St. Andrews, New Brunswick

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Saint Andrews
nickname =
motto =



imagesize =
image_caption = St. Andrews skyline


image_

pushpin_

settlement_type = Town
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = Canada
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = New Brunswick
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Charlotte County
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = John Craig
leader_title1 = Deputy Mayor
leader_name1 = Edie Bishop
leader_title2 = Councillors
leader_name2 = David Welch, John Castell, Kevin Kiley, Michael Craig, Mary Myers
leader_title3 = CAO
leader_name3 = Tim Henderson
leader_title4 =
leader_name4 =
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1783
established_title2 = Incorporated Town
established_date2 = 1903
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 8.35
area_total_sq_mi =
area_land_km2 =
area_land_sq_mi =
area_water_km2 =
area_water_sq_mi =
area_water_percent =
area_urban_km2 =
area_urban_sq_mi =
area_metro_km2 =
area_metro_sq_mi =
population_as_of = 2006
population_footnotes =
From StatsCan
population_note =
population_total = 1798
population_metro =
population_urban =
population_density_km2 = 215.3
population_density_sq_mi =
timezone = Atlantic (AST)
utc_offset = -4
timezone_DST = ADT
utc_offset_DST = -3
latd= 45.07399
longd=-67.05209
elevation_m =
elevation_ft =
website = http://www.townofstandrews.ca/
postal_code_type =Canadian Postal code
postal_code = E5B
area_code = 506
blank_name = Telephone Exchange
blank_info = 529
blank1_name = NTS Map
blank1_info = 021G03
blank2_name = GNBC Code
blank2_info = DAEBC
footnotes =
:"For the parish in New Brunswick with the same name, see St. Andrews, New Brunswick (parish)."

St. Andrews (2001 pop.: 1,869), commonly referred to as St. Andrews-By-The-Sea, is a Canadian town in Charlotte County, New Brunswick.

Geography

St. Andrews is located at the southern tip of a triangular-shaped peninsula (15 km on the west side, 12 km on the east side) extending into Passamaquoddy Bay at the western edge of Charlotte County. It is the shire town of the county.

The town's street grid is oriented toward the waterfront, which faces St. Andrews Harbour and the Western Channel, which is formed by Navy Island. St. Andrews Harbour is situated at the mouth of the St. Croix River and the town sits on the river's east bank at its discharge point into the bay.

The town is directly opposite the community of Robbinston, Maine, 2 kilometres to the west across the river mouth.

In addition to Navy Island, Minister's Island is another island in Passamaquoddy Bay that is adjacent to the town on its eastern boundary.

Despite its proximity to the International Boundary with the United States, the nearest border crossings are 30 km away at St. Stephen or via a ferry service at Deer Island.

History

St. Andrews was founded in 1783 by United Empire Loyalists and named in honour of St Andrews, Scotland. The town is well preserved, with many original buildings still in place (some of which were floated to the town on barges from Castine, Maine at the end of the Revolutionary War). There are many layers of history visible starting from the late 1700s, including the town's well-known formal grid street layout and many historic buildings. Many of the commercial buildings on Water Street date from the 1800s. The Algonquin, a resort situated on a hill overlooking the town, was built in 1889, making St. Andrews Canada's first seaside resort community. The hotel burned down in 1914 and was rebuilt one year later.

Attractions

Important attractions include The Fairmont Algonquin Hotel, Kingsbrae Horticultural Garden, The Ross Memorial Museum, the St. Andrews Biological Station, the Huntsman Marine Aquarium, The Sheriff Andrews' House, Minister's Island (the summer home of Cornelius Van Horne), whale watching, fine art and craft galleries, many shops, restaurants and small inns and the charming seaside setting.

St. Andrews is the birthplace of Thomas Storrow Brown, a businessman, journalist, and an officer of the 1837 Rebellion and Victorian artist Edward Mitchell Bannister. The town was, and continues to be a home to noted summer citizens, including steel magnate Sir James Dunn, Fathers of Confederation Samuel Leonard Tilley and Charles Tupper, and William Cornelius Van Horne, General Manager and later, President of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Minister's Island

Minister's Island is named after a loyalist Anglican priest, Rev. Samuel Andrews, who settled the island in 1786. But it is most famous as the summer home of Sir William Van Horne, builder of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The island is about a five-minute drive from downtown St. Andrews. At low tide you can walk, bike or drive across Bar Road (along the ocean floor) to the island, and during high tide a boat will ferry you the short distance to the gate where guides will take you to key locations by golf cart or van. There are guided tours available May through October, which allow you to see the stone house where Rev. Andrews and his family lived, and also Covenhoven (the summer cottage of Sir William Cornelius Van Horne), one of the largest livestock barns in North America, and the old windmill that used to power the island. Hikers, photographers, birdwatchers and others are free to explore the many trails on the Island.

Huntsman Aquarium

The aquarium has various exhibits, including a touch pool with sea urchins, seastars, and sea anemones. There is also a pair of harbour seals, Buddy and Chelsea, and usually one pup each year. The seals are fed at 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. each day.

Charlotte County Courthouse and Gaol

St. Andrews is the shire town of Charlotte County and hosts the Charlotte County Courthouse, built in 1840 and designed by architect Thomas Berry. The court house is a National Historic Site and one of the longest operating courthouses in Canada, as it continues to be used for the Court of Queen's Bench of New Brunswick. It is a beautiful example of Gothic Revival architecture and is available for touring through the Charlotte County Gaol (pronounced "jail"), situated next to the courthouse. The Gaol was built of large blocks of local granite in 1832 and continued to be used as such until 1979, despite its archaic construction. It currently is home to the Charlotte County Archives, which boasts a large collection of historical papers, photographs, microfilms of newspapers and selected collections, and research materials for local historians and genealogists alike. The Gaol is purportedly haunted by the ghost of an innocent man hanged for murder in 1879, and was the site of one of Canada's last hangings in 1942.

Ross Memorial Museum

The Ross Memorial Museum displays a large collection of furnishings collected by the Ross family, and donated, along with the building itself and the Ross Memorial Library next door. A large part of the Ross� collection is displayed, along with information on what the various rooms would have been used for, specific to the time to which the furniture dates.

heriff Andrews House

The Sheriff Andrews House was built by Elisha Shelton Andrews, sheriff for Charlotte County, in 1820. It is now a public museum, with rooms displaying furniture from the 1820s, and costumed guides giving tours and telling stories about family life at the time. There is also an example of open-hearth cooking and, if booked in advance, families can spend a few hours preparing a lunch in the style of the 1820s, churning their own butter and cooking over an open hearth with the help of the guides.

Atlantic Salmon Interpretive Centre

The Atlantic Salmon Interpretive Centre, at the international headquarters of the Atlantic Salmon Federation, has an underwater viewing room to see large Atlantic salmon, and displays on the biology, research, issues affecting the species, angling heritage and art of the Atlantic salmon. There is a Hall of Fame highlighting individuals that have been at the forefront of wild Atlantic salmon conservation. Open from 9 am until 5 pm each day, mid-May until late September. Phone 506-529-1384, or visit http://www.asf.ca for more information.

t. Andrews Blockhouse

The blockhouse was built as a coastal defense structure in the War of 1812 between the United States and the British Empire, but never saw action. Twelve similar structures were built, and only the St. Andrews blockhouse still stands. It was repaired in the 1990s following a fire. Guided tours are conducted during tourist season.

Kingsbrae Garden

Kingsbrae Garden has over 50,000 different plants on display. There are edible gardens, a cedar maze, an ornamental grass garden, rose garden, gravel garden, a virgin Acadian forest trail, streams, a genuine Dutch windmill (1/3 scale), and even a garden called the �Scents and Sensitivity Garden�; built with advice from the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, and designed for the visually impaired, with all plants chosen because they have an interesting smell or texture, and all with names for the plants labelled in English, Latin, and Braille. There are goats, peacocks, ducks, sculptures and a Children's Fantasy Garden where there are free children's activities at 1:30 every day in July and August. Also at 10:30 every morning there's a Live Ladybug Release. Treasure Hunts, croquet and bocce ball are other free activities available daily throughout the season, 9 to 6, mid-May to mid-October, for Garden visitors and members. The Garden Caf�, Gift Shop & Art Gallery add to the enjoyment of this magnificent 27 acre public garden, and the Kingsbrae Plant Centre offers unusual and hard-to-find perennials, shrubs and trees. Kingsbrae Horticultural Garden is located just a few blocks up the hill from the St Andrews Water Street business district and wharf; also just steps from the historic Fairmont Algonquin hotel. In April 2006 Kingsbrae announced it would be the first public garden in Canada to display the rare Australian Wollemi Pine, discovered in 1994 though thought to have been extinct for two million years ("CanWest News Service").

unbury Shores Arts & Nature Centre

Sunbury Shores Arts and Nature Centre is a not-for-profit, membership-based organization situated on the shores of Passamaquoddy Bay in the resort town of St. Andrews by-the-Sea in south-western New Brunswick. St. Andrews is a community renowned for its natural beauty, historic past, distinctive architecture, and its vibrant visual and performing arts community. Since being established in 1964, the Centre has played a key role in the development of a strong arts community in St. Andrews through the execution of our unique mandate - to explore the connections between art and nature. Our courses and workshops use the rich natural environment of this Region as a source of artistic inspiration and nature exploration and our instructors - professional artists, artisans, crafts people and naturalists - are well known both in their fields of expertise and as educators. We offer 5 day courses, weekend and 1/2 day courses, day excursions and programs for children, particularly in summer. The Centre contains artists studios, printmaking shop, pottery studio, exhibition gallery, reference library and administrative offices and is open year round. We also own and maintain Two Meadows Nature Trail, a self guided hiking trail in a nearby wilderness area.

Farmers' Market

On every Thursday morning during the summer months, there is a local Farmers' Market in the town square. Indian food, Middle Eastern food, Mexican food, fresh organic produce and meat, plants, herbal soap, teddy bears, crepes filled with all kinds of fruit and melted chocolate, and homemade chocolate fudge are amongst the items for sale. There is usually music, played on guitar by one of the local highschoolers, or fiddle music (there are several different violinists who come on different days), or hammered dulcimer played by Ruth Dunfield, who also plays guitar and lives in St. Andrews.

Fine art & craft galleries

St Andrews features the studios and galleries of many fine artists and craftspeople. Visitors will find original works in landscape and floral painting, sculptor, carving, textile art, fine pottery, wearable art, photography, jewelry and much more.

Murals

St Andrews features many outdoor murals which can be viewed year round. The St. Andrews Water Tower Mural measures 30' x 150' and includes images of Market Wharf and Kingsbrae Garden. The Drug Store Mural measures convert|960|sqft|m2 and is located on the side of Cockburn's Drugstore. It features images of Water Street and Kingsbrae Garden. The Hardware Store Mural is located on the side of St. Andrews Hardware. It is a convert|1200|sqft|m2|sing=on mural featuring an image of St. Andrews as it appeared in 1907.

Media

A local community channel, CHCT, serves the St. Andrews and Charlotte County area. The station launched in 1993 on cable television, and began broadcasting over the air in 2006.

External links

* [http://www.townofstandrews.ca/ Town of St. Andrews Website]
* [http://www.standrewsnb.ca/ Visit St. Andrews By-the-Sea]
* [http://www.ministersisland.org/ Minister's Island, The Official Site]
* [http://www.pendleburypress.ca/ "Minister's Island: Sir William Van Horne's Summer Home in St. Andrews"]
* [http://www.huntsmanmarine.ca/ Huntsman Marine Science Centre]
* [http://www.http://www.rossmemorialmuseum.ca/ The Ross Memorial Museum]
* [http://www.gnb.ca/0007/Heritage/Sheriffandrews.asp/ The Sheriff Andrews House]
* [http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nb/standrews/index_e.asp/ The St. Andrews Blockhouse]
* [http://www.kingsbraegarden.com/ Kingsbrae Garden] A magnificent 27 acre national award winning public garden, in scenic St Andrews by-the-Sea, New Brunswick.
* [http://www.fundybayrealestate.com/MovingToCanada/ Moving To Tropical Canada] An article about the experience of St. Andrews by Mary Colburn-Green

Further reading

* "The Diverting History of a Loyalist Town: A Portrait of St. Andrews" by Grace Helen Mowat, 1923.
* "No Hay Fever and a Railroad" by Willa Walker, 1989.
* Joshua M. Smith, "Borderland Smuggling: Patriots, Loyalists and Illicit Trade in the Northeast, 1783-1820" Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 2006.
*David Sullivan, "The Algonquin: On Passamaquoddy Bay", Pendlebury Press, 2005.'
*David Sullivan, "Minister's Island: Sir William Van Horne's Summer Home in St. Andrews", Pendlebury Press, 2007.'


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