=2008-06-05|format=PDF fr icon] France is one of the founding members of the European Union, and has the largest land area of all members. France is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, NATO, and the Latin Union. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council; it is also an acknowledged nuclear power with 350 active warheads and 59 nuclear power plants.
Origin and history of the name
The name “France” comes from
Latin"Francia", which literally means “land of the Franks” or “Frankland”. There are various theories as to the origin of the name of the Franks. One is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word "frankon" which translates as "javelin" or "lance" as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca.Fact|date=February 2008
Another proposed etymology is that in an ancient Germanic language, Frank means "free" as opposed to
slave. This word still exists in French as "franc", it is also used as the translation of “Frank” and to name the local money, until the use of the euroin the 2000s.
However, rather than the ethnic name of the Franks coming from the word "frank", it is also possible that the word is derived from the ethnic name of the Franks,Fact|date=February 2008 the connection being that only the Franks, as the conquering class, had the status of freemen. In German, France is still called "Frankreich", which literally means “Realm of the Franks”. In order to distinguish from the Frankish Empire of
Charlemagne, Modern France is called "Frankreich", while the Frankish Realm is called "Frankenreich".
The word “Frank” had been loosely used from the fall of Rome to the Middle Ages, yet from
Hugh Capet's coronation as “King of the Franks” (“Rex Francorum”) it became usual to strictly refer to the Kingdom of Francia, which would become France. The Capetian Kings were descended from the Robertines, who had produced two Frankish kings, and previously held the title of “ Duke of the Franks” (“dux Francorum”). This Frankish duchy encompassed most of modern northern France but because the royal power was sapped by regional princes the term was then applied to the royal demesneas shorthand. It was finally the name adopted for the entire Kingdom as central power was affirmed over the entire kingdom. [Elizabeth M. Hallam & Judith Everard - Capetian France 937-1328, chapter 1 “The origins of Western Francia” page 7: “What did the name Francia mean in the tenth and eleventh centuries? It still retained a wide general use; both Byzantine and western writers at the time of the crusades described the western forces as Franks. But it was also taking on more specific meanings. From 911 onwards the west Frankish king was known as the "Rex Francorum" -king of the Franks- and the name Francia could be used to describe his kingdom, as it was also used by the east Frankish, or German, kingdom... The Robertines, forerunners of the Capetians, were "duces francorum", dukes of the Franks, and their 'duchy' covered in theory most of northern France. Then as royal power contracted further, leaving the early Capetian only a small bloc of lands around Paris and Orleans, the term Francia was used for this region.”]
Metropolitan Franceis located in Western Europe, France also has a number of territories in North America, the Caribbean, South America, the southern Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and Antarctica. [Sovereignty claims in Antarctica are governed by the Antarctic Treaty System] These territories have varying forms of government ranging from overseas departmentto overseas collectivity.
Metropolitan France covers 547,030
square kilometres (211,209 sq mi),cite web |author= CIA|year=2007 | title = The World Factbook |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html |accessdate=2007-12-06 ] having the largest area among European Unionmembers and slightly larger than Spain. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alpsin the south-east, the Massif Centralin the south-central and Pyreneesin the south-west. At 4,807 metres (15,770 ft) above sea-level, the highest point in Western Europe, Mont Blanc, is situated in the Alpson the border between France and Italy.cite web |author= CIA|publisher= |year=2006 |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2020.html |title=The World Factbook: Field Listing - Elevation extremes |accessdate=2006-12-14] Metropolitan France also has extensive river systems such as the Loire, the Garonne, the Seineand the Rhône, which divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean sea at the Camargue, the lowest point in France (2 m / 6.5 ft below sea level). Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.
France's total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding
Adélie Land), is 674,843 square kilometres (260,558 sq mi), 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. However, France possesses the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ) in the world, covering 11,035,000 square kilometres (4,260,000 sq mi), approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, just behind the United States(11,351,000 km² / 4,383,000 sq mi) and ahead of Australia(8,232,000 km² / 3,178,000 sq mi).According to a different calculation cited by the [http://pewresearch.org/ Pew Research Center] , the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 square kilometres (3,893,532 sq mi), still behind the United States(12,174,629 km² / 4,700,651 sq mi), and still ahead of Australia(8,980,568 km² / 3,467,416 sq mi) and Russia(7,566,673 km² / 2,921,508 sq mi).]
, with the number of days with temperatures below freezing over 150 per year and snow cover lasting for up to six months.
Rome to revolution
The borders of modern France are approximately the same as those of ancient
Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic "Gauls". Gaul was conquered for Rome by Julius Caesarin the 1st century BC, and the Gauls eventually adopted Roman speech ( Latin, from which the French languageevolved) and Roman culture. Christianity first appeared in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, and became so firmly established by the fourth and fifth centuries that St. Jeromewrote that Gaul was the only region “free from heresy”.In the 4th century AD, Gaul’s eastern frontier along the Rhinewas overrun by Germanic tribes, principally the Franks, from whom the ancient name of “Francie” was derived. The modern name “France” derives from the name of the feudal domain of the Capetian Kings of France around Paris. The Franks were the first tribe among the Germanic conquerors of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to CatholicChristianity rather than Arianism(their King Clovisdid so in 498); thus France obtained the title “Eldest daughter of the Church” ("La fille ainée de l’Église"), and the French would adopt this as justification for calling themselves “the Most Christian Kingdom of France”.
Existence as a separate entity began with the
Treaty of Verdun(843), with the division of Charlemagne's Carolingian Empireinto East Francia, Middle Franciaand Western Francia. Western Francia approximated the area occupied by modern France and was the precursor to modern France.
Carolingian dynastyruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France. His descendants, the Direct Capetians, the House of Valoisand the House of Bourbon, progressively unified the country through a series of wars and dynastic inheritance. The monarchy reached its height during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV of France. At this time France possessed the largest population in Europe (see Demographics of France) and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. French became, and remained for some time, the common language of diplomacy in international affairs. Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs were achieved by French scientists in the 18th century. In addition, France obtained many overseas possessions in the Americas, Africa and Asia.
Monarchy to Republic
The monarchy ruled France until the
French Revolution, in 1789. Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were executed (in 1793), along with thousands of other French citizens. After a series of short-lived governmental schemes, Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in 1799, making himself First Consul, and later Emperorof what is now known as the First Empire (1804–1814). In the course of several wars, his armies conquered most of continental Europe, with members of the Bonapartefamily being appointed as monarchs of newly established kingdoms.
Following Napoleon's final defeat in 1815 at the
Battle of Waterloo, the French monarchy was re-established, but with new constitutional limitations. In 1830, a civil uprising established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. The short-lived Second Republic ended in 1852 when Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed the Second Empire. Louis-Napoléon was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic.
France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire was the second largest in the world behind the
British Empire. At its peak, between 1919 and 1939, the second French colonial empire extended over 12,347,000 square kilometres (4,767,000 sq mi) of land. Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereigntyreached 12,898,000 square kilometres (4,980,000 sq mi) in the 1920s and 1930s, which is 8.6% of the world's land area.
France was a victorious nation in
World War Iand World War II. The human and material losses in the first war exceeded largely those of the second, even though only a minor part of its territory was occupied during World War I. The interbellum phase was marked by a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government. Following the German " blitzkrieg" campaign in World War II metropolitan Francewas divided in a occupation zone in the north and Vichy France, a puppet regime loyal to Germany, in the south.
The Fourth Republic was established after World War II and, despite spectacular economic growth (les
Trente Glorieuses), it struggled to maintain its political status as a dominant nation state. France attempted to hold on to its colonial empire, but soon ran into trouble. The half-hearted 1946 attempt at regaining control of French Indochinaresulted in the First Indochina War, which ended in French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phuin 1954. Only months later, France faced a new, even harsher conflict in Algeria.
The debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria, then home to over one million European settlers, wracked the country and nearly led to civil war. In 1958, the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic, which contained a strengthened Presidency. In the latter role,
Charles de Gaullemanaged to keep the country together while taking steps to end the war. The Algerian War and Franco-French civil war that resulted in the capital Algiers, was concluded with peace negotiations in 1962 that led to Algerian independence.
In recent decades, France's reconciliation and cooperation with
Germanyhave proved central to the political and economic integration of the evolving European Union, including the introduction of the euroin January 1999. France has been at the forefront of the European Union member states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to create a more unified and capable European Union political, defence, and security apparatus. The French electorate voted against ratification of the European Constitutional Treaty in May 2005, but the successor Treaty of Lisbonwas ratified by Parliament in February 2008.
The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential
republicwith strong democratictraditions. The constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendumon 28 September 1958. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic, who is Head of State and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term (formerly 7 years), and the Government, led by the president-appointed Prime Minister.
The French parliament is a
bicamerallegislature comprising a National Assembly ("Assemblée Nationale") and a Senate. The National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms. The Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet, and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms), and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September 2008.cite web|publisher= French Senate|year=2006 |url=http://www.senat.fr/role/index.html|title=Rôle et fonctionnement du Sénat |accessdate=2006-04-20] The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say, except for constitutional laws and "lois organiques" (laws that are directly provided for by the constitution) in some cases. The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament.
French politics are characterised by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred around the French Socialist Party, and the other right-wing, centred previously around the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) and now its successor the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). The executive branch is currently composed mostly of the UMP.
Conventions and notations
* France is the home of the
International System of Units(the metric system). The Imperial Systemis almost completely ignored in France. Some pre-metric units are still used, essentially the "livre" (a unit of weight equal to half a kilogram) and the " quintal" (a unit of weight equal to 100 kilograms).
* In mathematics, France uses the
infix notationlike most countries. For large numbers the long scale is used. Thus, the French use the word "billion" for the number 1,000,000,000,000, which in countries using short scale is called a trillion. However, there exists a French word, "milliard", for the number 1,000,000,000, which in countries using the short scale is called a billion. Thus, despite the use of the long scale, one billion is called "un milliard" (“one milliard”) in French, and not "mille millions" (“one thousand million”). It should also be noted that names of numbers above the "milliard" are rarely used. Thus, one trillion will most often be called "mille milliards" (“one thousand milliard”) in French, and rarely "un billion".
* In the French numeral notation, the comma (,) is the
Decimal separator, whereas the dot (.) is used between each group of three digits especially for big numbers. A space can also be used to separate each group of three digits especially for small numbers. Thus three thousand five hundred and ten may be written as 3 510 whereas fifteen million five hundred thousand and thirty-two may be written as 15.500.032. In finance, the currency symbol is used as a decimal separator or put after the number. For example, €25,048.05 is written either 25 048€05 or 25 048,05 € (always with an extra space between the figure and the currency symbol).
* Cars are driven on the right.
* In computing, a
bitis called a bit yet a byteis called an octet (from the Latin root "octo", meaning “8”). SI prefixes are used.
24-hour clocktime is used, with h being the separator between hours and minutes (for example 2:30 p.m. is 14h30).
* The all-numeric form for dates is in the order day-month-year, using a slash as the separator (example: 31/12/1992 or 31/12/92).
France uses a civil legal system; that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judge interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to
case law). Basic principles of the rule of lawwere laid in the Napoleonic Code. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizenlaw should only prohibit actions detrimental to society. As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, wrote about the management of prisons: :"Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality."That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy. In practice, of course, this ideal is often lost when laws are made.
French law is divided into two principal areas:
private lawand public law. Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative lawand constitutional law. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law; criminal law and administrative law.
France does not recognise
religious law, nor does it recognise religious beliefs or morality as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. As a consequence, France has long had neither blasphemylaws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished in 1791). However “offences against public decency” ("contraires aux bonnes mœurs") or breach of the peace("trouble à l'ordre public") have been used to repress public expressions of homosexualityor street prostitution.
Laws can only address the future and not the past (
ex post factolaws are prohibited) ; and to be applicable, laws must be officially published in the " Journal Officiel de la République Française".
France is a member of the
United Nationsand serves as one of the permanent members of the U.N. Security Councilwith vetorights. It is also a member of the World Trade Organisation(WTO), the Secretariat of the Pacific Community(SPC) and the Indian Ocean Commission(COI). It is an associate member of the Association of Caribbean States(ACS) and a leading member of the International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of fifty-one fully or partly French-speaking countries. It hosts the headquarters of the OECD, UNESCO, Interpol, Alliance Baseand the International Bureau for Weights and Measures. In 1953 France received a request from the United Nationsto pick a coat of arms that would represent it internationally. Thus the French emblem was adopted and is currently used on passports.
French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the
European Union, of which it was a founding member. In the 1960s, France sought to exclude the British from the organisation, seeking to build its own standing in continental Europe. Since the 1990s, France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU, but consequently rivaling the UK and limiting the influence of newly-inducted East European nations. France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to avoid the supposed domination of its foreign and security policies by US political and military influence. In the early 1990s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. France vigorously opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with the US and the UK. France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies and has supplied economic aid and troops for peace-keeping missions in the Ivory Coastand Chad.
armed forcesare divided into four branches:
* Armée de Terre (Army)
* Marine Nationale (Navy)
* Armée de l'Air (Air Force)
* Gendarmerie Nationale (A military force which acts as a National Rural Police and as a
Military policefor the entire French military)
Algerian War, conscriptionwas steadily reduced and was finally suspended in 2001 by Jacques Chirac. The total number of military personnel is approximately 359,000. France spends 2.6% of its GDPon defence, slightly more than the United Kingdom (2.4%) , and is the highest in the European Union where defence spending is generally less than 1.5% of GDP. Together they account for 40% of EU defence spending. About 10% of France's defence budget goes towards its " force de frappe", or nuclear weapons. A significant part of French military equipment is made in France. Examples include the Rafalefighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, the Exocetmissile, and the Leclerctank. Some weaponry, like the E-2 Hawkeyeor the E-3 Sentrywas bought from the United States. Despite withdrawing from the Eurofighterproject, France is actively investing in European joint projects such as the Eurocopter Tiger, multipurpose frigates, the UCAVdemonstrator nEUROnand the Airbus A400M. France is a major arms seller as most of its arsenal's designs are available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear powered devices. Some of the French designed equipments are specifically designed for exports like the Franco-Spanish Scorpène class submarines. Some French equipments have been largely modified to fit allied countries' requirements like the Formidable class frigates (based on the La Fayette class) or the Hashmat class submarines (based on the Agosta class submarines).
* Although it includes very competent anti-terrorist units such as the
GIGNor the EPIGN the gendarmerie is a military police force which serves for the most part as a rural and general purpose police force. Since its creation the GIGN has taken part in roughly one thousand operations and freed over five-hundred hostages; the Air France Flight 8969's hijacking brought them to the world's attention.
* French intelligence can be divided into two major units: the DGSE (the external agency) and the DCRI (domestic agency). The latter being part of the police while the former is associated to the army. The DGSE is notorious for the
Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, but it is also known for revealing the most extensive technological spy network uncovered in Europe and the United States to date through the mole Vladimir Vetrov.
* The French “"
Force de frappe"” relies on a complete independence. The current French nuclear force consists of four submarines equipped with M45 ballistic missiles. The current "Triomphant" class is currently under deployment to replace the former "Redoutable" class. The M51 will replace the M45 in the future and expand the "Triomphant"s firing range. Aside of the submarines the French dissuasion force uses the Mirage 2000N; it is a variant of the Mirage 2000 and thus is designed to deliver nuclear strikes. Other nuclear devices like the Plateau d'Albion's Intercontinental ballistic missilesand the short range Hadès missiles have been disarmed. With 350 nuclear heads stockpiled France is the world's third largest nuclear power. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/summary.htm Comparison of recognised and alleged nuclear powers] .]
Marine Nationaleis regarded as one of the world's most powerful. The professional compendium "flottes de combats", in its 2006 edition, ranked it world's 6th biggest navy after the American, Russian, Chinese, British and Japanese navies. [cite web|url=http://www.meretmarine.com/article.cfm?id=958|title=La marine chinoise accède au rang de 3ème puissance mondiale] It is equipped with the world's only nuclear powered Aircraft Carrier, with the exception of the American navy. Recently Mistral class ships joined the Marine Nationale, the Mistral itself having taken part to operations in Lebanon. For the 2004 centennial of the Entente CordialePresident Chirac announced the Future French aircraft carrierwould be jointly designed with Great Britain. The French navy is equipped with the La Fayette class frigates, early examples of stealth ships, and several ships are expected to be retired in the next few years and replaced by more modern ships, examples of future surface ships are the Forbin and the Aquitaine class frigates. The attack submarines are also part of the Force Océanique Stratégiquealthough they do not carry the nuclear dissuasion, the current class is the Rubis Class and will be replaced in the future by the expected Suffren Class.
* The "Armée de Terre" employs 133,500 people. It is famous for the "Légion Etrangère" (French Foreign Legion) though the French special forces are not the Legion but the Dragons Parachutistes and the Marines Parachutistes. The French assault rifle is the FAMAS and future infantry combat system is the
Félin. France uses both tracked and wheeled vehicles to a significant points, examples of wheeled vehicles would be the Caesar or the AMX 10 RC. Although its main battle tank is the Leclercmany older AMX 30tanks are still operational. It uses the AMX 30 AuF1for artillery. Finally it is getting equipied with Eurocopter Tigers helicopters.
* The Armée de l'Air is the oldest and first professional air force worldwide. It still today retains a significant capacity. It uses mainly two aircraft fighters: the older Mirage F1 and the more recent Mirage 2000. The later model exists in a ground attack version called the Mirage2000D. The modern Rafale is in deployment in both the French air force and navy.
railwaynetwork of France, which stretches 31,840 kilometres (19,784 mi) is the most extensive in Western Europe. It is operated by the SNCF, and high-speed trains include the Thalys, the Eurostarand TGV, which travels at 320 km/h (200 mph) in commercial use. The Eurostar, along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle, connects with the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services and tramway services complementing busservices.
There is approximately 893,300 kilometres (555,070 mi) of serviceable roadway in France. The Paris region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium, Spain, Andorra, Monaco, Switzerland, Germany and Italy. There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, motorway usage is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as
Renault(27% of cars sold in France in 2003), Peugeot(20.1%) and Citroën(13.5%). [L'automobile magazine, hors-série 2003/2004 page 294] Over 70% of new cars sold in 2004 had dieselengines, far more than contained petrolor LPG engines. [cite web|url=http://www.ademe.fr/particuliers/Fiches/voiture/rub3.htm|title=www.ademe.fr/particuliers/Fiches/voiture/rub3.htm ] France possesses the world's tallest road bridge: the Millau Viaduct, and has built many important bridges such as the Pont de Normandie.
There are approximately 478 airports in France, including landing fields. The
Charles de Gaulle International Airportlocated in the vicinity of Parisis the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across the world. Air Franceis the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services. There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille, which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea. 14,932 kilometres (9,278 mi) of waterways traverse France including the Canal du Midiwhich connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean through the Garonneriver.
France is divided into 26 administrative regions. 22 are in
metropolitan France(21 are on the continental part of metropolitan France; one is the territorial collectivity of Corsica), and four are overseas regions. The regions are further subdivided into 100 departments which are numbered (mainly alphabetically). This number is used in postal codes and vehicle number plates amongst others. Four of these departments are found in the overseas regions and are simultaneously overseas regions and overseas departments and are an integral part of France (and the European Union) and thus enjoy a status similar to metropolitan departments. The 100 departments are subdivided into 341 arrondissements which are, in turn, subdivided into 4,032 cantons. These cantons are then divided into 36,680 communes, which are municipalities with an elected municipal council. There also exist 2,588 intercommunal entities grouping 33,414 of the 36,680 communes (i.e. 91.1% of all the communes). Three communes, Paris, Lyon and Marseille are also subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements.
The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities, meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive. Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until 1940, the arrondissements were also territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in 1946. Historically, the cantons were also territorial collectivities with their elected assemblies.
In addition to the 26 regions and 100 departments, the French Republic also has six overseas collectivities, one "
sui generis" collectivity ( New Caledonia), and one overseas territory. Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area. The Pacific territories continue to use the Pacific franc whose value is linked to that of the euro. In contrast, the four overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro.
France also maintains control over a number of small non-permanently inhabited islands in the
Indian Oceanand the Pacific Ocean: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Tromelin Island.
Overseas departments have the same political status as metropolitan departments.
French Guiana(since 1946)
A member of the
G8group of leading industrialised countries, it is ranked as the sixth largest economy by nominal GDP. France joined 11 other EU members to launch the euroon 1 January 1999, with euro coinsand banknotes completely replacing the French franc (₣) in early 2002.
France's economy combines extensive private enterprise (nearly 2.5 million companies registered) with substantial (though declining) government intervention (see
dirigisme). The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and telecommunications firms. It has been gradually relaxing its control over these sectors since the early 1990s. The government is slowly selling off holdings in France Télécom, Air France, as well as the insurance, banking, and defence industries. France has an important aerospace industry led by the European consortium Airbus, and has its own national spaceport, the" Centre Spatial Guyanais".
According to the OECD, in 2004 France was the world's fifth-largest exporter and the fourth-largest importer of manufactured goods. In 2003, France was the 2nd-largest recipient of
foreign direct investmentamong OECD countries at $47 billion, ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers to banks located in that country) but above the United States ($39.9 billion), the United Kingdom ($14.6 billion), Germany ($12.9 billion), or Japan ($6.3 billion). In the same year, French companies invested $57.3 billion outside of France, ranking France as the second most important outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States ($173.8 billion) , and ahead of the United Kingdom ($55.3 billion), Japan ($28.8 billion) and Germany ($2.6 billion).
France is also the most energy independent Western country due to heavy investment in
nuclear power( Nuclear power in France), which also makes France the smallest producer of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialized countries in the world. As a result of large investments in nuclear technology, most of the electricity produced in the country is generated by nuclear power plants (78.1% in 2006, [cite web |author=DGEMP / Observatoire de l'énergie|month=April | year=2007|url=http://www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie/statisti/se_elec.htm|title=Électricité en France: les principaux résultats en 2006.|accessdate=2007-05-23] up from only 8% in 1973, 24% in 1980, and 75% in 1990).
Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe. Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as an internationally recognised foodstuff and wine industry are primary French agricultural exports. EU agriculture subsidies to France total almost $14 billion.
Since the end of the Second World War the government made efforts to integrate more and more with
Germany, both economically and politically. Today the two countries form what is often referred to as the “core” countries in favour of greater integration of the European Union.
The French GDP per capita is a bit smaller than the GDP per capita of other comparable European countries such as Germany and United Kingdom, and is 30% below the US level. GDP per capita is determined by (i) productivity per hour worked, which in France is the highest of the
G8countries in 2005, according to the OECD,cite web |author="OECD in Figures" 2005, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|publisher= |year=2005 |url=http://ocde.p4.siteinternet.com/publications/doifiles/012005061G006.xls |title=Labour productivity 2003 |format= Microsoft Excel|accessdate=2006-04-20 ; in 2004, the GDP per hour worked in France was $47.7, ranking France above the United States ($46.3), Germany ($42.1), the United Kingdom ($39.6), or Japan ($32.5) (cite web |author= Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|publisher= |year=2005 |url=http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/30/40/29867116.xls |title=Differentials in GDP per capita and their decomposition, 2004 |format= Microsoft Excel|accessdate=2006-04-20).] (ii) the number of hours worked, which is one the lowest of developed countries, ["Objectif croissance 2008", OCDE, February 2008, page 67 ; graphic visible in the [http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/19/40212481.pdf Summary page 8] ; effective annual working duration in France is 1580 hours, compared to 1750 for developped countries] and (iii) the employment rate. France has one of the lowest 15-64 years employment rates of the OECD countries: in 2004, only 68.8% of the French population aged 15-64 years were in employment, compared to 80.0% in Japan, 78.9% in the UK, 77.2% in the US, and 71.0% in Germany.cite web |author= Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|publisher= |year=2005 |url=http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/36/30/35024561.pdf |title=OECD Employment Outlook 2005 - Statistical Annex |format=PDF format |accessdate=2006-06-29] This gap is due to the very low employment rates at both age extremes: the employment rate of people aged 55-64 was 38,3% in 2007, compared to 46,6% in the EU15; [cite web |author= INSEE|publisher= |year=2008 |url=http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=98&ref_id=CMPECF03159 |title=Taux d'emploi des travailleurs âgés de 55 à 64 ans |accessdate=2008-09-01 |language=French] for the 15-24 years old, the employment rate was 31,5% in 2007, compared to 37,2% in EU25. [cite web |author= INSEE|publisher= |year=2008 |url=http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=98&ref_id=CMPTEF03135 |title=Taux d'emploi des jeunes de 15 à 24 ans dans l'Union européenne |accessdate=2008-09-01 |language=French] These low employment rates are explained by the too high minimum wageswhich prevent low productivity workers – such as young people – to easily enter the labour market, [cite web |author= Philippe Aghion, Gilbert Cette, Élie Cohenand Jean Pisani-Ferry|publisher= Conseil d'analyse économique|year=2007 |url=http://www.cae.gouv.fr/rapports/dl/072.pdf |title=Les leviers de la croissance française |accessdate=2008-09-01 |language=French |pages=55|format=PDF] ineffective university curricula that fail to prepare students adequately for the labour market, and, concerning the older workers, restrictive legislations on work [diverses restrictions prevent seniors to work even if they want to, such as the legal age of retirement] and incentives for premature retirement. The unemployment rate has recently decreased from 9.0% in 2006 to 7.2% in 2008 but remains one of the highest in Europe. [cite web |author= INSEE|publisher= |year=2008 |url=http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=99&ref_id=CMRSOS03311 |title=Taux de chômage ; France métropolitaine |accessdate=2008-09-01 |language=French] [cite web |author= INSEE|publisher= |year=2008 |url=http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=98&ref_id=CMPTEF03309 |title=Chômage dans l'Union européenne |accessdate=2008-09-01 |language=French] Both the low employment rate (people at work are the more productive of the society) and the short working duration explain the artificially high productivity. [cite web |author=Gilbert Cette|publisher= |year=2004 |url=http://www.csls.ca/events/cea2004/cette.pdf |title=Is hourly labour productivity structurally higher in some major European countries than it is in the United States?|accessdate=2008-09-04 |pages=8|format=PDF]
Shorter working hours and the reluctance to reform the labour market are mentioned as weak spots of the French economy in the view of the right, when the left mentions the lack of government policies fostering social justice. Many liberal economistsWho|date=September 2008 have stressed repeatedly over the years that the main issue of the French economy is an issue of structural reforms, in order to increase the size of the working population in the overall population, reduce the taxes' level and the administrative burden. Keynesian economists have different answers to the unemployment issue, and their theories led to the
35-hour workweeklaw in the early 2000s, which turned out to be failure in reducing unemployment. Afterwards, between 2004 and 2008, the Government made some supply-oriented reforms to combat unemployment but met with fierce resistance, especially with the " contrat nouvelle embauche" and the " contrat première embauche" which both were eventually repealed. The current Government is experiencing the " Revenu de solidarité active".
With 81.9 million foreign tourists in 2007, France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world, ahead of
Spain(58.5 million in 2006) and the United States(51.1 million in 2006). This 81.9 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours in France, such as northern Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy during the Summer. France features cities of high cultural interest ( Parisbeing the foremost), beaches and seaside resorts, skiresorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). Aside of casual tourism France attracts a lot of religious pilgrims to Lourdes, a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département, that hosts a few million tourists a year. Popular tourist sites include: (according to a 2003 ranking [cite web|url=http://www2.culture.gouv.fr/deps/mini_chiff_03/fr/musee.htm|title=Musées et Monuments historiques] visitors per year): Eiffel Tower(6.2 million), Louvre Museum (5.7 million), Palace of Versailles(2.8 million), Musée d'Orsay(2.1 million), Arc de Triomphe(1.2 million), Centre Pompidou (1.2 million), Mont-Saint-Michel(1 million), Château de Chambord(711,000), Sainte-Chapelle(683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg(549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso(441,000), Carcassonne(362,000).
With an estimated population of 64.5 million people, France is the 19th most populous country in the world. France's largest cities are
Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Toulouse, Nice, and Nantes.
In 2003, France's natural population growth (excluding
immigration) was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union. In 2004, population growth was 0.68% and then in 2005 birth and fertility rates continued to increase. The natural increase of births over deaths rose to 299,800 in 2006. The lifetime fertility rate rose to 2.00 in 2007, from 1.92 in 2004. [http://www.insee.fr/en/ffc/pop_age4.htm]
In 2004, a total of 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from
Africaand 13,710 from Europe. [cite web|url=http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/countrydata/data.cfm|title=Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality|year=2004] In 2005, immigration level fell slightly to 135,890. [cite web|url=http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/France_Elections050307.pdf|title=Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential Elections|format=PDF] France is an ethnically diverse nation. According to the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies, it has an estimated 4.9 million foreign-born immigrants, of which 2 million have acquired French citizenship.cite web |author=INSEE |publisher= |url=http://www.insee.fr/fr/ffc/ipweb/ip1098/ip1098.html#encadre1 |title=Enquêtes annuelles de recensement 2004 et 2005 |date= 2005-01-25|accessdate=2006-12-14 fr icon] France is the leading asylum destination in Western Europe with an estimated 50,000 applications in 2005 (a 15% decrease from 2004).cite web |author= UNHCR|publisher= |year=2006 |url=http://www.unhcr.org/publ/PUBL/4492677f0.pdf |title=UNHCR Global Report 2005: Western Europe |accessdate=2006-12-14 |format=PDF] The European Unionallows free movement between the member states. While the UK(along with Ireland) did not impose restrictions, France put in place controls to curb #00ff00|francophone minorities
A perennial political issue concerns
rural depopulation. Over the period 1960-1999 fifteen rural "départements" experienced a decline in population. In the most extreme case, the population of Creusefell by 24%.
According to Article 2 of the Constitution, French is the sole official language of France since 1992. This makes France the only Western European nation (excluding microstates) to have only one officially recognised language. However, 77 regional languages are also spoken, in metropolitan France as well as in the overseas departments and territories. Until recently, the French government and state school system discouraged the use of any of these languages, but they are now taught to varying degrees at some schools. [cite web|url=http://www.anu.edu.au/NEC/Archive/Jeanjean_paper.pdf|title=Jeanjean, Henri. “Language Diversity in Europe: Can the EU Prevent the Genocide of French Linguistic Minorities?”|format=PDF] Other languages, such as Portuguese, Italian,
Maghrebi Arabicand several Berber languagesare spoken by immigrants.
bars=France is a
secularcountry as freedom of religion is a constitutional right, although some religious organisations such as Scientology, Children of God, the Unification Church, and the Order of the Solar Templeare considered cults. [cite web|url=http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/rap-enq/r2468.asp|title=Commission d’enquête sur les sectes] According to a January 2007 poll by the Catholic World News: [cite web |author=Catholic World News |publisher= |year=2003 |url=http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=48547 |title=France is no longer Catholic, survey shows |accessdate=2007-01-11] ro icon [http://www.cotidianul.ro/index.php?id=8749&art=22782&cHash=597202ac5o Franţa nu mai e o ţară catolică] , " Cotidianul" 2007-01-11] 51% identified as being Catholics, 31% identified as being agnostics or atheists. "(Another poll [La Vie, issue 3209, 2007-03-01 fr icon] gives atheists proportion equal to 27%)", 10% identified as being from other religions or being without opinion, 4% identified as Muslim, 3% identified as Protestant, 1% identified as Jewish.
According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,cite web|url=http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf|title=Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11|accessdate=2007-05-05|format=PDF] 34% of French citizens responded that “they believe there is a god”, whereas 27% answered that “they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force” and 33% that “they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force”. One other study gives 32% of people in France declaring themselves to be
atheists, and another 32% declaring themselves“sceptical about the existence of God but not an atheist”. [ [http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1131 Religious Views and Beliefs Vary Greatly by Country] , Financial Times/Harris Poll, December 2006]
The current Jewish community in France numbers around 600,000 according to the
World Jewish Congressand is the largest in Europe. Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. According to the 1999 French census returns, there were only 3.7 million people of “possible Muslim faith” in France (6.3% of the total population). In 2003, the French Ministry of the Interior estimated the total number of Muslims as 5-6 millions. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/apr/23/france.islam France to train imams in 'French Islam'] , The Guardian] [cite web|url=http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51552.htm|title=France - International Religious Freedom Report 2005] There are an estimated 200,000 to 1 million illegal immigrants in France.
The concept of "
laïcité" exists in France and because of this, since 1905, the French government is legally prohibited from recognising any "religion" (except for legacy statutes like those of military chaplains and Alsace-Moselle). Instead, it merely recognises "religious organisations", according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organisations should refrain from intervening in policy-making. Tensions occasionally erupt about alleged discrimination against minorities, especially against Muslims (see Islam in France).
healthcare systemwas ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organisationin 1997. [cite web|url=http://www.photius.com/rankings/healthranks.html|title=the ranking, see spreadsheet details for a whole analysis] It is almost entirely free for people affected by chronic diseases (Affections de longues durées) such as cancers, AIDSor Cystic Fibrosis. Average life expectancy at birth is 79.73 years.
As of 2003, there are approximately 120,000 inhabitants of France who are living with AIDS [http://www.indexmundi.com/france/hiv_aids_people_living_with_hiv_aids.html]
France, as all EU countries, is under an
EUdirective to reduce sewage discharge to sensitive areas. As of 2006, France is only 40% in compliance with this directive, placing it as one of the lowest achieving countries within the EU with regard to this wastewater treatmentstandard [http://epaedia.eea.europa.eu/page.php?pid=502] .
deathof Chantal Sébirerevived the debate over euthanasiain France. It was reported on March 21, 2008. [cite web|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/21/euthanasia.debate.ap/index.html|title=France searches its soul after euthanasia plea woman dies|publisher=CNN.com]
Cuisine of France
Cinema of France
Gardens of France
Music of France
Social structure of France
Education in France
Holidays in France
List of French people
There is, technically speaking, no architecture named "French Architecture", although that has not always been true.
Gothic Architecture's old name was "French Architecture" (or Opus Francigenum). The term “Gothic” appeared later as a stylistic insult and was widely adopted. Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedralsand basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica(used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens. The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. Aside from churches, Gothic Architecture had been used for many religious palaces, the most important one being the Palais des Papesin Avignon.
During the Middle Ages, fortified
castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers against their rivals. When King Philip II took Rouenfrom King John, for example, he demolished the ducal castle to build a bigger one. Fortified cities were also common, unfortunately most French castles did not survive the passage of time. This is why Richard the Lionheart's Château-Gaillardwas demolished, as well as the Château de Lusignan. Some important French castles that survived are Chinon, Château d'Angers, the massive Château de Vincennesand the so called Cathar castles.
Before the appearance of this architecture France had been using
Romanesque architecturelike most of Western Europe (with the exception of the Iberian Peninsula, which used Mooresque architecture). Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey (largely destroyed during the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars).
The end of the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. It was the time of the
French Renaissanceand several artists from Italy and Spain were invited to the French court; many residential palaces, Italian-inspired, were built, mainly in the Loire Valley. Such residential castles were the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d'Amboise. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque Architecturereplaced the gothic one. However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in the religious one. [Claude Lébedel - Les Splendeurs du Baroque en France: "Histoire et splendeurs du baroque en France" page 9: “Si en allant plus loin, on prononce les mots ‘art baroque en France’, on provoque alors le plus souvent une moue interrogative, parfois seulement étonnée, parfois franchement réprobatrice: Mais voyons, l'art baroque n'existe pas en France!”] In the secular domain the Palace of Versailleshas many baroque features. Jules Hardouin Mansartcan be said to be the most influential French architect of the baroque style, with his very famous baroque dome of Les Invalides. Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as the Place Stanislasin Nancy. On the military architectural side Vaubandesigned some of the most efficient fortresses of Europe and became a very influential military architect.
After the Revolution the Republicans favoured
Neoclassicismalthough neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Built during the French Empire the Arc de Triompheand Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent this trend the best.
Under Napoleon III a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth. If some very extravagant buildings such as the
neo-baroque Palais Garnierwere built, the urban planing of the time was very organised and rigorous. For example Baron Haussmannrebuilt Paris. These times also saw a strong Gothic-Revival trend across Europe, in France the associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In the late 19th century Gustave Eiffeldesigned many bridges (like the Garabit viaduct) and remains one of the most influential bridge designer of his time, although he is best remembered for the Eiffel Tower.
In the 20th century the Swiss Architect
Le Corbusierdesigned several buildings in France. More recently French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramidis a good example of modern architecture added to an older building. Certainly the most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. France's largest financial district is La Defense, where a significant number of skyscrapers are located. Other massive buildings that are a challenge to integrate into their environment are large bridges; a good example of the way this has been done is the Millau Viaduct. Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvelor Paul Andreu.
The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages when the area that is modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects and each writer used his own spelling and grammar. The author of many French mediaeval texts is unknown, for example
Tristan and Iseultand Lancelot and the Holy Grail. Much mediaeval French poetry and literature was inspired by the legends of the Matter of France, such as the The Song of Rolandand the various Chansons de geste. The “Roman de Renart”, written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloudetells the story of the mediaeval character Reynard('the Fox') and is another example of early French writing.
The names of some authors from this period are known, for example
Chrétien de Troyesand Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who wrote in Occitan.
An important 16th century writer was
François Rabelaiswho influenced modern French vocabulary and metaphor.
During the 17th century
Pierre Corneille, Jean Racineand Molière's plays, Blaise Pascaland René Descartes's moral and philosophical books deeply influenced the aristocracy leaving an important heritage for the authors of the following decades. Jean de La Fontainewas an important poet from this century.
French literature and poetry flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 18th century saw the works of writers, essayists and moralists such as
Voltaire, Denis Diderotand Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Charles Perraultwas a prolific writer of children's stories such as: “ Puss in Boots”, “ Cinderella”, “ Sleeping Beauty” and “ Bluebeard”.
The 19th century saw the writing of many French novels of world renown with
Victor Hugo( Les Misérables), Alexandre Dumas( The Three Musketeersand The Count of Monte-Cristo), and Jules Verne( Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) among the most well-known in France and beyond. Other 19th century fiction writers include Emile Zola, Guy de Maupassant, Théophile Gautierand Stendhal.
At the turn of the 19th century
symbolist poetrywas an important movement in French literature, with poets such as Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaineand Stéphane Mallarmé.
Important writers of the 20th century include
Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre. Antoine de Saint Exupérywrote "Little Prince" which has remained popular for decades with children and adults around the world.
Prix Goncourtis a French literary prize first awarded in 1903.
Popular sports include football, both codes of
rugby footballand in certain regions basketballand handball. France has hosted events such as the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, and hosted the 2007 Rugby Union World Cup. Stade de Francein Parisis the largest stadium in France and was the venue for the 1998 FIFA World Cup final, and hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup final in October 2007. France also hosts the annual Tour de France, the most famous road bicycle racein the world. France is also famous for its 24 Hours of Le Manssports car endurance race held in the Sarthedepartment. Several major tennistournaments take place in France, including the Paris Mastersand the French Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments.
France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron
Pierre de Coubertin, who suggested the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century. After Athenswas awarded the first Games, in reference to the Greek origins of the ancient Olympics, Parishosted the second Games in 1900. Pariswas also the first home of the International Olympic Committee, before it moved to Lausanne. Since that 1900 Games, France has hosted the Olympics on four further occasions: the 1924 Summer Olympics, again in Parisand three Winter Games (1924 in Chamonix, 1968 in Grenobleand 1992 in Albertville).
Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed “"Les Bleus"” in reference to the team’s shirt color as well as the national French tricolor flag. The football team is among the most successful in the world, particularly at the turn of the 21st century, with one
FIFA World Cupvictory in 1998, one FIFA World Cup second place in 2006, and two European Championships in 1984 and 2000. The top national football club competition is the Ligue 1. Rugby is also very popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. The national rugby team has competed at every Rugby World Cup, and takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship. Following from a strong domestic tournament the French rugby team has won sixteen Six Nations Championships, including eight grand slams; and have reached the semi-finals and final of the Rugby World Cup.
Marianne is a symbol of the French Republic. She is an allegorical figure of liberty and the Republic and first appeared at the time of the
French Revolution. The earliest representations of Marianne are of a woman wearing a Phrygian cap. The origins of the name Marianne are unknown, but Marie-Anne was a very common first name in the 18th century. Anti-revolutionaries of the time derisively called her La Gueuse (the Commoner). It is believed that revolutionaries from the South of France adopted the Phrygian cap as it symbolised liberty, having been worn by freed slaves in both Greece and Rome. Mediterranean seamen and convicts manning the galleys also wore a similar type of cap.
Under the Third Republic, statues, and especially busts, of Marianne began to proliferate, particularly in town halls. She was represented in several different manners, depending on whether the aim was to emphasise her revolutionary nature or her “
wisdom”. Over time, the Phrygian cap was felt to be too seditious, and was replaced by a diademor a crown. In recent times, famous French women have been used as the model for those busts. Recent ones include Sophie Marceau, and Laetitia Casta. She also features on everyday articles such as postage stampsand coins.
* Total GDP, 2005: 6th (out of 180) (World Bank data)
* Total value of
foreign trade(imports and exports) , 2002: 4th (out of 185)
Reporters Without Bordersworldwide press freedom index 2005: Rank 30 out of 167 countries
* [http://www.transparency.org/content/download/10825/92857/version/1/file/CPI_2006_presskit_eng.pdf Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006] - 18th of 163 countries
: "Main list:
List of basic France topics"
Notes and references
* [http://www.service-public.fr/etranger/english.html Official site of the French public service] - Contains many links to various administrations and institutions
* [http://www.frenchculturenow.com/ Frenchculturenow.com: French society, culture, politics news]
* [http://www.ambafrance-uk.org/ Official site of the French Embassy in the United Kingdom] Country profiles
* [http://www.britannica.com/tools/France France] , from the "
* [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html France] , from the
CIA World Factbook
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/998481.stm France] , from the
* [http://cocorico.com/ Cocorico! French culture]
* [http://www.french.uiuc.edu/cfc/ "Contemporary French Civilization"] , journal, University of Illinois.
title = Geographic locale
list =Template group
title = France in the European Union
list =Template group
title = International organisations
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title = Other associations
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