Puffing Billy (locomotive)
caption="Puffing Billy" as seen from the front
William Hedley, Jonathan Forsterand Timothy Hackworth
topspeed=5 mph (8 km/h)
Puffing Billy was an early
steam locomotive, constructed in 1813- 1814by engineer William Hedley, enginewright Jonathan Forsterand blacksmith Timothy Hackworthfor Christopher Blackett, the owner of WylamColliery near Newcastle upon Tyne. It is the world's oldest surviving steam locomotive.It was the first commercial adhesion steam locomotive, employed to haul coal chaldron wagons from the mine at Wylamto the docks at Lemington-on-Tyne in Northumberland. It was one of a number of similar engines built by Hedley, the resident engineer at Wylam Colliery. The engines remained in service for many years and were not retired until as late as 1862.
Puffing Billy incorporated a number of novel features, patented by Hedley, which were to prove important to the development of locomotives.
Pistonrods extended upwards to pivoting beams, connected in turn by rods to a crankshaftbeneath the frames, from which gears drove and also coupled the wheels allowing better traction.
The engine had a number of serious technical limitations. Relying on smooth wheels running on a flanged track, its eight-ton weight was too heavy for the rails and crushed them. This problem was alleviated by redesigning the engine with eight wheels so that the weight was spread more evenly. The engine was eventually rebuilt as a four-wheeler when improved edge rails track was introduced around
1830. It was not particularly fast, being capable of no more than 3 to 5 mph (5 to 8 km/h).
In 1862, Edward Blackett, the owner of Wylam Colliery, lent Puffing Billy to the Patent Office Museum in
South Kensington, London(later the Science Museum). He later sold it to the museum for £200. It is still on display there.
Puffing Billy was an important influence on
George Stephenson, who lived locally, and its success was a key factor in promoting the use of steam locomotives by other collieries in north-eastern England. It also entered the language as a metaphor for an energetic traveller, so that phrases like "puffing like Billy-o" and "running like Billy-o" became common.
A replica has been built and was first run in 2006 at
Its sister locomotive,
Wylam Dilly, is preserved in the Royal Museumin Edinburgh.
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RApuffing.htm Puffing Billy locomotive]
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