History of the Philippines (1898–1946)


History of the Philippines (1898–1946)

This article covers the history of the Philippines from 1898 to 1946. It spans the Spanish-American War which resulted in the United States acquiring sovereignty over the Philippines from Spain via the Treaty of Paris which ended that war, the Philippines as a U.S. territory and later as a U.S. Commonwealth, occupation of the Philippines by Japanese forces during the Second World War, to eventual recognition of Philippine independence by the U.S. in 1946.

Historical perspective

The Katipunan revolution which had begun in 1896 had substantially ended with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, a truce between the Spanish government and the principal revolutionary leaders which had been signed in November 1897. Emilio Aguinaldo, who held the office of President in the revolutionary government, and other revolutionary leaders were given amnesty and a monetary indemnity by the Spanish government in return for which the rebel government had agreed to go into voluntary exile in Hong Kong.harvnb|Aguinaldo|1899|Ref=Aguinaldo1899-1 Ch.1] harvnb|Aguinaldo|1899|Ref=Aguinaldo1899-2 Ch.2] harvnb|Kalaw|1927|pp= [http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=112 92-94] |Ref=Kalaw1927ch5 Ch.5]

panish-American war period (1898)

In April 1898, following on a joint congressional resolution, U.S. President William McKinley signed an ultimatum demanding that the government of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the Island of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters. This resulted on April 20 in a declaration of war against the United States by Spain, followed on April 25 by a declaration of war by the U.S. against Spain.

Admiral Dewey and the Asiatic Squadron

On February 25, 1898, following the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor on February 15, Theodore Roosevelt sent the following cable to Commodore George Dewey, commanding the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron:Cquote|Washington, February 25,’98.Dewey, Hong Kong::Order the squadron, except the Monocacy, to Hong Kong. Keep full of coal. In the event of declaration of war Spain, your duty will be to see that the Spanish squadron does not leave the Asiatic coast, and then offensive operations in Philippine Islands. Keep Olympia until further orders.ROOSEVELTHarvnb|Thayer|1919 Ch.VII]

The gunboat USS Monocacy was at the time on assignment to carry the U.S. Minister to China on visits to the open ports on the Yangtze River.

On April 24 word was received that the U.S. and Spain were at war, and the squadron was ordered by the British (a non-belligerent) to leave Hong Kong. It first moved 30 miles north to Mirs Bay on the Chinese coast and the departed from there for the Philippines on April 27, reaching Manila Bay on the evening of April 30.

Battle of Manila Bay

The first battle of the Spanish-American war took place in the Philippines. On May 1. In a matter of hours, Commadore Dewey's Asiatic Squadron defeated the Spanish squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón. [http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq84-1.htm Battle of Manila Bay, 1 May 1898] , Department of the Navy — Naval Historical Center. Retrieved on October 10, 2007] [ [http://www.wtj.com/archives/dewey2.htm The Battle of Manila Bay by Admiral George Dewey] , "The War Times Journal". Retrieved on October 10, 2007] The U.S. squadron took control of the arsenal and navy yard at Cavite and Dewey cabled Washington stating that, although he controlled Manila Bay, he needed 5000 men to seize Manila itself.

U.S. preparation for land operations and resumption of the Philippine revolution

The completeness of Dewey's victory, so early in the war, prompted the administration of President William McKinley to send the troops necessary to capture Manila from the Spanish. The U.S. Army sent substantially more than Dewey asked for, the 10,844 man VIII Corps (PE), under the command of Major General Wesley Merritt. [harvnb|Gillett|1898 Ch.8] Meanwhile, Dewey dispatched the cutter McCulloch to Hong Kong to transport Aguinaldo to the Philippines. Aguinaldo arrived on May 19 and, after a brief meeting with Dewey, resumed revolutionary activities against the Spanish.

Public jubilance marked the Aguinaldo's return. Several revolutionaries, as well as Filipino soldiers employed by the Spanish army, submitted themselves to Aguinaldo's command and the Philippine revolution against Spain resumed. Soon, Imus and Bacoor in Cavite, Parañaque and Las Piñas in Morong, Macabebe and San Fernando in Pampanga, as well as Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Tayabas (now Quezon), and the Camarines provinces, were liberated by the Filipinos and the port of Dalahican in Cavite was secured. The revolution was gaining ground.Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|Ref=Agoncillo1990ch11|pp=192-194]

On May 24, 1898, in the wake of his military victories, Aguinaldo announced that he was assuming "command of all the troops in the struggle for the attainment of our lofty aspirations, inaugurating a dictatorial government to be administered by decrees promulgated under my sole responsibility..." and issued a decree formally establishing a Dictatorial Government. This was done under the authority of the Biak-na-Bato republic and nullified the orders issued prior to the signing of the pact of Biak-na-Bato and asserted that the Dictatorial Government was temporary in nature, "so that, when peace shall have been reestablished and our legitimate aspiration for unrestricted liberty attained, it may be modified by the nation, in which rests the principle of authority." [Citation
url=http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/dictator.html
title=The Philippine Revolution: The Dictatorial Government of 1898
publisher=msc.edu.ph, citing harv|Agoncillo|1970
accessdate=2008-02-07
]

Philippine Declaration of independence and establishment of Philippine governments

On 12 June, 1898, at Aguinaldo's ancestral home in Cavite, Philippine independence was proclaimed and The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence was read. The act had been prepared and written by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista in Spanish, who also read it. The act opens with the following words:harvnb|Kalaw|1927|pp= [http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=433 413-417] |Ref=Kalaw1927appA Appendix A]

cquote|In the town of Cavite-Viejo, Province of Cavite, this 12th day of June 1898:

BEFORE ME, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, War Counsellor and Special Delegate designated to proclaim and solemnize this Declaration of Independence by the Dictatorial Government of the Philippines, pursuant to, and by virtue of, a Decree issued by the Engregious Dictator Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, ...

That same day, a decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, establishing the Dictatorial Government. [Citation
url=http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=PRR002000007&keyword=Aguinaldo,%20Emilio--Proclamations&searchKey=
title=Decreto del 18 de junio de 1898, constituyendo el Gobierno Dictatorial
publisher=filipiniana.net
author=Emilio Aguinaldo
date=June 18, 1898
accessdate=2008-02-08
(in Spanish)
]

Five days later, on June 23, another decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, replacing the Dictatorial Government with a Revolutionary Government. [Citation
url=http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=PRR002000009&keyword=Aguinaldo,%20Emilio--Proclamations&searchKey=
title=Decreto del 23 de junio de 1898, estableciendo el Gobierno Revolucionario
publisher=filipiniana.net
author=Emilio Aguinaldo
date=June 23, 1898
accessdate=2008-02-08
(in Spanish)
]

Did the U.S. promise independence?

There is disagreement between sources regarding meetings which Aguinaldo had with U.S. Consul E. Spencer Pratt.

Aguinaldo writes that he met in Hong Kong on March 6 and April 16 with the captain of an Asiatic Squadron gunboat named "USS Petrel" (this would be Commander Edward P. Wood, but Aguinaldo does not name him), and that Wood urged him to return to the Philippines to renew hostilities against the Spaniards with the object of gaining Philippine independence. According to Aguinaldo, Wood assured him of the assistance of the United States in the event of war between the United States and Spain and, when asked what the United States could concede to the Filipinos, replied: "The United States is a great and rich nation and needs no colonies." Aguinaldo writes further that when he suggested the advisability of stating in writing what would be agreed to by the United States, Wood replied that he would refer the matter to Admiral Dewey. Later, Aguinaldo writes, he traveled secretly to Singapore to meet with Isabelo Artacho, his countryman and fellow revolutionary, over a matter of money; arriving there on April 20. While he was staying anonymously at the house of Artacho, an Englishman several times visited the house asking for him by name and with the message that U.S. Consul Pratt would like to meet with him.harvnb|Aguinaldo|1899|Ref=Aguinaldo1899-3 Ch.3]

Dean Conant Worcester was a contemporary of Aguinaldo's, the only person to serve on both the First and Second Philippine Commissions, and Secretary of Interior of the Philippines from 1901 to 1913. In his 1914 book "The Philippines Past and Present", Worcester writes of the meetings between Aguinaldo and Pratt in Singapore. He identifies the Englishman as Howard W. Bray, who had been a member of the civil service in India and had lived for some years in the Philippines, and characterizes Bray as an opportunist — seeking to establish a relationship with Aguinaldo and use that relationship to his own advantage.harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch2|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=18 18] Ch.2]

The accounts by both Aguinaldo and Worcester agree that Aguinaldo met with Pratt. Aguinaldo provides details of the meetings, saying that after checking with Dewey by telegraph, Pratt had assured him: "That the United States would at least recognize the Independence of the Philippines under the protection of the United States Navy. The Consul added that there was no necessity for entering into a formal written agreement because the word of the Admiral and of the United States Consul were in fact equivalent to the most solemn pledge that their verbal promises and assurance would be fulfilled to the letter and were not to be classed with Spanish promises or Spanish ideas of a man’s word of honour."

Worcester does not have first-hand details about what did or did not transpire between Pratt and Aguinaldo, but adds the information that Aguinaldo knew little English, that Prat knew no Spanish, and that Bray acted as interpreter. Worcester observes: "An interpreter who is interested in the subject of the discussion may be a dangerous man. It is impossible to say what he told Aguinaldo. Certainly Pratt did not know; but whatever was said during these conversations it is within the limits of possibility that Pratt may have been made to say by the interpreter more than he intended, and that his statements of what would probably be granted by the United States Government and his expression of good wishes for the cause of Filipino independence may have been translated as assurances and as promises."

Worcester reports that on April 28 Pratt wrote the Secretary of State, explaining how he had come to meet Aguinaldo, and stating just what he had done, saying:

Worcester notes: "... that Pratt explained to Aguinaldo that he had no authority to speak for the government; that there was no mention in the cablegrams between Pratt and Dewey of independence or indeed of any conditions on which Aguinaldo was to coöperate, these details being left for future arrangement with Dewey; and that Pratt thought that he had prevented possible conflict of action and facilitated the work of occupying and administering the Philippines." and says that a subsequent communication written on July 28, 1898, Pratt made the following statement:--

Consul Pratt made the following report to the Secretary of State ofthe United States:Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch28|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=311 311] Ch.28]

Cquote|Consulate-General of the United States,Singapore, April 30, 1898.

Sir: Referring to my dispatch No. 212, of the 28th instant, I havethe honor to report that in the second and last interview I had withGen. Emilio Aguinaldo on the eve of his departure for Hongkong, Ienjoined upon him the necessity, under Commodore Dewey's direction,of exerting absolute control over his forces in the Philippines, as noexcesses on their part would be tolerated by the American Government,the President having declared that the present hostilities withSpain were to be carried on in strict accord with modern principlesof civilized warfare.

To this General Aguinaldo fully assented, assuring me that he intendedand was perfectly able, once on the field, to hold his followers,the insurgents, in check and lead them as our commander should direct.

The general further stated that he hoped the United States wouldassume protection of the Philippines for at least long enough toallow the inhabitants to establish a government of their own, in theorganization of which he would desire American advice and assistance.

These questions I told him I had no authority to discuss.

I have, etc.,

_E. Spencer Pratt_,United States Consul-General.

June 16th Secretary Day cabled Consul Pratt: "Avoid unauthorizednegotiations with the Philippine insurgents," and the Secretary wrotethe consul on the same day:

Cquote|The Department observes that you informed General Aguinaldo that you had no authority to speak for the United States; and, in the absence of the fuller report which you promise, it is assumed that you did not attempt to commit this Government to any alliance with the Philippine insurgents. To obtain the unconditional personal assistance of GeneralAguinaldo in the expedition to Manila was proper, if in so doing he was not induced to form hopes which it might not he practicable to gratify. This Government has known the Philippine insurgents only as discontented and rebellious subjects of Spain, and is not acquaintedwith their purposes. While their contest with that power has been a matter of public notoriety, they have neither asked nor received from this Government any recognition. The United States, in entering upon the occupation of the islands, as the result of its military operations in that quarter, will do so in the exercise of the rights which the state of war confers, and will expect from the inhabitants, without regard to their former attitude toward the Spanish Government, that obedience which will be lawfully due from them.

If, in the course of your conferences with General Aguinaldo, you acted upon the assumption that this Government would co-operate with him for the furtherance of any plan of his own, or that, in accepting his co-operation, it would consider itself pledged to recognize any political claims which he may put forward, your action was unauthorized and can not be approved.

Respectfully yours,

_William E. Day_.

Filipino scholar Maximo Kalaw wrote in 1927: "Just exactly what transpired at the meeting between Aguinaldo and Pratt has been a matter of debate. The Englishman Bray acted as interpreter. A few of the principal facts, however, seem quite clear. Aguinaldo was not made to understand that, in consideration of Filipino cooperation, the United States would extend its sovereignty over the Islands, and thus in place of the old Spanish master a new one would step in. The truth was that nobody at the time ever thought that the end of the war would result in the retention of the Philippines by the United States.", and continued in a footnote: "For Aguinaldo's version of this interview, see Reseña Verídica Revolucion Filipína, Chapter III; [4] "("cited here as"). It has been claimed, probably with some truth, that Aguinaldo's Reseña Verídica was not written by himself, but by some of his cabinet members, most likely Bunecamino. The principal facts, however, must have been furnished by Aguinaldo himself. It was written, it must be confessed, at the time (about September 1899) when the question of whether Dewey and Pratt had promised Aguinaldo independence, was being asked in America."harvnb|Kalaw|1927|pp= [http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=120 100-101] |Ref=Kalaw1927ch6 Ch.6]

Tensions between U.S. and revolutionary forces

This and some subsequent sections of this article extensively cite portions of Worcester's 1914 book which rely heavily on "insurgent documents" — documents of Aguignaldo's government which, after being captured by U.S. forces, were translated into English from the original Tagalog and Spanish and were compiled and annotated by U.S. Army Captain John R.M. Taylor. In his letter of transmittal for the compilation, Taylor wrote that the documents in the compilation Cquote| [...] were found among a mass of papers captured from the so-called insurgent government. I do not suppose that they are by any means all the telegrams received by Aguinaldo between June, 1898 and March, 1899. They are merely papers which have survived the vicissitudes of warfare and the series must necessarily be incomplete, but they show, tome at least, that Aguinaldo relied much on the opinion and advice of other men; that there was serious opposition to his government even in Luzon; that it had been fully determined to attack the Americans in Manila upon a favorable opportunity, and that in the event of the success of this attack the so-called insurgent government would not have continued even to call itself a republic. A republic does not award titles of nobility.Harvnb|Taylor|1907
Citation
url=http://www.filipiniana.net/about_prr.jsp
title=The Philippine Insurgent (Revolutionary) Records, 1896-1901, with associated Records of the United States War Department, 1900-1906
publisher=Vibal Publishing House
accessdate=2008-03-15
]

The first contingent of American troops under General Thomas Anderson, arrived on 30 June, the second under General Frank V. Greene on July 17, and the third under General Arthur MacArthur on July 30th.Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch10|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=95&fk_files=58428 95] ch.10] General Anderson wrote Aguinaldo requesting his cooperation in military operations against the Spanish forces.harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=57 57] Ch.3] Aguinaldo responded, thanking General Anderson for his amicable sentiments, but saying nothing about military cooperation; General Anderson did not renew the request. In a July 9, 1898 letter, General Anderson informed the Adjutant-General (AG) of the United States Army that Aguinaldo "has declared himself Dictator and President, and is trying to take Manila without our assistance.", opining that that would not be probable but, if done, would allow him to antagonize any U.S. attempt to establish a provisional government.Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=57 57] Ch.3] On July 21, in another letter, General Anderson said: "Since I wrote last, Aguinaldo has put in operation an elaborate system of military government, under his assumed authority as Dictator, and has prohibited any supplies being given us, except by his order." On July 18, General Anderson wrote that he suspected Aguinaldo to be secretly negotiating with the Spanish authorities.

On July 24, Aguinaldo wrote a letter to General Anderson in effect warning him not to disembark American troops in places conquered by the Filipinos from the Spaniards without first communicating in writing the places to be occupied and the object of the occupation. General Anderson made no reply, but wrote the AG on 21 July that he had ignored Aguinaldo's assumption of civil authority, and had let him know verbally that I could, and would, not recognize it.Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=60 60] Ch.3] Murat Halstead, official historian of the Philippine Expedition writes that General Merritt remarked shortly after his arrival on 25 June, "As General Aguinaldo did not visit me on my arrival, nor offer his services as a subordinate military leader, and as my instructions from the President fully contemplated the occupation of the islands by the American land forces, and stated that 'the powers of the military occupant are absolute and supreme and immediately operate upon the political condition of the inhabitants,' I did not consider it wise to hold any direct communication with the insurgent leader until I should be in possession of the city of Manila, especially as I would not until then be in a position to issue a proclamation and enforce my authority, in the event that his pretensions should clash with my designs."Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch10|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=97 97] Ch.10]

U.S. commanders suspected that Aguinaldo and his forces were informing the Spanish of American movements. Major J. R. M. Taylor later wrote, after translating and analyzing insurgent documents, "The officers of the United States Army who believed that the insurgents were informing the Spaniards of the American movements were right. Sastrón has printed a letter from Pío del Pilar, dated July 30, to the Spanish officer commanding at Santa Ana, in which Pilar said that Aguinaldo had told him that the Americans would attack the Spanish lines on August 2 and advised that the Spaniards should not give way, but hold their positions. Pilar added, however, that if the Spaniards should fall back on the walled city and surrender Santa Ana to himself, he would hold it with his own men. Aguinaldo's information was correct, and on August 2 eight American soldiers were killed or wounded by the Spanish fire."Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=63 63] Ch.3]

Peace protocol between the U.S. and Spain

On August 12, 1898, the New York Times reported that a peace protocol had been signed in Washington at 4:23 that afternoon between the U.S. and Spain, suspending hostilities and defining the terms on which peace negotiations are to be carried on between the two. Due to time zone differences, this was in the very early morning of 13 August in Manila. [Citation
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9903E5D9103CE433A25750C1A96E9C94699ED7CF&oref=slogin
title=WAR SUSPENDED, PEACE ASSURED; President Proclaims a Cessation of Hostilities.
publisher=The New York Times
date=August 12, 1898
accessdate=2008-02-06
] The text of the protocol was not made public until November 5, but Article 3 read: "The United States will occupy and hold the City, Bay, and Harbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace, which shall determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines."Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch15|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=177 177] Ch.15]

Capture of Manila

On the evening of August 12, on orders of General Merritt, General Anderson notified Aguinaldo to forbid the Insurgents under his command from entering Manila. On 13 August, unaware of the peace protocol signing, U.S. forces assaulted and captured the Spanish positions in Manila. Insurgents made an independent attack of their own, as planned, which promptly led to trouble with the Americans. At 8 A.M. Aguinaldo received a telegram from General Anderson sternly warning him not to let his troops enter Manila without the consent of the American commander on the south side of the Pasig River. No attention was paid to General Anderson's request that the Insurgent troops should not enter Manila without permission. They crowded forward with and after the American forces and found American and Spanish troops confronting each other but not firing. A flag of truce was waving from the Spanish, nevertheless the insurgents fired on the Spanish forces, provoking a return fire which killed and wounded American soldiers.Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=55 55] Ch.3] General Anderson's losses in the taking of the city was nineteen men killed and one hundred and three wounded.Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch10|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=105 105] Ch.10] General Merritt received news of the peace protocol on August 16, three days after the surrender of Manila.Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch10|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=108 108] Ch.10]

General Anderson, sent Aguinaldo a telegram, received by the latter at 6:35 P.M., as followsCquote|Dated Ermita Headquarters 2nd Division 13 to Gen. Aguinaldo. Commanding Filipino Forces.--Manila, taken. Serious trouble threatened between our forces. Try and prevent it. Your troops should not force themselves in the city until we have received the full surrender then we will negotiate with you.

_Anderson_, commanding.

Aguinaldo demanded joint occupation of Manila. On August 13 Admiral Dewey and General Merritt informed their superiors of this and asked how far they might proceed in enforcing obedience in the matter and were informed by a telegram dated August 17 that the Presidentof the United States had directed:

Cquote|That there must be no joint occupation with the Insurgents. The United States in the possession of Manila city, Manila bay and harbor must preserve the peace and protect persons and property within the territory occupied by their military and naval forces. The insurgents and all others must recognize the military occupation and authority of the United States and the cessation of hostilities proclaimed by the President. Use whatever means in your judgment are necessary tothis end.

Insurgent forces were looting the portions of the city which they occupied, and as is abundantly shown by their own records were not confining their attacks to Spaniards, but were assaulting theirown people and raiding the property of foreigners as well, and U.S. commanders pressed Aguinaldo to withdraw his forces from Manila. Negotiations proceeded slowly and, on August 31, General Elwell Otis (General Merritt being unavailable) wrote, in a long letter to Aguinaldo: "... I am compelled by my instructions to direct that your armed forces evacuate the entire city of Manila, including its suburbs and defences, and that I shall be obliged to take action with that end in view within a very short space of time should you decline to comply with my Government's demands; and I hereby serve notice on you that unless your troops are withdrawn beyond the line of the city's defences before Thursday, the 15th instant, I shall be obliged to resort to forcible action,and that my Government will hold you responsible for any unfortunate consequences which may ensue."Harvnb|Wrocester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=77 77] Ch.3] After some further negotiation and exchanges of letters Aguinaldo wrote on September 16: "On the evening of the 15th the armed insurgent organizations withdrew from the city and all of its suburbs, ..."Harvnb|Wrocester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=79 79] Ch.3]

In later congressional testimony in the U.S., Dewey described an arrangement he had made with the Spanish commander for the surrender of Manila: "That the Spaniards were ready to surrender, but before doing so I must engage one of the outlying forts. I selected one at Malate, away from the city. They said I must engage that and fire for a while, and then I was to make a signal by the international code, 'Do you surrender?' Then they were to hoist a white flag at a certain bastion; and I may say now that I was the first one to discover the white flag. We had 50 people looking for that white flag, but I happened to be the first one who saw it. I fired for a while, and then made the signal according to the programme. We could not see the white flag--it was rather a thick day--but finally I discovered it on the south bastion; I don't know how long it had been flying there when I first saw it."Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch3|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=65 65] Ch.3]

U.S. and insurgents clash

In a clash at Cavite between United States soldiers and insurgentson August 25, George Hudson, a member of the Utah regiment, waskilled, and Corporal William Anderson, of the same battery, wasmortally wounded. Four troopers of the Fourth Cavalry were slightlywounded. Aguinaldo expressed his regret and promised to punish theoffenders.Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch28|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=315 315] Ch.28] An Insurgent officer in Cavite at the time reported on his record of services that he: "took part in the movement against the Americans on the afternoon of the 24th of August, under the orders of the commander of the troops and the adjutant of the post."harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch4|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=83 83] Ch.4]

Philippine elections, Malolos Congress, Constitutional Government

Elections were held by the Revolutionary Government between June and September 10, resulting in Emilio Aguinaldo being seated as President in the seating of a legislature known as the Malolos Congress. In a session between September 15, 1898 and November 13, 1899, the Malolos Constitution was adopted, creating the First Philippine Republic.

panish-American war ends

On December 10, 1898, the U.S. and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris , formally ending the Spanish-American war. In Article III, Spain ceded the Philippine archipelago to the United States, as follows: "Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within the following line: [... geographic description elided ...] . The United States will pay to Spain the sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000) within three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty.Harvnb|Kalaw|1927|pp= [http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=450 430-445] |Ref=Kalaw1927appD Appendix D]

In the U.S., there was a movement for Philippine independence; some said that the U.S. had no right to a land where many of the people wanted self-government. Andrew Carnegie, an industrialist and steel magnate, offered to buy the Philippines for twenty million United States dollars and give it to the Filipinos so that they could be free of United States government. [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/timeline/timeline2.html Andrew Carnegie timeline of events at PBS.org] ]

U.S. military government

Following the capture of Manila on August 14, 1898, the U.S. established a military government in the Philippines under General Merritt as Military Governor. During military rule (1898-1901), the U.S. Military commander governed the Philippines under the authority of the U.S. President as Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Armed Forces. General Otis succeeded General Merritt as Military Governor, governing from 1898 to 1900. General Otis was succeeded by General MacArthur,who governed from 1900 to 1902.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|p=279 Ch.21]

Under the military government, an American-style school system was introduced, initially with soldiers as teachers; civil courts were organized, including a Supreme court;local governments were established in towns and provinces. The first local election was conducted by General Harold W. Lawton on May 7, 1899, in Baliwag, Bulacan.

First Philippine Commission

On January 20, 1899, President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission (the Schurman Commission), a five-person group headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell University, to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations. In the report that they issued to the president the following year, the commissioners acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it.Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch9|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=199 199] Ch.9] quote|On November 2, 1900, Dr. Schurman signed the following statement:—

"Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn, the commission believe that the government of the Philippines would speedily lapse into anarchy, which would excuse, if it did not necessitate, the intervention of other powers and the eventual division of the islands among them. Only through American occupation, therefore, is the idea of a free, self-governing, and united Philippine commonwealth at all conceivable. And the indispensable need from the Filipino point of view of maintaining American sovereignty over the archipelago is recognized by all intelligent Filipinos and even by those insurgents who desire an American protectorate. The latter, it is true, would take the revenues and leave us the responsibilities. Nevertheless, they recognize the indubitable fact that the Filipinos cannot stand alone. Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coincides with the dictates of national honour in forbidding our abandonment of the archipelago. We cannot from any point of view escape the responsibilities of government which our sovereignty entails; and the commission is strongly persuaded that the performance of our national duty will prove the greatest blessing to the peoples of the Philippine Islands."
[...]
Report Philippine Commission, Vol. I, p. 183.
Specific recommendations included the establishment of civilian government as rapidly as possible (the American chief executive in the islands at that time was the military governor), including establishment of a bicameral legislature, autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels, and a system of free public elementary schools.Harvnb|Seekins|1993|Ref=Seekins1993US-Rule]

Benevolent Assimilation

On December 21, 1898, announced in the Philippines on January 4, 1899. Referring to the Treaty of Paris, it said that as a result of the victories of American arms, the future control, disposition, and government of the Philippine Islands are ceded to the United States. It enjoined the military commander (General Otis) to make known to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands that in succeeding to the sovereignty of Spain. It said that the authority of the United States is to be exerted for the securing of the persons and property of the people of the islands and for the confirmation of all their private rights and relations. It will be the duty of the commander of the forces of occupation to announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come, not as invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to protect the natives in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights. [Citation
url=http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/benevolent.html
author=President William McKinley
title=McKinley's Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation
date=December 21, 1898
publisher=msc.edu.ph
accessdate=2008-02-10
] On January 6, 1899, General Otis was quoted in the New York Times as expressing himself as convinced that the U.S. government intends to seek the establishment of a liberal government, in which the people will be as fully represented as the maintenance of law and order will permit, susceptible of development, on lines of increased representation, and the bestowal of increased powers, into a government as free and independent as as is enjoyed by the most favored provinces in the world. [Citation
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D0DE6D81F3DE433A25755C0A9679C94689ED7CF&oref=slogin
title=PRESIDENT TO FILIPINOS; Order Expressing His Intentions Proclaimed to Them
date=January 6, 1899
publisher=The New York Times
accessdate=2008-02-10
]

Philippine-American War (1899–1913)

Tensions escalate

The Spanish had yielded Iloilo to the insurgents for the purpose of troubling the Americans. On January 1, news had come to Washington from Manila that American forces which had been sent to Iloilo were confronted by 6,000 armed Filipinos, who refused them permission to land.Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch28|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=316 316] ]

Felipe Agoncillo, who had been commissioned by the Philippine Revolutionary Government as Minister Plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties with foreign governments, and who had unsuccessfully sought to be seated at the negotiations between the U.S. and Spain in Paris, was now in Washington. On January 6, he filed a request for an interview with the President to discuss affairs in the Philippines. The next day the government officials were surprised to learn that messages to General Otis to deal mildly with the rebels and not to force a conflict had become known to Agoncillo, and cabled by him to Aguinaldo. At the same time came Aguinaldo's protest against General Otis signing himself "Military Governor of the Philippines."

On January 8, Agoncillo gave out this statement:

The Filipino committees in London, Paris and Madrid about this time telegraphed to President McKinley as follows:

The New York Times reported on January 8, that two Americans who had been guarding a waterboat in Iloilo had been attacked, one fatally, and that insurgents were threatening to destroy the business section of the city by fire; and on January 10 that a peaceful solution to the Iloilo issues may result but that Aguinaldo had issued a proclamation threatening to drive the Americans from the islands. [Citation
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F03E1DB153DE633A2575AC0A9679C94689ED7CF
title=BLOODSHED AT ILOILO; Two Americans Attacked and One Fatally Wounded by Natives.
date=January 8, 1899
publisher=The New York Times
accessdate=2008-02-10
] [Citation
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F05E7DF1730E132A25753C1A9679C94689ED7CF
title=THE PHILIPPINE CLIMAX; Peaceful Solution of the Iloilo Issue May Result To-day. AGUINALDO'S SECOND ADDRESS He Threatened to Drive the Americans from the Islands -- Manifesto Was Recalled
date=January 10, 1899
publisher=The New York Times
accessdate=2008-02-10
]

By January 10, insurgents were ready to assume the offensive, but desired, if possible, to provoke the Americans into firing the first shot. They made no secret of their desire for conflict, but increased their hostile demonstrations and pushed their lines forward into forbidden territory. Their attitude is well illustrated by the following extract from a telegram sent by Colonel Cailles to Aguinaldo on January 10, 1899:

Aguinaldo approved the hostile attitude of Cailles, for there is a reply in his handwriting which reads:Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch4|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=93 93] Ch.4]

Outbreak of general hostilities

Worcester writes that General Otis' account of the opening of active hostilities was as follows:

Quote|"On the night of February 2 they sent in a strong detachment to drawthe fire of our outposts, which took up a position immediately infront and within a few yards of the same. The outpost was strengthenedby a few of our men, who silently bore their taunts and abuse theentire night. This was reported to me by General MacArthur, whom Idirected to communicate with the officer in command of the insurgenttroops concerned. His prepared letter was shown me and approved,and the reply received was all that could be desired. However, theagreement was ignored by the insurgents and on the evening of February4 another demonstration was made on one of our small outposts, whichoccupied a retired position at least 150 yards within the line whichhad been mutually agreed upon, an insurgent approaching the picketand refusing to halt or answer when challenged. The result was thatour picket discharged his piece, when the insurgent troops near SantaMesa opened a spirited fire on our troops there stationed.

"The insurgents had thus succeeded in drawing the fire of a smalloutpost, which they had evidently labored with all their ingenuityto accomplish, in order to justify in some way their premeditatedattack. It is not believed that the chief insurgent leaders wished toopen hostilities at this time, as they were not completely prepared toassume the initiative. They desired two or three days more to perfecttheir arrangements, but the zeal of their army brought on the crisiswhich anticipated their premeditated action. They could not havedelayed long, however, for it was their object to force an issuebefore American troops, then en route, could arrive in Manila."

Thus began the Insurgent attack, so long and so carefully plannedfor. We learn from the Insurgent records that the shot of the Americansentry missed its mark. There was no reason why it should have provokeda hot return fire, but it did.

The result of the ensuing combat was not at all what the Insurgentshad anticipated. The Americans did not drive very well. It was but ashort time before they themselves were routed and driven from theirpositions.

Aguinaldo of course promptly advanced the claim that his troops hadbeen wantonly attacked. The plain fact is that the Insurgent patrol inquestion deliberately drew the fire of the American sentry, and thiswas just as much an act of war as was the firing of the shot. Whetherthe patrol was acting under proper orders from higher authority isnot definitely known.Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch4|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=96 96] Ch.4]

Other sources name the two specific U.S. soldiers involved in the first exchange of fire as Privates William Grayson and Orville Miller of the Nebraska Volunteers. [Harvnb|Blitz|2000|p=32, Harvnb|Blanchard|1996|p=130] [Citation
url=http://www.medalofhonor.com/PhilippineInsurrection.htm
title=Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902)
publisher=medalofhonor.com
accessdate=2008-02-10
]

War

On February 4, Aguinaldo issued the following proclamation:Harvnb|Halstead|1918|Ref=Halstead1898ch28|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=318 318] Ch.28]

Cquote|I order and command:

1. That peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken andthat the latter be treated as enemies, within the limits prescribedby the laws of war.

2. That the Americans captured be held as prisoners of war.

3. That this proclamation be communicated to the consuls and thatcongress order and accord a suspension of the constitutional guarantee,resulting from the declaration of war.

On June 2, 1899, the Malolos Congress of the First Philippine Republic enacted and ratified a Declaration of War on the United States, which was publicly proclaimed on that same day by Pedro Paterno, President of the Assembly.Harvnb|Kalaw|1927|pp= [http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=219 199-200] |Ref=Kalaw1927ch7 Ch.7]

As before when fighting the Spanish, the Filipino rebels did not do well in the field. Aguinaldo and his provisional government escaped the capture of Malolos on March 31, 1899 and were driven into northern Luzon. Peace feelers from members of Aguinaldo's cabinet failed in May when the American commander, General Ewell Otis, demanded an unconditional surrender. In 1901, Aguinaldo was captured and swore allegiance to the United States. A large American military force was used to occupy parts of the country, and would be regularly engaged in hostilities against Filipino rebels for another decade. The hostilities of the Philippine-American war began on February 4, 1899 and continued for two years. The United States used 126,000 soldiers to subdue the Philippines. The war took the lives of 4,234 Americans and about 16,000 Filipinos. As usually happens in guerrilla campaigns, the civilian population suffers the worst. As many as 200,000 civilians may have died from famine and disease.

econd Philippine Commission

The Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission), appointed by McKinley on March 16, 1900, and headed by William Howard Taft, was granted legislative as well as limited executive powers.Harvnb|Kalaw|1927|p= [http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer;cc=philamer;idno=afj2233.0001.001;frm=frameset;view=image;seq=473;page=root;size=s 453] |Ref=Kalaw1927appF Appendix F] On September 1, the Taft Commission began to exercise legislative functions.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|p=280 Ch.21] Between September 1900 and August 1902, it issued 499 laws, established a judicial system, including a Supreme Court, drew up a legal code to replace antiquated Spanish ordinances and organized a civil service.Citation
url=http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/chronphil.html
title=Chronology for the Philippine Islands and Guam in the Spanish-American War
publisher=U.S. Library of Congress
accessdate=2008-02-16
] The 1901 municipal code provided for popularly elected presidents, vice presidents, and councilors to serve on municipal boards. The municipal board members were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining municipal properties, and undertaking necessary construction projects; they also elected provincial governors.

Establishment of civil government

On March 2, 1901 the U.S. Congress passed the Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriation Act. this amendment provided legislative authority for the President to proceed with the establishment of a civil government in the Philippines. Up until this time, the President been administering the Philippines by virtue of his war powers. On July 1, 1901, civil government was inaugurated with William H. Taft as the Civil Governor. later, on February 3, 1903, the U.S. Congress changed the title of Civil Governor to Governor-General.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|p=281 Ch.21]

A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901, using English as the medium of instruction. This created a heavy shortage of teachers, and the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines 600 teachers from the U.S.A. — the so-called Thomasites. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President McKinley. [Citation
url=http://www.deped.gov.ph/about_deped/history.asp
title=Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System
publisher=RP Department of education
accessdate=2008-03-11
] Also, the Catholic Church was disestablished, and a considerable amount of church land was purchased and redistributed.

Official end to the war

The Philippine Organic Act of July 1902 approved, ratified, and confirmed McKinley's Executive Order establishing the Philippine Commission and stipulated that a legislature would be established composed of a lower house, the Philippine Assembly, which would be popularly elected, and an upper house consisting of the Philippine Commission. The act also provided for extending the United States Bill of Rights to Filipinos. [cite web
url=http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=T00000000006&page=1&epage=1
title=The Philippine Bill of July 1902
publisher=Filipiniana.net online digital library
date=July 1, 1902
accessdate=2008-01-07
]

On July 2, the Secretary of War telegraphed that the insurrection against the sovereign authority of the U.S. having come to an end, and provincial civil governments having been established, the office of Military governor was terminated. On July 4, Theodore Roosevelt, who had succeeded to the U.S. Presidency after the assassination of President McKinley on September 5, 1901 proclaimed a full and complete pardon and amnesty to all persons in the Philippine archipelago who had participated in the conflict.Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch9|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=180 180] Ch.9]

Post-1902 hostilities

Some Filipino nationalist historians like Renato Constantino have suggested that the war unofficially continued for nearly a decade, since bands of guerrillas, quasi-religious armed groups and other resistance groups continued to roam the countryside, still clashing with American Army or Philippine Constabulary patrols. American troops and the Philippine Constabulary continued hostilities against such resistance groups until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions to be part of the war. [Harvnb|Constantino|1975]

U.S. Territory (1901–1935)

The 1902 Philippine Organic Act had disestablished the Catholic Church as the state religion. The United States government, in an effort to resolve the status of the friars, negotiated with the Vatican. The church agreed to sell the friars' estates and promised gradual substitution of Filipino and other non-Spanish priests for the friars. It refused, however, to withdraw the religious orders from the islands immediately, partly to avoid offending Spain. In 1904 the administration bought for US$7.2 million the major part of the friars' holdings, amounting to some 166,000 hectares, of which one-half was in the vicinity of Manila. The land was eventually resold to Filipinos, some of them tenants but the majority of them estate owners.

Two years after completion and publication of a census, a general election was conducted for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly. An elected Philippine Assembly was convened in 1907 as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, with the Philippine Commission as the upper house.

Every year from 1907 the Philippine Assembly and later the Philippine Legislature passed resolutions expressing the Filipino desire for independence. During the First World War the Filipinos temporarily stopped their independence campaign and supported the United States against Germany. After the war they resumed their independence drive with great vigor.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|p=312 Ch.24]

In 1916, the Philippine Autonomy Act, popularly known as the Jones Law, was passed by the U.S. Congress. The law, which served as the new organic act (or constitution) for the Philippines, stated in its preamble that the eventual independence of the Philippines would be American policy, subject to the establishment of a stable government. The law maintained the Governor General of the Philippines, appointed by the President of the United States, but established a bicameral Philippine Legislature to replace the elected Philippine Assembly (lower house) and appointive Philippine Commission (upper house) previously in place. [ [http://www.chanrobles.com/joneslaw.htm Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 (Jones Law)] ]

On March 17, 1919, the Philippine Legislature passed a "Declaration of Purposes", which stated the inflexible desire of the Filipino people to be free and sovereign. A Commission of Independence was created to study ways and means of attaining liberation ideal. This commission recommended the sending of an independence mission to the United States.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|pp=312-313 Ch.24]

The "Declaration of Purposes" referred to the Jones Law as a veritable pact, or covenant, between the American and Filipino peoples whereby the United States promised to recognize the independence of the Philippines as soon as a stable government should be established. U.S. Governor-General of the Philippines Francis Burton Harrison had concurred in the report of the Philippine legislature as to a stable government. The Philippine legislature funded an independence mission to the U.S. in 1919. The mission departed Manila on February 28 and met in the U.S. with and presented their case to Secretary of War Newton D. Baker.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|p=313] U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, in his 1921 farewell message to Congress, certified that the Filipino people had performed the condition imposed on them as a prerequisite to independence, declaring that, this having been done, the duty of the U.S. is to grant Philippine independence.>Harvnb|Kalaw|1921|pp= [http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=0_62j7vjAqsC&pg=PA144&lpg=PA144&dq=%22declaration+of+purposes%22+philippines&source=web&ots=3w5oDX6A-C&sig=Hynyx0MLFuYtdtHg99th_tWnULw&hl=en#PPA144,M1 144-146] |Ref=Kalaw1921] The Republican Party then controlled Congress and the recommendation of the outgoing Democratic president was not heeded.

After the first independence mission, public funding of such missions was ruled illegal. Subsequent independence missions in 1922, 1923, 1930, 1931 1932, and two missions in 1933 were funded by voluntary contributions. Numerous independence bills were submitted to the U.S. Congress, which passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill on December 30, 1932. U.S. President Herbert Hoover vetoed the bill on on January 13, 1933. Congress overrode the veto on January 17, and the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act became U.S. law. The law promised Philippine independence after 10 years, but reserved several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports. The law also required the Philippine Senate to ratify the law. Quezon urged the Philippine Senate to reject the bill, which it did. Quezon himself led the twelfth independence mission to Washington to secure a better independence act. The result was the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 which was very similar to the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act except in minor details. The Tydings-McDuffie Act was ratified by the Philippine Senate. The law provided for the granting of Philippine independence by 1946.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|pp=314-315 Ch.24]

The Tydings-McDuffie Act provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution, for a 10-year "transitional period" as the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence. On May 5, 1934, the Philippines legislature passed an act setting the election ofconvention delegates. Governor General Frank Murphy designated July 10 as the election date, andthe convention heldits inaugural session on July 30. The completed draft constitution was approved by the convention on February 8, 1935, approved by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt on March 23, and ratified by popular vote on May 14. The first election under the constitution was held on September 17, and on November 15, 1935 the Commonwealth government was inaugurated.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|pp=315-319 Ch.24]

Commonwealth Era (1935–1946)

The period 1935–1946 would ideally be devoted to the final adjustments required for a peaceful transition to full independence, a great latitude in autonomy being granted in the meantime.

On May 14, 1935, an election to fill the newly created office of President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was won by Manuel L. Quezon (Nacionalista Party) and a Filipino government was formed on the basis of principles superficially similar to the US Constitution. ("See: Philippine National Assembly"). The Commonwealth as established in 1935 featured a very strong executive, a unicameral National Assembly, and a Supreme Court composed entirely of Filipinos for the first time since 1901. The new government embarked on an ambitious agenda of establishing the basis for national defense, greater control over the economy, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the colonization of the island of Mindanao, and the promotion of local capital and industrialization. The Commonwealth however, was also faced with agrarian unrest, an uncertain diplomatic and military situation in South East Asia, and uncertainty about the level of United States commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines.

In 1939–40, the Philippine Constitution was amended to restore a bicameral Congress, and permit the reelection of President Quezon, previously restricted to a single, six-year term.

During the Commonwealth years, Philippines sent one elected Resident Commissioner to the United States House of Representatives, as Puerto Rico currently does today.

The Japanese Occupation and World War II (1941–1945)

A few hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the Japanese launched air raids in several cities and US military installations in the Philippines on December 8, and on December 10, the first Japanese troops landed in Northern Luzon. Filipino pilot Captain Jesus A. Villamor, leading a flight of three P-26 "Peashooter" fighters of the 6th Pursuit Squadron, distinguished himself by attacking two enemy formations of 27 planes each and downing a much-superior a Japanese Zero, for which he was awarded the U.S. Distinguished Service Cross. The two other planes in that flight, flown by Lieutenants César Basa and Geronimo Aclan were shot down.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|p=325 Ch.25]

General Douglas MacArthur, commander of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), was forced to retreat to Bataan. Manila was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. The fall of Bataan was on April 9, 1942 with Corregidor Island, at the mouth of Manila Bay, surrendering on May 6.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|pp=329-331 Ch.25]

The Commonwealth government by then had exiled itself to Washington, DC, upon the invitation of President Roosevelt; however many politicians stayed behind and collaborated with the occupying Japanese. The Philippine Army continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and were considered auxiliary units of the United States Army. Several Philippine military awards, such as the Philippine Defense Medal, Independence Medal, and Liberation Medal, were awarded to both the United States and Philippine Armed Forces.

As the Japanese forces advanced, Manila was declared an open city to prevent it from destruction, meanwhile, the government was moved to Corregidor. In March 1942, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur and President Quezon fled the country. The cruelty of the Japanese military occupation of the Philippines is legendary. Guerrilla units harassed the Japanese when they could, and on Luzon native resistance was strong enough that the Japanese never did get control of a large part of the island. Finally, in October 1944, McArthur had gathered enough additional troops and supplies to begin the retaking of the Philippines, landing with Sergio Osmena who had assumed the Presidency after Quezon's death. The battles entailed long fierce fighting; some of the Japanese continued to fight until the official surrender of the Empire of Japan on September 2, 1945.Harvnb|Zaide|1994|pp=323-335 Ch.25]

After their landing, Filipino and American forces also undertook measures to suppress the Huk movement, which was originally founded to fight the Japanese Occupation.The Filipino and American forces removed local Huk governments and imprisoned many high-ranking members of the Philippine Communist Party. While these incidents happened, there was still fighting against the Japanese forces and, despite the American and Philippine measures against the Huk, they still supported American and Filipino soldiers in the fight against the Japanese.

Over a million Filipinos had been killed in the war, and many towns and cities, including Manila, were left in ruins. The final Japanese soldier to surrender was Hiroo Onoda, in 1974.

Independence (1946)

Philippine independence finally came on July 4, 1946, with the signing of the Treaty of Manila between the governments of the United States and the Philippines. The treaty provided for the recognition of the independence of the Republic of the Philippines and the relinquishment of American sovereignty over the Philippine Islands.Citation
url=http://untreaty.un.org/unts/1_60000/1/6/00000254.pdf
format=pdf
title=TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946
publisher=United Nations
accessdate=2007-12-10
] From 1946 to 1961, Independence Day was observed on July 4, but President Diosdado Macapagal, upon the advice of historians, reverted to the June 12 date, which up to that time had been observed as Flag Day.

World War II Veteran Benefits

During World War II, over 200,000 Filipinos fought in defense of the United States against the Japanese in the Pacific theater of military operations, where more than half died. As a commonwealth of the United States before and during the war, Filipinos were legally American nationals. With American nationality, Filipinos were promised all the benefits afforded to those serving in the armed forces of the United States. In 1946, Congress passed the Rescission Act (usc|38|107) which stripped Filipinos of the benefits they were promised. [Citation
url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/sfeature/bataan_filipino.html
title=The Filipino Veterans Movement
publisher=pbs.org
accessdate=2007-11-14
] Of the 66 countries allied with the United States during the war, only Filipinos were denied military benefits.

Since the passage of the Rescission Act, many Filipino veterans have traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for the benefits promised to them for their service and sacrifice. Over 30,000 of such veterans live in the United States today, with most being United States citizens. Sociologists introduced the phrase "Second Class Veterans" to describe the plight of these Filipino Americans. Since 1993, numerous bills were introduced in Congress to return the benefits taken away from these veterans. However, the bills died in committee, so the struggle continues today.

ee also

*History of the Philippines
*Philippine-American war
*Philippine Commission
*Malolos Congress
*Philippine Malolos Congress election, 1898

Notes

References

*Citation
last=Agoncillo
firat=Teodoro A.
coauthors=Guerrero, Milagros
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=VTwMAAAAIAAJ
title=History of the Filipino People
publisher=Malaya Books
year=1970

*Citation
last=Agoncillo
first=Teodoro A.
title=History of the Filipino People
chapter=11. The Revolution Second Phase
pages=187-198
publisher=University of the Philippines
year=1990
edition=Eighth
ref=Agoncillo1990ch11
isbn=9-71-871106-6

*Citation
last=Aguinaldo
first=Don Emilio y Famy
url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-1.html
title=True Version of the Philippine Revolution
chapter-url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-2.html
chapter=Chapter I. The Revolution of 1896
ref=Aguinaldo1899-1
publisher=Authorama: Public Domain Books
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Aguinaldo
first=Don Emilio y Famy
url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-1.html
title=True Version of the Philippine Revolution
chapter-url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-3.html
chapter=Chapter II. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató
ref=Aguinaldo1899-2
publisher=Authorama: Public Domain Books
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Aguinaldo
first=Don Emilio y Famy
url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-1.html
title=True Version of the Philippine Revolution
chapter-url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-3.html
chapter=Chapter III. Negotiations
ref=Aguinaldo1899-3
publisher=Authorama: Public Domain Books
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Blanchard
first=William H.
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=d42R23Jq6SMC
title=Neocolonialism American Style, 1960-2000
chapter=9. Losing Stature in the Philippines
chapter-url=http://books.google.com/books?id=d42R23Jq6SMC&pg=PA127&sig=-Oan_lpJjDd0pj4NLIXtWjaSD9Y
year=1996
publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group
isbn=0313300135

*Citation
last=Blitz
first=Amy
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=n2rdOhMdCDEC
title=The Contested State: American Foreign Policy and Regime Change in the Philippines
publisher=Rowman & Littlefield
year=2000
chapter=Conquest and Coercion: Early U.S. Colonalism, 1899-1916
chapter-url=http://books.google.com/books?id=n2rdOhMdCDEC&pg=PA31&vq=Early+U.S.+Colonialism&dq=william+grayson+philippines&sig=Kv8bxBgzxfTFv7rkpkwSuIZIrzs
isbn=0847699358

*Citation
last=Constantino
first=Renato
title=The Philippines: A Past Revisited
year=1975
isbn=971-8958-00-2

*Citation
last=Gillett
first=Mary C.
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=XCwJAAAAIAAJ
title=The Army Medical Department 1775 - 1818
year=1898
publisher=University Press of the Pacific
isbn=1410202380
(text available [http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/spanam/gillet3/contents.html online] )

*Citation
last=Halstead
first=Murat
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=lIQcwt7g2wkC
title= The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico
chapter=X. Official History of the Conquest of Manila
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=95&fk_files=58428
ref=Halstead1898ch10
year=1898

*Citation
last=Halstead
first=Murat
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=lIQcwt7g2wkC
title= The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico
chapter=XV. Events of the Spanish-American War.
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=144&fk_files=58428
ref=Halstead1898ch15
year=1898

*Citation
last=Halstead
first=Murat
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=lIQcwt7g2wkC
title= The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico
chapter=XXVIII. Battles with the Filipinos before Manila
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=307
ref=Halstead1898ch28
year=1898

*Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo Manguiat
url=http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=0_62j7vjAqsC
title=The Present Government of the Philippines
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1921, 2007
ref=Kalaw1921
isbn=1406746363
accessdate=2008-03-12
(Note: 1. The book cover incorrectly lists author as "Maximo M Lalaw", 2. Originally published in 1921 by The McCullough Printing Co., Manila

*Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo Manguiat
url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=17
title=The Development of Philippine Politics
chapter=V. The Katipunan revolt under Bonifacio and Aguinaldo
chapter-url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=89
pages=69-98
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1927
ref=Kalaw1927ch5
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo Manguiat
url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=17
title=The Development of Philippine Politics
chapter=VI. The Revolutionary Government
chapter-url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=89
pages=99-163
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1927
ref=Kalaw1927ch6
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo Manguiat
url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=17
title=The Development of Philippine Politics
chapter=VII. The Opposition to American Sovereignty (1898-1901)
chapter-url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=89
pages=99-163
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1927
ref=Kalaw1927ch7
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo Manguiat
url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=17
title=The Development of Philippine Politics
chapter=Appendix A. Act of the Proclamation of Independence of the Filipino People
chapter-url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=89
pages=413-417
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1927
ref=Kalaw1927appA
accessdate=2008-02-07
(English translation by the author. Original in Spanish)

*Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo Manguiat
url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=17
title=The Development of Philippine Politics
chapter=Appendix D. The Political Constitution of the Philippine Republic
chapter-url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=450
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1927
ref=Kalaw1927appD
accessdate=2008-02-07
(English translation by the author. Original in Spanish)

*Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo M.
url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=philamer;idno=AFJ2233.0001.001
title=The development of Philippine politics
chapter=Appendix F: President McKinley's Instructions to the Taft Commission
chapter-url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=472
page=452
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1927
ref=Kalaw1927appF
accessdate=2008-01-21

*Citation
last=Seekins
first=Donald M.
editor-last=Dolan
editor-first=Ronald E.
url=http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/phtoc.html
title=Philippines: A Country Study
location=Washington, D.C.
publisher=Federal Research Division, Library of Congress
year=1993
edition=4th
chapter-url=http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ph0026)
chapter=The First Phase of United States Rule, 1898-1935
accessdate=2007-12-25
ref=Seekins1993US-Rule

*Citation
editor-last=Taylor
editor-first=John R.M.
author=War Department, Bureau of Insular Affairs
url=http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/p4013coll11&CISOPTR=374
title=Compilation of Philippine Insurgent Records
chapter-url=http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/p4013coll11&CISOPTR=374&filename=374.pdf
chapter=I. Telegraphic Correspondence of Emilio Aguinaldo, July 15, 1898 to February 28, 1899, Annotated
publisher=Combined Arms Research Library
year=1907
ref=CITEREFTaylor1907
accessdate=2008-03-10

*Citation
last=Thayer
first=William Roscoe
url=http://www.bartleby.com/170/
title=Theodore Roosevelt; an intimate biography
chapter-url=http://www.bartleby.com/170/7.html
chapter=VII. The Rough Rider
location=Boston
publisher=Houghton Mifflin
year=1919

*Citation
last=Worcester
first=Dean Conant
title=The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Lq_6lk-yuy8C
chapter=II. Was independence promised?
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=13
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12077
pages=39-74
publisher=Macmillan
year=1914
isbn=141917715X
ref=worcester1914ch2
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Worcester
first=Dean Conant
title=The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Lq_6lk-yuy8C
chapter=III. Insurgent "Coöperation"
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=43
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12077
pages=39-74
publisher=Macmillan
year=1914
isbn=141917715X
ref=worcester1914ch3
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Worcester
first=Dean Conant
title=The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Lq_6lk-yuy8C
chapter=IV. The Premeditated Insurgent Attack
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=83
pages=75-89
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12077
publisher=Macmillan
year=1914
isbn=141917715X
ref=worcester1914ch4
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Worcester
first=Dean Conant
title=The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Lq_6lk-yuy8C
chapter=IX, The conduct of the war
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=168
pages=168-184
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12077
publisher=Macmillan
year=1914
isbn=141917715X
ref=worcester1914ch9
accessdate=2008-02-07

*Citation
last=Zaide
first=Sonia M.
title=The Philippines: A Unique Nation
publisher=All-Nations Publishing Co.
year=1994
isbn=971-642-071-4

Further reading

*Citation
last1=Abinales
first1=Patrico N.
last2=Amoroso
first2=Donna J.
title=State and Society in the Philippines
publisher=Philippines: Anvil Publishing, U.S.: Rowman and Littlefield
year=2005
isbn=0-7425-1024-7

*Citation
last=Agoncillo
first=Teodoro A.
title=Introduction to Filipino History
publisher=Garotech publishing
date=1974
isbn=9-71-871105-8

*Citation
last=Alcantra
first=Teresita A.
editor-last=Arcella
editor-first=Lydia
title=Views on Philippine Revolution
volume=I
year=2002
isbn=971-92410-1-2

*Citation
last=Alcantra
first=Teresita A.
editor-last=Arcella
editor-first=Lydia
title=Views on Philippine Revolution
volume=II
year=2002
isbn=971-92410-1-2

*Citation
last=Arcilla
first=José S.
edition=Fourth, enlarged
publisher=Atoneo De Mamila University Press
year=1994
isbn=971-550-261-X

*Citation
last=Constantino
first=Renato
coauthor=Constantino, Letiza R.
title=The Philippines: A Past Revisited
volume=1
year=1975
isbn=971-895800-2

*Citation
last=Gates
first=John M.
title=The Official Historian and the Well-Placed Critic: James A. LeRoy's Assessment of John R. M. Taylor's "The Philippine Insurrection against the United States"
journal=The Public Historian
volume=7
issue=3 – Summer, 1985
pages=57-67

*Citation
editor=Richard W. Stewart
chapter=16. Change, and the Road to war, 1902-1917
chapter-url=http://www.history.army.mil/books/AMH-V1/ch16.htm
title=American Military History, Volume I: The United States Army and the Forging of a Nation, 1775-1917
url=http://www.history.army.mil/books/AMH-V1/
publisher=Center of Military History, United States Army
isbn=0-16-072362-0

*Citation
last=Zuleta
first=Francisco M.
last2=Nebres
first2=Abriel M.
title=Philippine History and Government Through the Years
publisher=National Bookstore
year=2007
isbn=971-08-6344-4

External links

* [http://filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=GVH000000113 Law Against Treason, Sedition etc.] The law framed by the American colonial government to prosecute Filipino revolutionaries.
* [http://filipiniana.net/readbook_content.jsp?filename=GVC000000022 Philippine Life in Town and Country] An American view on the life and social customs of the Filipinos during the American period.
* [http://www.philippines-timeline.com/first-independence.htm The Timeline of Philippine History: US Colonization]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • History of the Philippines — The History of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30,000 years ago.Harvnb|Dolan|1991 3] The first recorded visit from the West is the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on Homonhon… …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Philippines (1946–1965) — This article covers the history of the Philippines from the granting of independence in 1946 to the end of the presidency of Diosdado Macapagal.Philippine independencePhilippine declaration of independence (1898)On June 12, 1898, prior to the… …   Wikipedia

  • Military History of the Philippines — Pre Colonial Period (Pre 1565)= Battle of MactanThe Battle of Mactan on April 21, 1521 is the earliest reported resistance of the natives in the Philippines against foreign invaders. Lapu Lapu, a chieftain of Mactan Island, defeated Spanish… …   Wikipedia

  • Military history of the Philippines — Contents 1 Pre colonial period (before 1565) 1.1 Battle of Mactan 2 Spanish colonial period (1565 1898) 2.1 Major Revolts (1567 1872) …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Jews in the Philippines — Recorded Jewish history in the Philippines started during the Spanish era.panish eraThe history of the Jewish Community in Manila begins with the Spanish Inquisition of the 16th century, when many Jews of Spain, who were forcibly converted to… …   Wikipedia

  • History of the United States (1865–1918) — The history of the United States (1865–1918) covers Reconstruction and the rise of industrialization in the United States.At the conclusion of the Civil War, the United States remained bitterly divided. Reconstruction and its failure left the… …   Wikipedia

  • History of the United States Marine Corps — The United States Marine Corps was originally organized as the Continental Marines in 1775 to conduct ship to ship fighting, provide shipboard security and assist in landing forces. Its mission evolved with changing military doctrine and American …   Wikipedia

  • Commonwealth of the Philippines — Komonwelt ng Pilipinas (tl) Mancomunidad de Filipinas (es) Associated state of the United States Commonwealth …   Wikipedia

  • Spanish language in the Philippines — Spanish Española/Español filipino Spoken in  Philippines Native speakers …   Wikipedia

  • Military history of the United States — History of the United States This article is part of a series Timeline …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.