- Venta Silurum
Venta Silurum was a
townin the Roman provinceof Britannia(later Britannia Prima). Today it consists of remains in the village of Caerwentin Monmouthshire, south east Wales. Much of it has been archaeologically excavated and is on display to the public.
The Roman town
Venta was founded by the Romans in AD
75as a market townfor the defeated Silurestribe in Roman Wales. This is confirmed by inscriptions on the "Civitas Silurum" stone, now on display in the parish church [ [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/100659 Photograph of church] ] . The name Venta has been suggested as being related etymologicallyto the French word "vendre" and Spanish "venta", both referring to "selling" or "market".
The town, located on the
Roman roadbetween "Isca" ( Caerleon) and " Glevum" ( Gloucester) and close to the Severn estuary, was - in contrast with nearby "Isca" - essentially established for civilian administration rather than for military purposes. The forum and basilica, the market place and centre of local government for the " civitas", were built in the time of the emperor Hadrian, in the early part of the 2nd century. Public baths, Thermae, and shops, including a blacksmiths, were built about the same time. Remains of farms and dwellings, some with courtyards, have also been excavated. There was also a Roman temple, perhaps dedicated to Mars and the Celtic god Ocelus. A bowl with a chi-rhosymbol gives evidence of early Christianworship from the late 3rd century.Miranda Aldhouse-Green and Ray Howell (eds.), "Gwent In Prehistory and Early History: The Gwent County History Vol.1", 2004, ISBN 0-7083-1826-6]
In 2008, a dig involving
Wessex Archaeologyand volunteers from the local Chepstow Archaeology Society, found a row of narrow shop buildings and a villa with painted walls and mosaicfloors. Among the artefacts excavated were a bone penknifehilt depicting two gladiators fighting, coins, glass, ceramics, human and animal bones, leadpatches used for repairing and pieces of mosaic. [Citation
title = Britain's first shopping centre found - and it's 1,800 years old
url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/2236518/Britain%27s-first-shopping-centre-found---and-it%27s-1,800-years-old.html
accessdate = 2008-07-03] Excavations were also undertaken by
Channel 4's " Time Team" programme. The programme is due to be broadcast in 2009. [ [http://www.cadw.wales.gov.uk/default.asp?id=21&NewsId=218 Time Team] ]
The town lacked substantial defences until the mid
4th century, when stone town walls were built. A small garrison may have been based in the town during that period. Large sections of the walls are still in place, rising up to 5 metres in places. The walls have been described as "easily the most impressive town defence to survive from Roman Britain, and in its freedom from later rebuilding one of the most perfectly preserved in Northern Europe."John Newman, "The Buildings of Wales: Gwent/Monmouthshire", 2000, ISBN 0-14-071053-1] Excavations in 1971dated the north-west polygonal angle-tower to the mid- 300s. [ [http://www.ecastles.co.uk/caerwent.html E-castles: Caerwent] ]
Modern houses are built on top of half the site of the old Roman market place. The ruins of several Roman buildings are still visible, including the foundations of a 4th century temple. [ [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/486475 Photograph of temple foundations] ]
After the Romans
Unusually, the site remained occupied after the Roman troops left, until at least the mid-
5th century. It appears that Christian worship was already established in the town, and it may have had a bishop.. A monasterywas founded by Saint Tatheusin the 6th century, and a Christian cemeterywas also established around the site of the present church.
The name "Venta" gave its name to the emerging
kingdom of Gwent, and the town itself became known as "Caer-went" or "the fort of Venta/Gwent". Tradition holds that Caradog Freichfrasof Gwent moved his court from Caerwent to Portskewettaround the 6th century.
* [http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/rhagor/article/?article_id=18 Museum Wales info on the Forum Basilica at Caerwent]
* [http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/subjects/3098 Artifacts and information relating to Venta Silurum held on Gathering the Jewels]
* [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/venta_silurum.htm Venta Silurum on the Roman Britain website]
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Look at other dictionaries:
VENTA Silurum — Camdeno et Lhuydo Caer Went oppid. Walliae Comitatus Monumetensis, Bristolio ad versum, inaltera ripa Sabrinae, non procul ab ostiis Rhatostathybii fluvii … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Venta Silurum — 51.611388888889 2.7680555555555 Koordinaten: 51° 37′ N, 2° 46′ W … Deutsch Wikipedia
Venta Silurum — Restos del muro de la ciudad. Venta Silurum fue una ciudad de la provincia romana de Britania Romana (más tarde Britannia Prima). Sus ruinas se encuentran en Caerwent, en el condado de Monmouthshire, en el sudeste de Gales. La mayor parte del… … Wikipedia Español
Venta (disambiguation) — Venta may refer to:*Venta, a small modern city in Lithuania *Venta Belgarum, the Roman town of Winchester in England *Venta Icenorum, the Roman town of Caistor St Edmund in England *Venta Silurum, the Roman town of Caerwent in Wales *Venta River … Wikipedia
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Venta Belgarum — ist der antike Name der römischen Stadt Winchester in England. Die Stadt war Hauptort der Civitas Belgarum. Über den kleinen Fluss Itchen war die Stadt mit dem Meer verbunden. Clausentum war der zur Stadt gehörige Seehafen. Venta Belgarum war… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Venta (homonymie) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir La Venta. Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Hydronyme La Venta, un fleuve de Lituanie et de Lettonie … Wikipédia en Français
Venta  — Venta, 1) (V. Belgarum), Hauptstadt der Belgä in Britannien, j. Winchester; 2) (V. Icenorum), Stadt der Iceni, j. Caster bei Norwich; 3) (V. Silurum), Stadt der Silures in Britannien, j. Caerwend … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
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