Pope Lucius III
English name=Lucius III
September 1, 1181
November 25, 1185
Pope Lucius III (1097–
November 25, 1185), born Ubaldo Allucingoli, was popefrom September 1, 1181to his death.
A native of the independent republic of
Lucca, he joined the Cistercianorder. He was named cardinal by Pope Innocent II(possibly as early as 1138 with the deaconry of San Adriano [This is according to Philippe Levillain, John W. O'Malley , The Papacy. An Encyclopedia, 2002, p. 960. However, the identity of Ubaldo, deacon of S. Adriano, who signed the papal bulls between March 6, 1139and May 13, 1141with Ubaldo Allucingoli, who as cardinal priest of S. Prassede subscribed for the first time on June 21, 1141, has not been ascertained (dates of subscribtions according to Jaffé Philipp, "Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII", Berlin 1851, p. 559). [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09412b.htm The Catholic Encyclopedia] indicates that he was created cardinal priest of S. Prassede on February 23, 1141] , certainly in 1141 with the " titulus" Santa Prassede). Pope Adrian IV(1154–1159) promoted him to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletriin December 1158. He was dean of the Sacred College of Cardinalsand one of the most influential cardinals under Pope Alexander III(1159–1181).
After being elected Pope, he lived at
Romefrom November 1181 to March 1182, but dissensions in the city compelled him to pass the remainder of his pontificate in exile, mainly at Velletri, Anagniand Verona.
He disputed with the Emperor Frederick I (1152–1190) the disposal of the territories of the late Countess
Matilda of Tuscany. The controversy over the succession to the inheritance of the Countess had been left unsettled by the peace of 1177, and the Emperor proposed in 1182 that the Curiashould renounce its claim, receiving in exchange two-tenths of the imperial income from Italy, one-tenth for the Pope and the other tenth for the cardinals. Lucius consented neither to this proposition nor to another compromise suggested by Frederick I the next year; nor did a personal discussion between the two potentates at Verona in October 1184, lead to any definite result.
Meantime other causes of disagreement appeared, in the Pope's refusal to comply with Frederick I's wishes as to the regulation of German episcopal elections which had taken place during the schism, and especially as to the contested election to the
see of Trevesin 1183.
In pursuance of his anti-imperial policy, he declined finally in 1185 to crown Henry VI (1190–1197) as Frederick I's destined successor, and the breach between the Empire and the Curia became wider on questions of Italian politics.
In November 1184 he held a synod at Verona which condemned the
Cathars, Paterines, Waldensiansand Arnoldists, and anathematized all those declared as hereticsand their abettors. In order to persecute them effectively, he formally started the Inquisition.
In 1185 preparations began for the
Third Crusadein answer to the appeals of Baldwin IV of Jerusalem(1174–1185). Before they were completed, Lucius died in Verona.
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