List of national border changes since World War I
List of national border changes since World War I refers to changes in
borders between nationsduring or since 1914. For information on border changes from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to 1914, see List of national border changes from 1815 to 1914. This is a list of significant boundary changes with countries. This refers to where there have been changes in borders only, not necessarily including changes in ownership of a territory. For instance many European colonies in Africa became independent without any adjustment to their borders, although some did have many changes.
* 1919 - The
Treaty of Versaillesdivides Germany's African colonies into mandates of the victors (which largely become new colonies of the victors). Most of Cameroon becomes a French mandate with a small portion taken by the British and some territory incorporated into France's previously existing colonies; Togois mostly taken by the British, though the French gain a slim portion; German East Africa( Tanzania) becomes a British mandate; and German Southwest Africa( Namibia) becomes a mandate of South Africa. In September, France settles its African colonial borders with Italian Libya. On September 8, following the signing of the Anglo-French Convention of September 8, 1919, the borders of Italian Libyaand French Chadare settled to the present-day boundaries. [http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS010.pdf] A few days later, the borders of western and southwestern Libya are extended to their current boundaries after French concessions with the Franco-Italian Arrangement of 12 September 1919. [http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS001.pdf]
* 1923 - the city of
Tangierbecomes an International Free Zone after France and Spain end their control over parts of the city.
* 1925 - The eastern borders of Libya and British Egypt are changed to their present boundaries, with the exception of parts of present-day southern Libya still remaining part of British
* 1931 - France moves the control of the area of the present day
Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Prefecturefrom the territory of Nigerin French West Africato Chad in French Equatorial Africa. [http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS003.pdf] Prior to this the territory of the modern-day state of Chad was split in half between French West Africa and Equatorial Africa. [http://www.amren.com/9812issue/africa.gif]
* 1934 - The borders of Libya are changed to their present-day boundaries after the Italo-British-Egyptian Agreement, British Sudan cedes northern territory to Libya. [http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS010.pdf]
* 1936 - After the success of Italy during the
Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Ethiopiais annexed by Italy. Ethiopia joins with Eritreaand Italian Somalilandto form Italian East Africa. The international community does not accept Italy's occupation of Ethiopia and maintains relations with exiled Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie.
* World War II - With the outbreak of World War II, war arrives in Africa in 1940, with Italy joining the war, initially British forces in
British Somalilandare defeated by the Italians coming from Italian East Africa and the territory is taken. However by 1941, the British retake lost territory and take over Italian East Africa. In North Africa, after a period of retreat into Libya, Italian forces receive vital aide from the German army and the Germans move deep into Egypt by 1942, before beginning to lose ground. By 1943, The German and Italian forces retreat from Libya and capture Tunisiafrom France prior to fleeing to Sicily. After the war, Ethiopia was granted Eritrea.
* 1953 August 1 -
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasalandestablished from the former British protectorates of Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland.
* 1956 March 2
French Morocco, the International Zoneof Tangier, and most of Spanish Moroccojoin to become the independent nation of Morocco; December 13 - British Togolandjoins with the Gold Coast before becoming the independent nation of Ghanain 1957.
* 1958 - French West Africa splits into
Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan(now Mali), French Guinea(now Guinea), Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey(now Benin)
* 1960 July 1 - State of Somaliland (formerly
British Somaliland) joins with Italian Somalilandto form Somalia. French Equatorial Africa's interim successor, the Union of Central African Republics dissolves in August with independence of Chad(August 11), Oubangui-Chari(now Central African Republic) (August 13), Congo-Brazzaville(now Republic of Congo) (August 15), and Gabon(August 17).
* 1961 May 31 - the northern two-thirds of British
Cameroonsjoins Nigeria; October 1 - the southern third of British Cameroons joins with the Republic of Cameroon to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. This year also the tiny Portuguese outpost of São João Baptista de Ajudáwas annexed by Dahomey(now Benin)
* 1962 July 1 - The Belgian colony of
Ruanda-Urundiseparated into Rwandaand Burundi.
* 1963 31 December -
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasalandsplit into Rhodesia, Zambiaand Malawi
Tanganyikaunites with the island of Zanzibarto form Tanzania.
* 1967 May 30 - The break-away state of
Biafrais formed from southern Nigeria. Officially Biafra receives "de jure" acknowledgement of existence by only a few nations, but has the "de facto" support of France, Israel, Portugal, and South Africa which provide arms to the state in its war of independence against Nigeria.
* 1969 January 4 - Spain returns
* 1970 January 15 - Biafra is occupied and annexed by Nigeria.
* 1975 December
Spanish Saharadivided between Moroccoand Mauritania(although Spain's formal mandate did not end until February 26, 1976)
* 1977 South African Government reimposed direct rule on
Mauritaniawithdraws from southern Western Sahara, which is taken over by Morocco
* 1991 May 18 -
Somalilanddeclares independence from Somaliabut is not recognized by any other country.
* 1993 May 24 -
Eritreabreaks off from Ethiopia.
* 1994 28 February -
Walvis Bayformally transferred by South Africato Namibia.
* 1921 - The Soviet satellite state of
Tannu Tuvais formed after Bolshevikrevolutionaries take the region by force from Mongolia
* 1932 February 18 - Japan declares
Manchukuoindependent of China
* 1936 May 12 - Japan declares
Mengjiangindependent of China
* 1938 - The British split
Burmaoff from the rest of India. The Republic of Hatay, a city state is formed when it separates from French-held Syria.
* 1939 - Hatay joins
* World War II - In the early stages of World War II in the Pacific, Japan made steady gains against the Allies. In 1940, with the collapse of France in Europe, the new Vichy regime allows Japan to annex French Indochina. After the attack on
Pearl Harbor, Japan proceeds to occupy Wake Island, the Philippines, British Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, northern New Guineaand a number of pacific islands. Also Japan begins attacks against British-held Burma and India, and creates a puppet regime in Burma. From 1943 to its defeat, Japan steadily loses territory in the Pacific to the Allies and in 1945, Japan surrenders, abolishing its remaining puppet regimes in Manchukuo and Menjiang, and abandoning its hold on Korea.
* 1944 -
USSRannexes Tannu Tuva
* 1946 April 1 -
Straits Settlements, Unfederated Malay Statesand Federated Malay Statesjoin to form the Malayan Union. (Although these could have been considered remaining part of British Malaya). Jordanbecomes independent after separating from the British Mandate of Palestine.
* 1947 August - The
Partition of Indiaas Indiaand Pakistanare given independence from Britain
* 1948 - The British Mandate of Palestine is dissolved,
Israelby sections of the mandate's territory while other sections are given to the Arab population to form a state of their own. However the creation of an Arab state within the former boundaries of the mandate is ended as the Arab-Israeli Warbreaks out between Israel and its Arab neighbouring nations immediately upon Israel's creation.
* 1949 - The Arab-Israeli War ends in an armistice, with Israel gaining sections of the undefined Arab territories of the former mandate, that were to be organized and founded as a state in 1948, with the war disrupting that. Egypt and Jordan also gain sections of the Arab territories, with Egypt gaining the
Gaza Stripand Jordan gaining the West Bank.
* 1950 - the People's Republic of China enters
Tibet, with a May 1951 treaty providing for PRC sovereignty. Chandannagaris taken over by India from French control.
* 1953 Following the
Korean War, the boundary between North Koreaand South Koreais the ceasefire line, which roughly follows the previous 38th parallel
* 1954 - Bands of Indian irregulars took over the Portuguese enclaves of
Dadra and Nagar Haveli. On June 13, the port of Mahébreaks away from French rule and joins India. French Indochinadissolves, and the nations of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnambecome independent states.
* 1960 -
Cyprusdeclares its independence from the United Kingdom. The Sovereign Base Areasof Akrotiri and Dhekeliaare established on the island of Cyprus by the United Kingdom
* 1961 December 19 -
Indiatakes over the Portuguese colony of Goa, Daman and Diu, which becomes a single Union Territoryof India. In 1987, Goais elevated to full statehood, with Daman and Diuremaining a Union Territory.
* 1962 August 16 - India officially absorbs the French enclaves of
* 1963 September 16 -
Singapore, British North Borneo(renamed Sabah), Sarawakand Malaya join to form Malaysia
* 1965 August 9 -
Singaporewithdraws from Malaysia
* 1967 June -
Egyptloses the Gaza Stripto Israel while Jordan loses the West Bankto Israel following the Six-Day War
* 1969 December 18, 1969 -
Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zonepartitioned between Kuwaitand Saudi Arabia
* 1975 May 16 -
Sikkimbecomes part of India
* 1976 July 2 - South Vietnam and the North Vietnam were officially unified as Vietnam
* 1990 May 22 - North Yemen unites with South Yemen. August 2 -
Kuwaitannexed by Iraq
* 1991 February 27 -
Kuwaitliberated from Iraq; Saudi-Iraqi neutral zoneis officially recognized as being disbanded, it was "de facto" disbanded since 1981.
* 1994 The
Palestinian National Authorityis created, resulting in Israel officially recognizing the borders between of the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Stripand the West Bank.
* 1997 1 July -
Hong Kongtransferred to People's Republic of Chinaby Britain as a special administrative region
* 1999 December 20 -
Macautransferred to People's Republic of China by Portugalas a special administrative region
* 1918 -
Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estoniadeclare their independence from the Russian Empire. Russia recognizes the independence of Finland, declared in 1917. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is formed.
* 1919–1920 - The
Austro-Hungarian Empireis formally dissolved by the Treaty of Saint-Germain signed September 10, 1919 and the Treaty of Trianonsigned June 4, 1920. Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakiaare formed. Territory of the former kingdom is additionally awarded to Italy, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. In 1919, Germany suffers substantial territorial losses in the Treaty of Versailles. Belgiumreceives Neutral Moresnetand 3 German cantons as compensation for extensive damage during World War I. These 3 cantons still form the German speaking community in Belgium: Eupen, Malmedy and Sankt Vith. Denmarkreceives Northern Schleswig from Germany (with local plebiscites concluding in 1920). Most of the Prussian provinces of Posen and of West Prussiawere returned to Poland. The east part of Upper Silesiaand the area of Soldau in East Prussiaare annexed to Poland as well. Danzig and Saarlandfall under the control of the League of Nations. The Memel territory comes under a temporary French administration.
* 1920 -
Greeceis promised most of eastern Thraceas well as Ionia(with the city of İzmir( Smyrna)) in the Treaty of Sèvres. The Free State of Fiumeis established as the result of an Italo-Yugoslav border dispute.
* 1922 - The Soviet Union is officially formed under the
Treaty on the Creation of the USSR. In December, the Irish Free Stateand United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelandare formed from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom maintains Treaty Ports at Berehaven, Cobh, and Lough Swillyas part a Sovereign Base Area.
* 1923 - The Treaty of Sèvres is superseded by the
Treaty of Lausanneunder which Greece loses its earlier territorial gains and the borders of modern Turkeyare established. Western Thraceis ceded by Bulgariato Greece(a decision earlier agreed upon in the 1919 Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine). On the Baltic sea, Lithuania annexes the Memel territory without plebiscite. Italian military forces take control of the Greek island of Corfu.
* 1924 - The Treaty of Rome is concluded on January 27, ending the existence of the Free State of Fiume and the Italo-Yugoslav border dispute. The treaty assigns Fiume (
Rijeka) to Italy and Sušakto Yugoslavia, with joint port administration. On March 16, Italy formally annexes Fiume.
* 1935 - Saar is annexed by
Nazi Germanyafter a plebiscite was held.
* 1938 - Austria is annexed by
Nazi Germanyin the Anschlusswith plebiscite but also with a pre-vote invasion. On April 25, the United Kingdom returns the Treaty Ports to Ireland as part of the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement. The Munich Agreementon September 29 permits Germany to also annex the Sudetenlandregion of Czechoslovakia.
* 1939 - The Memel territory is ceded to Nazi Germany by Lithuania under pressure from
Berlinon March 23. The rest of Czechoslovakia is taken over by Nazi Germany, a German protectorate called Bohemia and Moravia is formed on the remaining Czech land, while Slovak territory is split between a puppet state of Slovakiaand other land is given to Hungary. On August 23, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pactis signed. Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union invade Polandon September 1.
* World War II - Many boundary changes occurred during the Second World War as Germany and the Axis re-divided the areas under their control.
* 1945 - Following the war, the borders of Germany were moved west to the
Oder-Neisse line, while the approximate boundary of the Curzon Linewas used as the eastern border of Poland. In addition to incorporating the Kresyterritories, the Soviet Union also annexed the Baltic states, Carpathian Rutheniafrom Czechoslovakia, and Bessarabia, Hertza, and part of Bukovinafrom Romania. From Germany, the Soviet Union acquired the northeastern third of the former East Prussian exclave with the Klaipėda/Memel region becoming part of the Lithuanian SSRand the bulk of the territory forming the Kaliningrad Oblastof the Russian SFSR. Additionally, Finland ceded major portions of Kareliaand Sallato the Soviet Union as well as islands in the Gulf of Finland, the whole Petsamo, and a lease to use Porkkalaas a Soviet naval base for 50 years.
* 1947 - In the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947, Italy cedes the
Dodecaneseto Greeceand Goriška, Inner Carniola, most of Istria, Zadar, its Dalmatian islands (such as Krkand Lastovo), and Rijeka (Fiume) to the newly-established Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The status of Trieste, however, is still disputed between Italy and Yugoslavia and the Free Territory of Triesteis established.
* 1949 - May 23, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) is formed and shortly afterwards, the
German Democratic Republic(East Germany) is established on October 7.
* 1954 - The
Free Territory of Triesteis abolished and distributed between Yugoslavia and Italy
* 1956 - The Soviet Union returns
* 1955 July 27 -
Austrian State Treatycomes into force, established Austriafrom the four occupation zones of the Allied powers.
* 1957 - With plebiscite, Saar is incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (Previously bordered
Luxembourg, France and Germany).
* 1974 - After an attempted Greek Cypriot coup sponsored by the Greek military junta of that period, Turkey invades and occupies one-third of Cyprus.
* 1983 - The
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprusis declared but is not recognized by any country except Turkey.
* 1990 - East Germany reunites with West Germany on October 3.
Transnistriadeclares independence from the Moldavian SSRbut is not recognized by any country.
* 1991 - With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the USSR is split up into 15 independent states, including the European states of
Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuaniaand Ukraine. All the former Soviet republics' had their independence recognized by December 26. Slovenia(June 25), Croatia(June 25), and the Republic of Macedonia(September 8) all declare their independence from Yugoslavia.
* 1992 -
Bosnia and Herzegovinadeclares independence from Yugoslavia on March 1 and is formally recognized on April 6. The remaining rump of Yugoslavia becomes the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia(renamed Serbia and Montenegroin 2003).
* 1993 January 1 -
Czechoslovakiais dissolved into the Czech Republicand Slovakiain the "Velvet Divorce".
* 2006 June 8 - The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro is dissolved.
Montenegroand Serbiaeach become independent states.
* 2008 February 17 -
Kosovodeclares its independence from Serbia, and becomes a recognized separate state by a number of countries including the United States and western European states, Turkey, and Canada, though its independence is not recognized by Serbia, Russia, the People's Republic of China, Spain and other countries.
* 1927 April 1 - The
Imperial Privy Councilof the United Kingdom establish the boundaries of the Dominion of Newfoundlandand Canada, in particular, the province of Quebec, which transfers territories claimed by Quebec to Newfoundland. Previous maps showed the disputed territory as undefined.
* 1949 March 31 - The Dominion of Newfoundland joins with Canada. The territory is now called
Newfoundland and Labrador.
* 1938 A ceasefire signed between
Paraguayand Boliviaawards Paraguay three-quarters of the Chaco Boreal which it took over during the Chaco War(1932-35).
* 1941 - the
Rio Protocolrecognises Peru as having control of the territory it won in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian war
* 1999 -
Panama Canal Zonereturned from joint U.S.-Panamanian control to Panamaniancontrol (the actual change in borders could also be regarded as the 1979 change from US control to joint US-Panama control).
* 1949 July -
Territory of New Guineajoins with Papua (Australian territory)to form The Territory of Papua and New Guinea. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/3028825.stm]
* 1969 -
Western Papuabecomes part of Indonesiaunder 1969 Act of Free Choice.
* 1976 July 17 - After being relinquished by Portugal in 1974, and invaded by Indonesia in 1975,
East Timoris annexed by Indonesia
* 2002 May 20 -
East Timorattained independence from Indonesia
World maps showing borders
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