Hippolyte Bayard

Hippolyte Bayard (January 20 1801 - May 14 1887) was one of the earliest photographers in the history of photography, inventing his own photography process known as direct positive printing and presenting the world's first public exhibition of photographs on June 24, 1839.

The direct positive process involved exposing silver chloride paper to light, which turned the paper completely black. It was then soaked in potassium iodide before being exposed in a camera. After the exposure, it was washed in a bath of hyposulfite of soda and dried. The resulting image was a unique photograph that could not be reproduced. Due to the paper's poor light sensitivity, an exposure of approximately twelve minutes was required. Using this method of photography, still subject matter, such as buildings, were favored. When used for photographing people, sitters were told to close their eyes so as to eliminate the eerie, "dead" quality produced due to blinking and moving one's eyes during such a long exposure.

Bayard was persuaded to postpone announcing his process to the French Academy of Sciences by François Arago, a friend of Louis Daguerre, who invented the rival daguerreotype process. Arago's conflict of interest cost Bayard the recognition as one of the principal inventors of photography. He eventually gave details of the process to the French Academy of Sciences on February 24 1840 in return for money to buy better equipment.

As a reaction to the injustice he felt he had been subjected to, Bayard created the first staged photograph entitled, "Self Portrait as a Drowned Man". In the image, he pretends to have committed suicide, sitting and leaning to the right. Bayard wrote on the back of his most notable photograph:

: The corpse which you see here is that of M. Bayard, inventor of the : process that has just been shown to you. As far as I know this indefatigable : experimenter has been occupied for about three years with his discovery. : The Government which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said : it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. : Oh the vagaries of human life....! ... He has been at the morgue for several : days, and no-one has recognized or claimed him. Ladies and gentlemen, you'd: better pass along for fear of offending your sense of smell, for as you can: observe, the face and hands of the gentleman are beginning to decay.

Despite his initial hardships in photography, Bayard continued to be a productive member of the photographic society. He was a founding member of the French Society of Photography. Bayard was also one of the first photographers to be commissioned to document and preserve architecture and historical sites in France for the "Missions Héliographiques" in 1851 by the Historic Monument Commission. He used a paper photographic process similar to the one he developed to take pictures for the Commission. Additionally, he suggested combining two negatives to properly expose the sky and then the landscape or building, an idea known as combination printing which began being used in the 1850s.

Famous Photographs

* "Self Portrait as a Drowned Man", 1840.
* "Specimens", 1842.
* "Construction Worker, Paris", 1845-1847.
* "Self Portrait in the Garden", 1847.

External links

* [http://www.photograms.org/chapter02.html Hippolyte Bayard and Photogenic Drawing]


Rosen, Margit. (2002) "Hippolyte Bayard. Fotografie und die Fiktion des Todes" MA Thesis, Staatlichen Hochschule für Gestaltung Karlsruhe (HfG).

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hippolyte Bayard — Hippolyte Bayard. Selbstporträt von 1863 Hippolyte Bayard (* 20. Januar 1801 in Breteuil sur Noye, Frankreich; † 14. Mai 1887 in Nemours) war ein französischer Finanzbeamter und Justiziar, der als Erfinder des Direktpositiv Verfahrens und als… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hippolyte Bayard — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bayard. Hippolyte Bayard, Autoportrait (1863) Hippolyte Bayard (Breteuil sur Noye, 20  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hippolyte Bayard — (1801 1887) Französischer Beamter und Fotograf, entwickelte ab 1837 oder 1838, als er wohl vage von Louis Daguerres Tätigkeiten gehört hatte, ein fotografisches Verfahren, das sich sowohl von dem der Daguerreotypie, als auch von der Kalotypie… …   Das Lexikon aus „Bernie's Foto-Programm"

  • BAYARD (H.) — BAYARD HIPPOLYTE (1801 1887) Le photographe Hippolyte Bayard offre l’exemple type d’un scientifique doublé d’un artiste maudit. Alors qu’il devançait tous ses contemporains dans la mise au point de plusieurs techniques photographiques, comme le… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bayard (disambiguation) — Bayard may refer to:Personsurname*Alexis I. du Pont Bayard (1918 ndash;1985), American politician from Delaware, Lieutenant Governor of Delaware *Bayard family, American family of lawyers and politicians from Delaware *George Dashiell Bayard… …   Wikipedia

  • Bayard — bezeichnet: folgende Personen: Alexis I. du Pont Bayard (1918–1985), US amerikanischer Politiker Émile Bayard (1837–1891), französischer Illustrator Hippolyte Bayard (1801–1887), französischer Pionier der Fototechnik James A. Bayard senior… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hippolyte (Begriffsklärung) — Hippolyte (griechisch Ἱππολύτη, lateinisch Hippolyta) ist: in der griechischen Mythologie: Hippolyte, Tochter des Ares, eine Amazone Hippolyte (Tochter des Kretheus), Gattin des Akastos von Iolkos, Verleumderin des Peleus Hippolyte (Tochter des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bayard — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom.  Cette page d’homonymie répertorie des personnes (réelles ou fictives) partageant un même patronyme. Le patronyme Bayard renvoie au fameux cheval… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bayard, Hippolyte — (1801 1887) Französischer Beamter und Fotograf, entwickelte ab 1837 oder 1838, als er wohl vage von Louis Daguerres Tätigkeiten gehört hatte, ein fotografisches Verfahren, das sich sowohl von dem der Daguerreotypie, als auch von der Kalotypie… …   Das Lexikon aus „Bernie's Foto-Programm"

  • Bayard —   [ba jaːr],    1) Hippolyte, französischer Fotograf, * Breteuil (Département Oise) 20. 1. 1801, ✝ Nemours (Département Seine et Marne) 14. 5. 1887; einer der Erfinder der Fotografie auf Papier (Direkt Positiv Verfahren, 1839). Er eröffnete 1842… …   Universal-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.