Jack Pine


Jack Pine

Taxobox
name = Jack Pine
status = LR/lc | status_system = IUCN2.3

| regnum = Plantae
divisio = Pinophyta
classis = Pinopsida
ordo = Pinales
familia = Pinaceae
genus = "Pinus"
subgenus = "Pinus"
species = "P. banksiana"
binomial = "Pinus banksiana"
binomial_authority = Lamb.

The Jack Pine ("Pinus banksiana") is a North American pine with its native range in Canada east of the Rocky Mountains from Northwest Territories to Nova Scotia, and the northeast of the United States from Minnesota to Maine, with the southernmost part of the range just into northwest Indiana. In the far west of its range, it hybridizes readily with the closely related Lodgepole Pine ("P. contorta").

It is not a large tree, ranging from 9-22 m (30–72 ft) in height. Some Jack Pines are shrub-sized. Jack Pine does not usually grow perfectly straight but when mature has a irregular shape similar to the Pitch Pine. This pine often forms pure stands on sandy or rocky soil. It is fire-adapted to stand-replacing fires, with the cones remaining closed for many years, until a natural forest fire kills the mature trees and opens the cones. These then reseed the burnt ground.

The leaves are in fascicles of two, needle-like, twisted, slightly yellowish-green, and 2-4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) long. The cones are 3-5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) long, the scales with a small, fragile prickle that usually wears off before maturity, leaving the cones smooth. Unusually for a pine, the cones normally point forward along the branch, sometimes curling around it. That is a easy to tell it apart from the similar lodgepole pine in more western areas of north America. Unopened cones are smooth and serotinous - the scales opening in fire or intense heat.

Kirtland's Warbler ("Dendroica kirtlandii"), an endangered bird, depends on pure stands of young Jack Pine in a very limited area in the north of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan for breeding. Mature Jack Pine forests are usually open and the fall of their needles creates acidic soil, so blueberries are often abundant in the understory.

The Jack Pine has a long list of minor alternative names, including Eastern Jack Pine, Gray Pine, Black Pine and Scrub Pine; the last more commonly refers to Virginia Pine ("P. virginiana"), and Gray Pine to "P. sabineana". The Canadian French name is "Pin gris" or (incorrectly) "Cyprès".

References

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • jack pine — jack′ pine n. pln a scrubby pine, Pinus banksiana, growing on poor, rocky land in Canada and the northern U.S • Etymology: 1880–85 …   From formal English to slang

  • jack pine — ☆ jack pine n. a pine (Pinus banksiana) of Canada and N U.S., having short needles in pairs and many woody cones …   English World dictionary

  • jack pine — noun slender medium sized two needled pine of eastern North America; with yellow green needles and scaly grey to red brown fissured bark • Syn: ↑Pinus banksiana • Hypernyms: ↑pine, ↑pine tree, ↑true pine * * * noun 1. : a slender …   Useful english dictionary

  • jack pine — Bankso pušis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Pušinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, medieninis, vaistinis augalas (Pinus banksiana), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Pinus banksiana angl. Banks pine; chek pine; jack pine vok. Banks… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • jack pine — a scrubby pine, Pinus banksiana, growing on tracts of poor, rocky land in Canada and the northern U.S., bearing short needles and curved cones. Also called gray pine. [1880 85] * * * …   Universalium

  • jack pine — noun Date: 1883 a slender pine (Pinus banksiana) of northern North America that has two stout needles in each fascicle and wood used especially for pulpwood see cone illustration …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • jack pine — noun an evergreen tree, Pinus banksiana, scrub pine …   Wiktionary

  • jack pine — noun a small, hardy North American pine with short needles. [Pinus banksiana.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • jack pine — /ˈdʒæk paɪn/ (say jak puyn) noun a slender pine, Pinus banksiana, covering tracts of barren land in Canada and the northern US …   Australian English dictionary

  • Jack Pine (painting) — The Jack Pine is a well known 1916 oil painting by Canadian artist Tom Thomson. It is part of the collection of the National Gallery in Ottawa, Ontario. The painting measures 127.9 cm x 139.8 cm. Like many of Thomson s works, the subject is in… …   Wikipedia


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