Warsaw New Town
Warsaw's New Town is a neighbourhood dating from the 15th century. It lies just north of the Old Town and is connected to it by ulica Freta (English: Freta Street), which begins at the Barbican. Like the Old Town, the New Town was destroyed by the Nazis during World War II and rebuilt after the war.
The historic district of the New Town was formed at the turn of the 14th century as an independent city. The official recognition of the New Town occurred in 1408, when it was measured out from the Old Town by an act issued by Janusz I the Old, Duke of Masovia. At that time the new city encompassed the territory of the New Town Market Square and streets - Freta, Kościelna, Koźla, Przyrynek, Stara and Zakroczymska. It was independent from the Old Town authorities and had its own vogt, council and a town hall. In 1411 the Parish Church of St. Mary was erected, and according to the 1546 mensuration there were 204 estates in the Warsaw New Town. The largest investment of that time was the Sigismund Augustus bridge built between 1568-1573 by Erazm Cziotko (c. 500 m (1,600 ft) long). Unfortunately it was destroyed in 1603 by the floats.
The disastrous time of the Swedish-Brandenburgian invasion (1655–1660), left the predominantly timber building of the New Town burned, but due to those events many beautiful and more permanent constructions were erected (Town Hall, built in 1680, St. Kazimierz Church, 1688–1692 and Kotowski Palace, 1682–1684, Holy Spirit Church, 1707–1717 and ornate chapel of Kotowski family, constructed in 1691-1694) by the most prominent Warsaw architects (especially Tylman Gamerski). After 1791, due to the tenets of the Constitution of May 3, 1791, the New Town was incorporated into the city of Warsaw. That is why the inutile Town Hall was pulled down in 1818.
During the Warsaw Uprising (1 August – 2 October 1944) the New Town was completely destroyed due to the extensive bombardment of the insurgent positions by the Germans. Many historic edifices, that served as hospitals and shelters for the inhabitants were razed to the ground. The reconstruction of the New Town started in 1954, but some of the significant buildings were not restored by the Communist authorities (e.g. Kotowski Palace).
- ^ (English) "The New Town". www.um.warszawa.pl. http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=64&dz_id=3. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- ^ a b c d (English) Neil Wilson, Tom Parkinson, Richard Watkins (2005). Poland. Lonely Planet. p. 67. ISBN 17-40595-22-X.
- ^ (Polish) Jerzy S. Majewski (2004-04-29). "Most Zygmunta Augusta". miasta.gazeta.pl. http://miasta.gazeta.pl/warszawa/1,97596,2049149.html. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- ^ a b (English) Joanna K. M. Hanson (2004). The Civilian Population and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Cambridge University Press. p. 99. ISBN 05-21531-19-5.
- ^ (Polish) "Zespół kościelno-klasztorny Sakramentek na Rynku Nowego Miasta". www.varsovia.pl. http://www.varsovia.pl/varsovia/index.php-frame=main&mapa=0&item=3507&top=23.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
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